What is foodpackaging? It protects food products from outside inﬂuences and damage, to contain the food, and to provide consumers with ingredient and nutritional information
History • From way back, people used animal skins, shells, and leaves • Ceramics and baskets just came about 6000 BC • In 1500 BC, Egypt, glass was ﬁrst used • Then the appearance of the barrel in Gaul.
• 1746 – the ﬁrst product package • Antipyretic powder • Raw materials were used fromHistory then on: wood, cork, clay, ﬁbers like ﬂax, hemp, willow • Then the evolution of the processed ones: glass, metals, paper • 20th century - widespread use of plastic
Origins of Packaging Packaging was important in the transport of basic goods during the preindustrial society • 19th century – bulk selling of goods Cereals in bags, ﬂour in bags, tea in wooden boxes, tea in tinplate canisters, oils in jars, salted goods in jars, meat, pickled vegetables
• One of the initial packaging innovations because of its availability and reusability Role of • Natural materials likeCardboard and cellulose ﬁber and starch are easily renewable Paper • Board production is from 90% recycling • Light, healthy, durable, ergonomic, and protective
• 1811, Bryan Donkin, an associate of John Hall’s at his Dartford Iron Works idea to use tougher iron containers instead of glass which was fragile • To prevent rusting, thin plating of tin was used Origins of • The “tin can” invention had the RoyalPackaging: Navy as the ﬁrst buyers Canning • Used in medical stores and supply expeditions • Meat - one of the ﬁrst products in can • Reynolds and Alcoa: ﬁrst ones to succeed in creating all – aluminium cans out of one piece of metal
• Fragile and a little bit more expensive - glass has some advantages over cans Origins of • Iron, tin, and lead in cans can sometimes come inPackaging: contact with the food Glass • Michael J. Owen - invented an automated way of making glass packages • Closing glass bottles were used with a cork
• solution to high cost of Origins of packaging Packaging: • because some of the Paper, packages used beforeCartons, and were more expensive Plastic than the food itself • Problem: not yet suitable for ﬂuid packaging
• Cellophane became important for a time but it was replaced by the more promising polyethylene • Breakthrough: Tetra pak, invented inProblem in Sweden in 1952Then fully disposable packaging was invented in 1940Packaging • Then fully disposable packaging was Liquids invented in 1940 • Modiﬁed Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) – develeoped because of the demand for ready – to – eat vegetables
• Studies and surveys: less people are willing to pay that little extra to protect the environment• Sustainability: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
• 3 standards of sustainable packages (triple bottom line) - Environmental - Social - Financial• There are innovations motivated byunprecedented consumer demand for environmental awareness
Recent History of Sustainable Food Packaging Innovation • McDonald’s - one of the forerunners for environmental friendly packaging McDonald’s founder Ray Kroc - spent millions for research on how they can care more for the environment Studies included the use of polystyrene clam shells and cups. This material was found to be easily recyclable Jamba Juice - also used this material.
Starbucks – developed theﬁrst cup made out of 10%post consumer ﬁbersStarbucks - saving 11 tonsworth of trees, 580 millionBTU’s of heat, 47 milliongallons of waste water, and3 million pound of solidwaste each year
Labels and Brand Names• ﬁrst half of the nineteenth century - food manufacturers realized that their products would sell better if a brand name was attached to them• a name with prestige that potential customers could easily recognize• Initially, labels with information about the contents were put on glass containers or cans.• Nowadays, in most industrialized countries, legislation regulates the information that must be provided on packaging for consumers protection.
Information transmission - how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product. Some types of information are required by governments.Promotions Marketing - used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Package design has been an important and constantly evolving phenomenon for several decades. Marketing communications and graphic design are applied.
Security - reducing the security risks of shipment Tampering: improved tamper resistance, someSecurity have tamper-evident features to help indicate tampering. Pilferage: Some package constructions are more resistant to pilferage, some have pilfer indicating seals
Convenience - features which add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, and reuse.Convenienceand Portion Portion control - Single serving packaging has a precise amount Control of contents to control usage. also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed one- liter-bottles of milk, rather than having people bring their own bottles to ﬁll themselves.