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Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011

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Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting, a paper on Serious Games. This was fun, it was in Las Vegas after all. The lost opportunity was that Christopher D. Wickens. Ph.D. was there, and I failed to meet him. I am a big fan of his work, it is the standard by which all HF/HCI should be measured, and much of my work is directly built on his work, extended into new areas, where I am sure, he never imagined. But, that is what happens when an artist gets a Ph.D. in information science. Also, I met some excellent project managers and industry personnel in the serious games space. They are all young and beautiful and smart.

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Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011

  1. 1. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. Founder & CEO Virtual Field Trips, LLC Assistant Professor of Information Systems Computer Science Department, Slippery Rock University Ph.D. in Information Science School of Information Science, University of Pittsburgh Bachelor of Science in Economics & Art, Carnegie Mellon
  2. 2. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS “Can Simulated Ecological Environments of nature inspire independent exploration, an intrinsic desire to learn and acts of creation for the child?”
  3. 3. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Field Work
  4. 4. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Design Context & Partnerships • User Needs, Goals & Activity – Child’s Exploration, Discovery & Inquiry – Teacher and Naturalist Guide Support – Physical & Cognitive Activity • Educational & Learning Content – PA Ecology NCLB Standards – Informal Educational Materials – Audubon Society of Western PA – Elementary School Teachers • Realistic Data & Visualization – ESRI Visualized Terrain Datasets – NSF Long-term Plant Population Datasets (Dr. Kalisz) (http:// www.pitt.edu/~kalisz/)
  5. 5. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Immersive Virtual World & Informal Learning Simulation • Used High-end Game Engine – Visualize 1 Square Mile of Data • Annotate Virtual World – Cards for Facts – Audio Sprites for Concepts • The Virtual Trillium Trail – Working Prototype in 2005 – Rebuilt with Garage Games Torque 3D in 2009 for a Commercial PC Release – iPad, Macintosh versions expected in 2012
  6. 6. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Photorealistic Game Engine
  7. 7. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Annotate with Facts
  8. 8. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Annotate with Story
  9. 9. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS The Virtual Trillium Trail
  10. 10. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Two Research Studies • Study One: Real vs. Virtual – Baseline Control (n=12) – A one-way, within-subject ANOVA, with repeated measurements, in counterbalanced order (n=12) • Study Two: Two Factor ANOVA – Factor 1: Visual Fidelity (High & Low) – Factor 2: Navigational Freedom (High & Low) – One system with four condition states • Planed Orthogonal Contrast on Critical User Interface Software Dimensions (n=64)
  11. 11. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Study One: Real vs. Virtual • Baseline Control (n=12) – A one-way, within-subject ANOVA, with repeated measures, in counterbalanced order (n=12) • Two Groups: – Group 1: Real-Virtual – Group 2: Virtual-Real • Experience the two Environments in opposite order • Count Learning Activity of “Salient Events” – Measurements • Demographic, Pre & Post tests after each on Facts, Concepts, Emotional Response, and a Creative Activity
  12. 12. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS
  13. 13. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS • Total Objects • Real has more information than the Virtual, results in higher learning activity: – H1a: μ Total Activity (Real) > μ Total Activity (Virtual) – Real (M = 4.5, SD = 2.71) – Virtual (M = 2.83, SD = 3.43) – F(1,11) = 4.68, p = 0.05 Main Effects: Environment
  14. 14. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Main Effects: Environment • Plant Only Objects • When Content in the Virtual is Identical to the Real, there is no difference in learning activity: – H2o: μ Plant-only Activity (Real) = μ Plant-only Activity (Virtual) – Real (M = 2.75, SD = 1.96) – Virtual (M = 2.83, SD = 3.43) – F(1,11) = 0.00, p = 0.95
  15. 15. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Main Effects: Order Second Field Trip, Real or Virtual, shows more Learning Activity Practice Makes Perfect!
  16. 16. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS • The t-test for two independent groups (one-tail, post-hoc analysis) was carried out to help explain the results. • H8a: Total Activity: μ Real(First) < μ Real(After Virtual) – Real (First) (M = 2.8, SD = 2.6) – Real (After Virtual) (M = 5.8, SD = 1.9) – t = -2.29, df = 10, p = 0.023 (one-tailed, α = 0.01) • Prime the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased. Virtual to Real Transfer
  17. 17. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Real to Virtual Transfer • In the past, such an analysis was impossible for life-critical training -- combat military training. • Educational and learning applications, the question is valid and viable. • H9a: Total Activity: μ Virtual(First) < μ Virtual(After Real) – Virtual (First) (M = 0.0, SD = 0.0) – Virtual (After Real) (M = 3.8, SD = 2.4) – t = -3.88, df = 10, p = 0.00 (one-tailed, α = 0.01) • Reinforce the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased.
  18. 18. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Interaction • Interaction was found (Total Map Annotations by Group) – The one-way, between-subjects ANOVA produced evidence of interaction for the Total map Annotation learning activity • H6a: Total Activity: Interaction Groups x Order – F(1, 5) = 30.69, p = 0.003. • Thus, some factor is effecting the variables in a non- constant way… • Something in the real world is having an interesting impact.
  19. 19. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Salient Events • Some probability distribution of events, like a “Salamander Find,” that occur only in the real environment, and result in highly salient, personally meaningful memories. • “Salient Events” are critical for learning and become design features • If recognized by a teacher, or software, become “Teachable Moments” • Episodic Memory anchors entire knowledge ontology Salient Event Teachable Moment
  20. 20. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Conclusions: Real vs. Virtual • Real is Superior Overall • Virtual match the Real for in- curriculum materials • Practice makes Perfect • “Salient Events” as Environmental Driven Opportunities for Teachable Moments for Learning, Uniquely Personal, & UI Critical Design Features • Transfer in Both Directions • Prime & Reinforce with the Virtual • Use Real & Virtual Together for Maximized Learning
  21. 21. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Study Two: 2X2 ANOVA • Study Two: Two Factor ANOVA as a Planed Orthogonal Contrast (POC) on Critical User Interface Software Dimensions (n=64) – Factor 1: Visual Fidelity • Low Fidelity set to Cartoon Quality • High Fidelity set to Photorealistic Quality – Factor 2: Navigational Freedom • Low Navigational Freedom set to a virtual path • High Navigational Freedom allow 360 degree exploration at will • UI and Game Design Parameters? – Knowledge Gained – Salient Events – Emotional Reactions of Curiosity, Beauty, Awe & Wonder, Calm & Excitement – Acts of Creation & Sharing
  22. 22. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS
  23. 23. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Visual Fidelity
  24. 24. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Navigational Freedom
  25. 25. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Independent Variables Visual Fidelity: Two Levels: Low (LF) and High (HF) Navigational Freedom: Two Levels: Low (LN) and High (HN) Dependent Variables Knowledge Gained Salient Events Fact Cards Inquired Time in System Emotional Reactions Acts of Creation Study Two: 2X2 ANOVA Visual Fidelity NavigationalFreedom Low Visual Fidelity (LF) High Visual Fidelity (HF) Low Navigational Freedom (LN) High Navigational Freedom (HN) Group LFHN n=(16) Group HFHN n=(16) Group HFLN n=(16) Group LFLN n=(16)
  26. 26. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Hypothesis
  27. 27. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Knowledge Gained
  28. 28. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Results: Knowledge Gained • Navigational Freedom shows Trend – F(1,60) = 2.71, p = 0.105 • Visual Fidelity is Strong and Significant – F(1,60) = 10.54, p = 0.0019 • Significant Evidence of Interaction – F(1, 60) = 4.85, p = 0.0315 • Highest Gains in Condition of High Visual Fidelity & High Navigational Freedom – (M=37.44, SD = 13.88)
  29. 29. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Salient Events
  30. 30. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Results: Salient Events • Navigational Freedom shows strong Trend – F(1,60) = 3.23, p = 0.0773 • Visual Fidelity is Strong and Significant – F(1,60) = 4.35, p = 0.00413 • No Interaction – F(1, 60) = 1.48, p = 0.2285 • Highest Counts: Condition of High Visual Fidelity & High Navigational Freedom – (M=16.75, SD = 6.27)
  31. 31. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Emotional Reactions • Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient show – Inquiry to Learning (r =0.700**, p = 0.00) – Awe & Wonder to Total Attitude, (r=0.727**, p =0.000) – Awe & Wonder to Knowledge Gained, (r = 0.273**, p =0.000) – Beauty to Awe & Wonder (r =0.506**, p=0.000) – And many more on Exploration, Calm, Excitement, Curiosity, Desire to Share, Create, Presence, and Immersion
  32. 32. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Future Work
  33. 33. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS SEEE Tripartite Model • Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE) – Conceptual, theoretical, and empirical framework – Used to explain information flows between the world and the human – Markov Model? http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-08072008-141657/unrestricted/MariaCRHarrington.pdf
  34. 34. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS Child Computer Environment Interface Truth, Fidelity, Freedom, Beauty, Awe & Wonder
  35. 35. September 21, 2011 Virtual Field Trips, LLC © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2011, ALL RIGHTS The Virtual Trillium Trail is available here: http://www.virtualtrilliumtrail.com/index.html

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