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Scientists behind Electricity and Magnetism

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1. Oersted
2. Ohm
3. Faraday
4. Maxwell
5. Tesla

Published in: Science
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Scientists behind Electricity and Magnetism

  1. 1. SCIENTISTS BEHIND ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Oersted, Ohm, Faraday, Maxwell, and Tesla Ms. Maria Fatima L. Parro MASED- Biology
  2. 2. Main Objectives: • To understand the concept and origin of electricity and magnetism through the discoveries and inventions of Oersted, Ohm, Faraday, Maxwell, and Tesla • To determine how the current generation apply the discoveries and inventions of Oersted, Ohm, Faraday, Maxwell, and Tesla in real- life situations Infused value: Innovation
  3. 3. Experiment Time! Materials: a. balloon b. cloth Procedure: Rub the balloon on a piece of cloth and place it on the hair of your classmate.
  4. 4. Follow- up questions: • What have you observed while conducting the experiment? • What can you conclude based from the experiment?
  5. 5. Electromagnetism
  6. 6. History of Electricity and Magnetism 1820 Electromagnetism, Current 1826 Resistance (currents causing heat) 1830 Inductance, Electromagnetic Theory 1855 Electromagnetic Induction 1883 Alternating Current System
  7. 7. Hans Christian Ørsted (Danish physicist and chemist) August 14, 1777 – March 9, 1851
  8. 8. Place of Birth Rudkøbing, Denmark August 14, 1777
  9. 9. Family Tree Søren Christian Ørsted Karen Hermansen Hans Christian Anders Sandoe Jacob Albert Niels Randulph HermannSøren Christian Christiane Albertine Barbara Albertine Inger Birgitte Ballum Karen Niels Christian Sophie Wilhelmine Bertha Anna Dorthea Marie Sophie Wilhelmine Bertha Mathilde Elisabeth Anders Sandoe Albert Nicolay
  10. 10. • 1793 – University of Copenhagen • 1796 – awards for papers in aesthetics and physics • 1799 – PhD “The Architectonics of Natural Metaphysics”
  11. 11. • 1800-1801 – visited Germany, Holland and France for Lectures • 1801- public grant, travel scholarship in Europe (3 years) *Germany- met Johann Wilhelm Ritter
  12. 12. • 1806 – professor at the University of Copenhagen • 1811 – published manuals: a. Videnskaben om Naturens Almindelige Love (Science of Nature Ordinary Love) b. Første Indledning til den Almindelige Naturlære (First Introduction to General Nature Learning)
  13. 13. • 1812 – visited Berlin, Germany and Paris, France *Awarded the Copley Medal and given 3,000 gold franks • 1820 (April 21) – Oersted’s Law
  14. 14. Awards • The Royal Society of London gave him the Copley Medal and the French Academy awarded him with 3,000 gold francs.
  15. 15. Discovery • Electric Currents (a flow of electric charge) create magnetic fields- the first connection between electricity and magnetism.
  16. 16. Discovery
  17. 17. Discovery • Right hand Rule
  18. 18. • Right hand Rule Discovery
  19. 19. • 1822 – royal member, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences • 1824 - founded Selskabet for Naturlærens Udbredelse (SNU) • 1825 – produced aluminum for the first time • 1829- established Royal Polytechnic Institute - founded Den Polytekniske Læreanstalt ('College of Advanced Technology')
  20. 20. Selskabet for Naturlærens Udbredelse (SNU) • Founder, president - a society to disseminate knowledge of the natural sciences.
  21. 21. Aluminum -first produced aluminum through heating anhydrous aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam and distilling off the mercury.
  22. 22. March 9, 1851 • He died due to unknown short illness at Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen. • 73 years old
  23. 23. Legacy • Centimetre-gram-second system (CGS) unit of magnetic induction (oersted) is named for his contributions to the field of electromagnetism In a vacuum, if the magnetizing field strength is 1 Oe, then the magnetic field density is 1 G, whereas, in a medium having permeabilityr (relative to permeability of vacuum), their relation is: Because oersteds are used to measure magnetizing field strength, they are also related to the magnetomotive force (mmf) of current in a single-winding wire-loop:
  24. 24. Legacy • First Danish Satellite (Oersted)
  25. 25. Legacy • H.C. Oersted Institute
  26. 26. Legacy • Oersted Medal • 100 Danish Kroner
  27. 27. Georg Simon Ohm ( German physicist and mathematician, teacher) March 16, 1789- July 6, 1854
  28. 28. March 16, 1789 Erlangen, Germany
  29. 29. Family Tree Johann Wolfgang Ohm Protestant locksmith Maria Elisabeth Beck daughter of a tailor Georg Simon Martin Mathematician Elizabeth Barbara
  30. 30. • 1800 – Attended Erlangen gymnasium • 1806 – Mathematics teacher, Gottstadt bei Nidau • 1809- private tutor in Neuchâtel • 1811 – University of Erlangen *Doctorate degree • 1813 – Mathematics and Physics teacher, low quality school in Bamberg
  31. 31. • 1816- Bamberg school closed, taught Math in another overcrowded school in Bamberg • 1817- sent completed manuscript to King Wilhelm III of Prussia - offered a position at Jesuit gymnasium (cologne)
  32. 32. • 1827- published Die galvanische Kette, mathematisch bearbeitet (The Galvanic Circuit Investigated Mathematically) • First appearance of Ohm’s law
  33. 33. Ohm’s Law Ohm's law illustrated graphically as Georg Ohm equals Alessandro Volta over André-Marie Ampère.
  34. 34. Ohm’s Law
  35. 35. Ohm’s Law
  36. 36. Ohm’s Acoustic Law • Acoustic Phase Law • A musical sound is perceived by the ear as a set of a number of constituent pure harmonic tones.
  37. 37. • 1833- taught at Polytechnic school in Nuremberg • 1841 – Awarded copley medal by the Royal Society • 1842- Foreign member of the Royal society
  38. 38. • 1845- full member of Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities • 1849- Beiträge zur Molecular-Physik (Molecular Physics) • 1852 – professor of experimental Physics, chair of Physics, University of Munich
  39. 39. July 6, 1854 • He was working on the manuscript of his textbook on optics when he died for unknown reasons at Munich, Germany • His remains were buried at Alter Südfriedhof (Old South Cemetery) also known as "Alter Südlicher Friedhof"
  40. 40. Legacy • Ohm’s Law • Ohm’s Acoustic Phase Law • SI unit of Resistance is ohm (ῼ) galvanometer
  41. 41. Michael Faraday (English Scientist) September 22, 1791- August 25, 1867
  42. 42. September 22, 1791 Newington Butts, London, United Kingdom
  43. 43. Family Tree James Faraday Margaret Hastwell Elizabeth Gray Sarah Bernard Michael Faraday Richard Thomas Margaret Barnard Faraday Robert Barnard Faraday
  44. 44. • 1790 – family moved to London • 1805- Apprentice to George Ribave (7years) *Read many books including Isaac Watt’s “Improvement of the Mind” • 1812- end of apprenteceship –Attended lectures of Humphry Davy and John Tatum
  45. 45. Michael Faraday as an apprentice
  46. 46. • 1813- employed as an assistant to Davy –Became Davy’s valet • 1821 – married Sarah Bernard • 1832 – granted Doctor of Civil Law honorary (University of Oxford) • 1838- Elected as foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
  47. 47. Assistant to Davy
  48. 48. Lab works…
  49. 49. Michael and Sarah Faraday
  50. 50. • 1839 – suffered nervous breakdown • 1844- One of the 8 members elected for the French Academy of Sciences • 1848 – awarded a grace favor house in No. 37 Campton Court Road *Master Mason’s House (Faraday’s House) • 1849 – elected as associate member of French Academy and Sciences
  51. 51. Faraday’s House
  52. 52. • 1853-1856 – refused to produce chemical weapons and poison gases for the Crimean war
  53. 53. August 25, 1867 • Michael Faraday died at his house, aged 75 due to unknown reasons. • During his life, he had been offered burial in Westminster Abbey along with Britain’s kings and queens and scientists of the stature of Isaac Newton. • His grave, where Sarah is also buried, can still be seen in London’s Highgate Cemetery.
  54. 54. Legacy • Faraday's law of induction • Electrochemistry • Faraday effect • Faraday cage • Faraday constant • Faraday cup • Faraday's laws of electrolysis • Faraday paradox • Faraday rotator • Faraday-efficiency effect • Faraday wave • Faraday wheel • Lines of force
  55. 55. Legacy • Electric motor technology • Benzene • Clathrate hydrate of chlorine • Early form of bunsen burner • System of oxidation number • Anode, cathode, electron, ion • Discovered 2 new compounds of chlorine and carbon • New kinds of glass for experiment (rotation of the plane of polarisation of light)
  56. 56. Elactromagnetic Induction • Electromagnetic induction.mp4
  57. 57. Faraday’s Law
  58. 58. Faraday cage
  59. 59. Faraday effect/ Faraday Rotation • A magneto-optical phenomenon—that is, an interaction between light and a magnetic field in a medium. The Faraday effect causes a rotation of the plane of polarization which is linearly proportional to the component of the magnetic field in the direction of propagation. Formally, it is a special case of gyroelectromagnetism obtained when the dielectric permittivity tensor is diagonal. where β is the angle of rotation (in radians) B is the magnetic flux density in the direction of propagation (in teslas) d is the length of the path (in meters) where the light and magnetic field interact is the Verdet constant for the material. This empirical proportionality constant (in units of radians per tesla per meter) varies with wavelength and temperature and is tabulated for various materials.
  60. 60. Faraday constant
  61. 61. Faraday’s Law on electrolysis
  62. 62. James Clerk Maxwell (Scottish Scientist) June 13, 1831- November 5, 1879
  63. 63. What’s to go with that?
  64. 64. 13 June 1831 Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  65. 65. Family Tree
  66. 66. • 1839 – mother died of abdominal cancer (8 years old) • 1841 – Edinburgh Academy • 1844 - he won the school's mathematical medal and first prize for both English and poetry • 1845 – wrote first scientific paper *His work Oval Curves was presented to the Royal Society of Edinburgh by James Forbes, a professor of natural philosophyat Edinburgh University • 1847 - attending classes at the University of Edinburgh • 1849 - Maxwell contributed two papers for the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: a. On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids b. Rolling Curves
  67. 67. • 1850 - Maxwell left Scotland for the University of Cambridge -He initially attended Peterhouse, but before the end of his first term transferred to Trinity, where he believed it would be easier to obtain a fellowship. • 1851 - Maxwell studied under William Hopkins, whose success in nurturing mathematical genius had earned him the nickname of "senior wrangler-maker”. • 1854 - Maxwell graduated from Trinity with a degree in mathematics earning himself the title of Second Wrangler • 1855 – made paper Experiments on Colour laid out the principles of colour combination and was presented to the Royal Society of Edinburgh
  68. 68. A Problem in Dynamics, 1854 An inextensible heavy chain Lies on a smooth horizontal plane, An impulsive force is applied at A, Required the initial motion of K. Let ds be the infinitesimal link, Of which for the present we’ve only to think; Let T be the tension, and T + dT The same for the end that is nearest to B. Let a be put, by a common convention, For the angle at M ‘twixt OX and the tension; Let Vt and Vn be ds‘s velocities, Of which Vt along and Vn across it is; Then Vn/Vt the tangent will equal, Of the angle of starting worked out in the sequel.
  69. 69. Color
  70. 70. • 1856- father died -Maxwell accepted the professorship at Aberdeen, leaving Cambridge -He committed himself to lecturing 15 hours a week, including a weekly pro bono lecture to the local working men's college • 1859 - Maxwell was awarded the £130 Adams Prize for his essay On the stability of the motion of Saturn's rings • 1857 - Maxwell befriended the Reverend Daniel Dewar, who was then the Principal of Marischal. Through him Maxwell met Dewar's daughter, Katherine Mary Dewar. - Prediction on Saturn’s rings
  71. 71. Saturn’s Rings
  72. 72. • 1858 (early) – engaged with Katherine Mary Dewar • 1858 (2 June) – married at Aberdeen • 1860 - Marischal College merged with the neighbouring King‘s College to form the University of Aberdeen. There was no room for two professors of Natural Philosophy, so Maxwell, despite his scientific reputation, found himself laid off. • 1860 – smallpox - awarded the Royal Society's Rumford Medal for his work on colour *This period of his life would see him display the world's first light-fast colour photograph, further develop his ideas on the viscosity of gases, and propose a system of defining physical quantities—now known as dimensional analysis.
  73. 73. Katherine Mary Dewar and James Clerk Maxwell
  74. 74. • 1861 – published On physical lines of force • 1862 - Two more parts were later added to and published in that same paper • 1871 - first Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge
  75. 75. November 5, 1879 • He died in Cambridge of abdominal cancer. • Maxwell is buried at Parton Kirk, near Castle Douglas in Galloway close to where he grew up
  76. 76. Electromagnetic Theory -Electromagnetic waves could move through empty space -Light eventually was proved to be electromagnetic -Light is made up of very small packets of electromagnetic energy called PHOTONS (the smallest unit of radiant energy) -These photons move at a constant speed in the medium through which they travel -Photons move at a faster speed through a vacuum than they do in the atmosphere, and at a slower speed through water than air.
  77. 77. 4 Basic Maxwell’s Equations
  78. 78. Maxwell’s Equations Power Systems
  79. 79. Nikola Tesla (Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist) July 10, 1856-January 7, 1943
  80. 80. 10 July 1856 Smiljan, Croatia
  81. 81. Family Tree Milutin Tesla Duka Tesla Milka Tesla Angelina Tesla Dane Tesla Marica Tesla Nikola Tesla
  82. 82. Life, Works, and Writings • 1861 - Tesla attended the "Lower" or "Primary" School in Smiljan where he studied German, arithmetic, and religion • 1862 - the Tesla family moved to Gospić, Austrian Empire, where Tesla's father worked as a pastor - Nikola completed "Lower" or "Primary" School, followed by the "Lower Real Gymnasium" or "Normal School
  83. 83. Life, Works, and Writings • 1870 - Tesla moved to Karlovac, to attend school at the Higher Real Gymnasium, where he was profoundly influenced by a math teacher Martin Sekulić • 1873 – graduated 4-year term in three years -Tesla returned to his birthtown, Smiljan, had a cholera • 1874 - He explored the mountains in hunter's garb
  84. 84. Life, Works, and Writings • 1875 - Tesla enrolled at Austrian Polytechnic in Graz, Austria, on a Military Frontier scholarship • 1879 – father died - Tesla was returned to Gospić under police guard for not having a residence permit • 1879 – Millutin Tesla died • 1880 - he arrived too late to enroll at Charles-Ferdinand University
  85. 85. Life, Works, and Writings • 1881 - Tesla moved to Budapest to work under Ferenc Puskás at a telegraph company, the Budapest Telephone Exchange • 1882 - Tesla began working for the Continental Edison Company in France • 1884 - he was hired by Thomas Edison to work at his Edison Machine Works on Manhattan's lower east side
  86. 86. Life, Works, and Writings • 1885 - redesign Edison's inefficient motor and generators, making an improvement in both service and economy • 1886 - Tesla partnered with two businessmen Robert Lane and Benjamin Vail, who agreed to finance an electric lighting company in Tesla's name, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing
  87. 87. Life, Works, and Writings • 1886 - Tesla met Alfred S. Brown, a Western Union superintendent, and New York attorney Charles F. Peck • 1887 - formed the Tesla Electric Company • 1887 - a time of "terrible headaches and bitter tears." During this time, he questioned the value of his education
  88. 88. Life, Works, and Writings • 1888 - Thomas Commerford Martin (a friend and publicist), arranged for Tesla to demonstrate his alternating current system, including his induction motor, at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE)
  89. 89. Cause of Death • In his room in Hotel New Yorker in New York City, he died of coronary thrombosis (heart failure) and found by his maid after.
  90. 90. Alternating Current vs. Direct Current
  91. 91. Alternating Current vs. Direct Current
  92. 92. Alternating Current vs. Direct Current
  93. 93. Alternating Current
  94. 94. Wireless Radio Transmission
  95. 95. Wireless Radio Transmission
  96. 96. Tesla Oscillator
  97. 97. Tesla vs. Edison and Marconi
  98. 98. Patents 1.U.S. Patent 0,334,823 - Commutator for Dynamo Electric Machines - 1886 January 26 - Elements to prevent sparking on dynamo-electric machines; Drum-style with brushes. 2.U.S. Patent 0,335,786 - Electric Arc lamp - 1886 February 9 - Arc lamp with carbon electrodes controlled by electromagnets or solenoids and a clutch mechanism; Corrects earlier design flaws common to the industry. 3.U.S. Patent 0,335,787 - Electric arc lamp - 1886 February 9 - Arc lamp's automatic fail switch when arc possesses abnormal behavior; Automatic reactivation. 4.U.S. Patent 0,336,961 - Regulator for dynamo electric machines - 1886 March 2 - Two main brushes connected to helices coil ends; Intermediate point branch shunt connection for third brush. 5.U.S. Patent 0,336,962 - Regulator for Dynamo Electric Machines - 1886 March 2 - Auxiliary brush[es] shunting a portion or whole of the field helices coil; Regulates energy flow; Adjustable level of current. 6.U.S. Patent 0,350,954 - Regulator for Dynamo Electric Machines - 1886 October 19 - Automatic regulation of energy levels; Mechanical device to shift brushes. 7.U.S. Patent 0,359,748 - Dynamo electric machine - 1887 March 22 - Improve construction; Facilitate easier construction; Reduce the cost; Magnetic frame; Armature; Alternating current synchronous motor. 381968 - Electro magnetic motor 8.U.S. Patent 0,381,968 - Electro magnetic motor - 1888 May 1 - Mode and plan of operating electric motors by progressive shifting; Field Magnet; Armature; Electrical conversion; Economical; Transmission of energy; Simple construction; Easier construction; Rotating magnetic field principles. 9.U.S. Patent 0,381,969 - Electro Magnetic Motor - 1888 May 1 - Novel form and operating mode; Coils forming independent energizing circuits; Connected to an alternating current generator; Synchronous motor. 10.U.S. Patent 0,381,970 - System of Electrical Distribution - 1888 May 1 - Current from a single source of supply in the main or transmitting circuit induce by induction apparatus; Independent circuit(s); Electric distributor. 11.U.S. Patent 0,382,279 - Electro Magnetic Motor - 1888 May 1 - Rotation is produced and maintained by direct attraction; Utilizes shifting poles; Induction magnetic motor. 12.U.S. Patent 0,382,280 - Electrical Transmission of Power - 1888 May 1 - New method or mode of transmission; Dynamo motor conversion with two independent circuits for long distance transmission; Alternating current transmission; Includes a disclaimer; Economic; Efficient. 13.U.S. Patent 0,382,281 - Electrical Transmission of Power - 1888 May 1 - Improvements in electromagnetic motors and their mode or methods of their operations; Motor is wound with coils forming independent circuits on the armature; Armature is mounted to rotate between two different poles; Armature will eventually synchronize with that of the generator; Windcoils or coils on the field magnets; Expose to continuous current to maintain a permanent field. 14.U.S. Patent 0,382,282 - Method of Converting and Distributing Electric Currents - 1888 May 1 - Related to electric distribution systems; Current is from a single main source or suitable transmitting circuit; Induction into an independent circuit; Divide the current from a single source; Transformations; Discovery of method to avoid prior liable and dangerous methods; True Dynamic induction. 15.U.S. Patent 0,382,845 - Commutator for dynamo electric machines - 1888 May 15 - Relates to dynamo-electric machines or motors; Improvements on devices to collect or communicate currents; Avoids destruction and wear of machine; Avoid adjustments due to destruction and wear; Enable practical construction of very large dynamo electric machines or motors with the minimum number of communicator segments; Increases safety and efficiency. 16.U.S. Patent 0,390,413 - System of electrical distribution - 1888 October 2 - Related to previous electric distribution systems developed by Tesla; Examples of systems in operation with motors or converters, or both, in parallel; Examples of systems in parallel; Examples of systems in series. 17.U.S. Patent 0,390,414 - Dynamo Electric Machine - 1888 October 2 - Related to the patents of Tesla and Charles F. Peck, numbers: US381968 and US382280; Ordinary forms of continuous and alternate current systems may be adapted to Tesla's system, with slight changes to the systems; Effects their forms; Only the best and most practical solutions are presented to the three most common forms of the devices applicable; Illustrated are the continuous (or closed) circuit machines, machines possessing armatures with coils connected diametrically (known as "open-circuits"), and machines with armature-coils of which have a common joint. 18.U.S. Patent 0,390,415 - Dynamo Electric Machine or Motor - 1888 October 2 - Improvement in the construction of dynamo or magneto electric machines; Novel form of frame and field magnets that renders the machine more sturdy and compact as a structure; Requires fewer parts; Less difficulty in construction; Lower expense; Useful to alternating and continuous current machines. 19.U.S. Patent 0,390,721 - Dynamo Electric Machine - 1888 October 9 - Relates chiefly to the alternate current machine invented by Mr. Tesla; Related to patents numbered US381968 and US382280; Seeks to avoid mechanical drawback of running high frequency machines; Efficient at low speeds; Producing rotating magnetic poles in one element of the machine and drive the other at a different speed. 20.U.S. Patent 0,390,820 - Regulator for Alternate Current Motors - 1888 October 9 - Improvement in the electrical transmission systems; Means of regulating and power of the motor or motors; Used with system of multiple motors primarily (or systems with motors and transformers) that have independent energizing circuits which act to set up progressive or shifting magnetic poles (i.e. the rotating magnetic field); Controls the speed of the motor. 21.U.S. Patent 0,396,121 - Thermo Magnetic Motor - 1888 January 15 - Widely known that heat applied to a magnetic body will lessen its magnetizing ability; High enough temperatures will destroy the magnetic field; Mechanical power by a reciprocating action obtained from the joint action of heat, magnetism, and a spring or weight (or other force); In this patent, the application of heat to a body that is magnetized by induction or otherwise to the action of heat until the magnetism is neutralized to allow a weight or a spring to give action and lessen the action of the heat to restore the magnetic effect to move the body in the opposite direction.
  99. 99. Patents
  100. 100. Superman vs. Tesla
  101. 101. Death Beam
  102. 102. Why? He advocated for the principles of eugenics and forced sterilization to ensure that only humans with the most desirable traits could reproduce. And he insisted that men would one day be forced to submit to women.
  103. 103. Is it a UFO? No, it is Tesla’s Flying Saucer
  104. 104. Nikola Tesla
  105. 105. The Question is…
  106. 106. HAARP High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
  107. 107. Scientists behind Electricity & Magnetism Year Scientist Invention 1820 Oersted • Current in wire produces magnetic field 1826 Ohm • Complete Theory of Electricity • Ohm’s Law 1830 Faraday • Changing magnetic field produces electric field • Laws of Induction 1864 Maxwell • Complete mathematical description of electromagnetism based on field equations 1887 Tesla • Creating an induction motor that ran on alternating current
  108. 108. References • "Hans Christian Oersted." Famous Scientists. famousscientists.org. 26 Sep. 2015. Web. 4/23/2016 <http://www.famousscientists.org/hans-christian-oersted/>. • Robert C. Stauffer. Speculation and Experiment in the Background of Oersted’s Discovery of Electromagnetism. Isis Vol. 48: p33-50, March, 1957 • http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Hans_Christian_Oersted.aspx • http://www.jensenj.dk/NAVNEINDEX%20total/f2486.html • http://www.jensenj.dk/NAVNEINDEX%20total/f2485.html • http://www.wired.com/2011/06/how-static-electricity-works/ • http://www.famousscientists.org/james-clerk-maxwell/ • http://ektalks.blogspot.com/2014/02/james-clerk-maxwell-family-tree.html • http://www.biography.com/people/nikola-tesla-9504443 • http://www.brighthubengineering.com/commercial-electrical-applications/65361-how- electromagnetism-changed-our-world/ • http://tikalon.com/blog/blog.php?article=2013/Ohm • http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/gadgets/resistors/resistor.htm • http://mypoeticside.com/poets/james-clerk-maxwell-poems

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