The War was bound to come Germany Russia- Best trained - Badly equiped- Plan Schlieffen: quickly attack and - Plan: Overwhelm Germany with adefeat France to be able to turn its troops to huge number of soldiersRussia on timearmy France Great Britain- Large and well-equiped army - British Expeditionary Force (BEF):- Plan 17: quickly attack Germany well-equipped and trained soldiers thatthrough the frontier and force its would fight alongside with the Frenchsurrender
I World War Stages1914: War of Movement 1914-16: The Attrition War 1917: USA in, Russia out 1918: The Allies Victory
1914: War of Movement• 4 August, following the Schlieffen Plan, Germany invaded Belgium• Belgium resistance bought time for British and French troops to mobilise• British and French troops stopped German advance along the line of the River Marne. A cartoon from Punch
1914: War of Movement• Surprisingly, Russia quickly mobilised its troops and invaded East Prussia• Germany was caught in two fronts• Germany stopped the Russian advance in the Battle of Tannenberg
1915-16: The War of Attrition• By the end of 1914, the fighting has reached an stalemate.• Troops were dug into a line of trenches that stretched from the Atlantic coast to the Alps.• The War of Attrition had begun.
War of Attrition• Both military forces are • The side who can not in static defensive stand the losses would position in trenches not be defeated. being able to maneuvre.• The objective of this warfare is to crush the enemy by repeated attack and defeat him by exceeding its number of soldiers and materials.
Fighting TechnologyArtillery • Scientific advances made artillery more powerful. • Its accuracy converted it on a key weapon. • It pounded trenches with hundreds of shells.Trenches • Static war forced to transform simple shelters into complex defensive systems. • Most of the time soldiers spent time digging new trenches, on sentry duties and watching time go by until the next charge.Infrantry charge • If enough soldiers charged, no matter how many would be killed or wounded on the way by machine guns, there would still be enough men alive to capture the enemy trenches.
Fighting TechnologyPoison Gas• Used for the first time in 1915 by the Germans.• At first it was used only to disable enemy troops but later lethal gases such as mustard gas were developed.• Mustard gas burned, blinded or slowly killed the victim in less of 5 weeks.• Gas masks were also invented while soldiers lived in constant fear.Tanks• British invention to advance ahead of infantry, crushing barbed-wire defenses and shooting the enemy.
1915-16: The War of Attrition• Italy entered the war on • Battle of Somme: 4 the side of the Allies. months and a half; 1, 25 New front between Italy million casualties = little and Austria-Hungary. advance• Battle of Verdun: 6 months, 700000 casualties= little advance
1915-16: The Triple Alliance Advances• Germany occupied • Romania entered the Poland and Lithuania. war on the side of the• Austria-Hungary Allies but is occupied by occupied Serbia the Central Powers.• Bulgaria entered the • The French disembark war on the side of the in Greece Central Powers
Blockade: trying to prevent the enemy fromgetting essential supplies Great Britain Germany• Blockaded German ports to • U-boat campaing: submarine strangle its industry and warfare against all ships economy suspected to be carrying goods to Great Britain
1917: The Turning Point German U-boat USA was Campaign + neutral but USA enters alliance with supplied the war Mexico against Allies USA LeninCommunist takes Russia leaves theRevolution war (Brest-Litovsk Treaty over in Russia 1918) power
USA’s entrance in the war provided:• Fresh troops (10,000 soldiers a day in 1917)• Battleships and submarines• Artillery and supplies• Loans of millions of dollars
Russia leaving the war meant:• The Treaty of Brest- Litovsk ceded the Baltic Provinces, Finland, pa rts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers.• Germany was able to transfer hundreds of thousands of troops back to the Western Front.
1918: The end of the war• The Allies blockade had • On August the Allies, with starved German economy fresh troops and best and population. supplies, counterattacked• Germany was able to and made Germany transfer troops from the retreat. Eastern to the Western front. • 11 November 1918 the• Germany launches the Armistice was signed. The “Ludendorff Offensive”: War was over. bombardment, gas attack, storm troops to break the line of trenches.
The War is Over!Can anything bestupider than that aman has the right to killme because he lives onthe other side of a riverand his ruler has aquarrel withmine, though I have notquarrelled with him?(Blaise Pascal)
When people don’t understandthat the government doesn’thave their interests inmind, they’re more susceptibleto go to war. (Howard Zinn)
You can’t say civilizationdon’t advance—for inevery war, they kill you ina new way. (Will Rogers)
Historically, the most terrible things– war, genocide, and slavery–have resulted not from disobedience, but from obedience.(Howard Zinn)