The system of alliances• The Triple Alliance or • The Triple Entente the Central Powers (1907): (1882): – Germany – Great Britain – Austria-Hungary – France – Italy – Russia
The Triple Alliance Austria- Germany Hungary Italy• Industrialized • Different ethnic• Wanted an groups that • New country overseas wanted their • Wanted an empire (Navy) independence overseas (serbs, slavs, czec empire• “Encircled” by hs, germans…) Russia and • Not as France • Scared by Russia powerful or industrialized as the rest
The Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia• Industrialized • Wanted revenge • Old Regime:• Overseas after the most Empire Franco-Prussian backward• The War country “splendid • Not very isolation” • Claims Alsacia- industrialized ends as Lorena • Supports Germany Slavs and claims for Serbs living in • Industrialized colonies Austria- Hungary
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: William II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor EmmanuelNicholas II II [It] [Rus] Franz Josef [A-H] Enver Pasha Pres. Poincare [Fr] [Turkey]
The “balance of power”: the system of alliances made politicians think that the power of the two alliances would prevent any side from starting a war “The Chain of Friendship”, The Brooklyn Eagle, July 1914.
The Path to the War• It would be a quick war• Militarism and Arms race• Economic and Imperial rivalries• Nationalism and extreme loyalty to one’s country
Pre-war Crisis 1905 Morocco• - Germany wanted to end French supremacy over Morocco• - 1906 Algeciras Conference: France & Great Britain stuck together against German claims 1908: 1st Balkan Crisis• - Austria-Hungary takes control over Bosnia- Herzegovina• - Russia & Serbia protest but are not ready for a war• - Germany backs up Austria-Hungary against Russia and Serbia
Pre-War Crisis 1911: Morocco• Crisis of Agadir: Germany claims Morocco against French control• France keeps its control over Morocco and in exchange Germany receives territories in Central Africa• Secret agreement: France would patrol the Mediterranean Sea while Great Britain would patrol the French coasts in the Atlantic and the North Sea 1912-13: 2nd Balkan Crisis• After several local wars, Serbia enlarges its territories with Russia’s support• Austria-Hungary is annoyed as it is losing supremacy over the Balkan area.
The Spark: Sarajevo Murder • Archduke Franz Ferdinand (successor to the Austria- Hungarian throne) is assesinated in Sarajevo. • Austria blames Serbia and issues an ultimatum to allow Austrian forces to investigate the murder in Serbia
The Domino EffectAustria-Hungary issues Austria-Hungary an ultimatum to Serbia refuses the declares war onSerbia (its forces will enter ultimatum Serbia. the country to investigate the murder) 28 July 1914 Russia mobilizes its Germany (Austria- France (Russia’s allie) troops to defend Hungary ‘s allie) declares declares war on Serbia war on Russia Germany Germany invades Great Britain (France’s Belgium to attack allie) declares war on France Germany