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Art and Technology

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Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D.
Art: http://mariacrharrington.com/ | Science: http://mariacrharrington.org/ | Tech: http://www.virtualfieldtrips.com/
Candidate
Assistant Professor of Digital Media
School of Visual Arts & Design
University of Central Florida
3/23/2006

Published in: Education
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Art and Technology

  1. 1. A New Paradigm for Virtual Reality & Simulations for Education, Learning & Creating The Virtual Trillium Trail Project – Empirical Evidence on Design Factors in Simulated Ecological Environments for Education and Causal Impacts on Emotions, Learning, Priming, Transfer, and Reinforcement November 14, 2016 Institute for Simulation and Training Modeling and Simulation Seminar Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Digital Media School of Visual Arts & Design University of Central Florida Maria.harrington@ucf.edu Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 The Virtual Trillium Trail, 2007
  2. 2. Biography  Maria C. R. Harrington’s experience spans over 20 years, from art and economics to information science.  Assistant Professor in the School of Visual Arts and Design (SVAD) at the University of Central Florida  Ph.D. and a M.S. in Information Sciences from the School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh.  B.S. in Economics with a minor in Art from Carnegie Mellon University.  Professional experience includes financial, strategic, information technology, and human-computer interaction activities for global corporations and institutions such as: PNC Financial Services Group, The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Fidelity Investments, University of Toronto, Alias/Wavefront-Autodesk, DataViews–GE Fanuc, and Federated Investors.  From 2000 to 2008, she was an Adjunct Professor in human computer interaction, user centered design, human factors in system design, and introduction to information science at the School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh. Additionally, she was an Adjunct Professor in the Art & Design Division of Chatham University, and has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science at Slippery Rock University. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  3. 3. Research Focus  Harrington, Maria, C. R. (2008). Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE): A Tripartite Model Framework of HCI Design Parameters for Situational Learning in Virtual Environments, Dissertation Abstracts International. July 17,2008. University of Pittsburgh  Understanding and modeling the dynamic interaction of the:  Human  System  Environment Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  4. 4. “Can Simulated Ecological Environments of nature inspire independent exploration, an intrinsic desire to learn and acts of creation for the child?” Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  5. 5. Seminar Objectives Objective 1 – Introduce Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE) Objective 2 – Review of Pilot Study Empirical Evidence in Real-Virtual and Virtual-Real learning Objective 3 – Review of Main Study Empirical Evidence on Design Factors in SEEE Q&A Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  6. 6. What are Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE)? A New Paradigm for Virtual Reality & Simulations for Education, Learning & Creating A Virtual Field Trip that is a Simulation, not a Game, not a Cartoon, not Fantasy SEEE require three sets of data:  Environmental: Scientific data sets visualized in a photorealistic game engine (Unreal & Torque)  Ethnographic Activity and UX: Informal learning activities offered by credible organizations (National Parks, Audubon, Museums, and Science Centers)  Informational: Scientists, Teachers, Libraries, Public School Curriculum (standards for facts and concepts) Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  7. 7. The Virtual Trillium Trail, 2005-2010 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CMIhdzsOlTk Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  8. 8. Why are SEEEs Important? Virtual increases the ROI of Real (Virtual- Real-Virtual) Prime, Transfer & Reinforce Virtual Reality (photorealist and free navigation) increase Knowledge Gained  The Virtual Trillium Trail resulted in 37.44% increase on knowledge gained for facts and concepts after one hour of free play. Before any other design factors (visualization augmentation, gamification, and intelligent tutoring) Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  9. 9. Why are SEEEs Important? Visual Fidelity increases inquiry (change in navigation behavior from terrestrial to informational) We can design inquiry, important for STEM education Beauty correlated with Awe and Wonder correlated with Learning, important for STEAM as it impacts STEM Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  10. 10. System & Research Design Matters  The system is an artificial artifact, like a painting, it can be an abstraction or it can be realistic  If designed to be realistic, the Virtual can be used for research into perception, feelings, behavior, and learning as well as sharing and creating that can be extended back into the Real  Supports Real-Virtual and Virtual-Real comparison  Counterbalanced, within-subject ANOVA  One System used to Isolate, Control, and Measure outcomes  Planned orthogonal contrast, and control over input factors -- Visual Fidelity (scaled from low to high levels of graphics quality), and Navigational Freedom, (scaled from low to high levels of user navigational style and freedom of choice).  Rigorous statistical design (2X2 ANOVA), and to measure outcomes with confidence. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  11. 11. Multidisciplinary Research Research Ambient Perceptual-Semantic Array and impacts on Perception, Emotions, and Creativity as Action (AI of Creativity) UX and Technical Design Frameworks for Collaboration & Co-Creativity (frameworks that support work) especially for scientists and educators, Creators Dashboard Landscapes as Art and Virtual Reality Experiences (Art as Information and Emotion), to Extend Mathematical Models of Communication to Understand the Role of Beauty Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  12. 12. Art, Science, and Technology How to Create? How to Frame? How to Design? How to Build? Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  13. 13. Start with Observation Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  14. 14. UX Design & Pilot Study Examine the feasibility of an approach Ethnographic work to document task analysis, context, contextual inquiry, tools, and information requirements UCD to discover system design parameters Develop a system prototype to solve technical problems Not looking to test hypothesis, but looking for ideas, patterns in the data, evaluation relative to established results in literature Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  15. 15. Ethnographic Field Work Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  16. 16. Automatic Terrain Generation, 2007 • USGS data (DEM files) of location to export • Imported data to ESRI, transformed it to a grayscale • Imported grayscale into Unreal, to generate terrain Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  17. 17. Plant Plots Extrapolated Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Retrieved from the web 11/6/2016: http://kaliszlab.weebly.com/ The Virtual Trillium Trail application was developed between 2005 and 2008. The first 2007 prototype ran on a Dell XPS Gen 2 laptop and required a high-end NVIDIA GeForce Go 6800 Ultra graphics card.
  18. 18. Automatic Plant Distribution Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  19. 19. Photorealistic 3D Models The Virtual Trillium Trail, 2007 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  20. 20. Facts and Concepts Imbedded Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  21. 21. Annotate with Story Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  22. 22. Educational Content Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  23. 23. Two Research Studies Pilot -- Study One: Real vs. Virtual  Baseline Control (n=12)*  A one-way, within-subject ANOVA, with repeated measurements, (n=12) Main -- Study Two: 2x2 ANOVA  Planed Orthogonal Contrast (n=64)  Factor 1: Visual Fidelity (High & Low)  Factor 2: Navigational Freedom (High & Low)  One system with four condition states Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  24. 24. Review of Pilot Study Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Trillium Trail May 2007 and University of Pittsburgh May 2007
  25. 25. Framing the Design  12 volunteer students from a local suburban public elementary school. (Yes, this is problem)  However, in-situ activity of map annotations is high (n = 85) and post experience attitudes reported are sufficient (n = 28)  Environment and Order - Real and Virtual Comparisons  One-way, within-subject ANOVA, with repeated measures in counterbalance design  Each subject acted as his/her own control  Learning activity – counts per cell (Each student’s in situ map annotations)  Transfer of Learning Activity  Group 1 experiencing the Real-Virtual order  Group 2 experiencing the Virtual-Real order  Show transfer of learning activity in each direction  Attitudes on Environments  Post experience attitudinal survey that allowed direct comparison and contrast of Real and Virtual Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  26. 26. Study One Design Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Harrington, Maria, C. R. (2011). Empirical Evidence of Priming, Transfer, Reinforcement, and Learning in the Real and Virtual Trillium Trails. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 2011 vol.4 Issue No.02 – April-June pp: 175- 186 [DOI: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TLT.2010.20 | Research Gate | PDF ]
  27. 27. Study One Results Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Harrington, Maria, C. R. (2011). Empirical Evidence of Priming, Transfer, Reinforcement, and Learning in the Real and Virtual Trillium Trails. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 2011 vol.4 Issue No.02 – April-June pp: 175- 186 [DOI: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TLT.2010.20 | Research Gate | PDF ]
  28. 28. Environment Main Effect -Total Objects  Total Objects: Real has more information than the Virtual, results in higher learning activity:  H1a: Mean Total Activity (Real) > Mean Total Activity (Virtual)  Real (M = 4.5, SD = 2.71)  Virtual (M = 2.83, SD = 3.43)  F(1,11) = 4.68, p = 0.05 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  29. 29. Environment Main Effect - Plant-Only  Plant Only Objects: When Content in the Virtual is Identical to the Real, there is no difference in learning activity  H2o: Mean Plant-Only Activity(Real) = Mean Plant-Only Activity(Virtual)  Real (M = 2.75, SD = 1.96)  Virtual (M = 2.83, SD = 3.43)  F(1,11) = 0.00, p = 0.95 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  30. 30. Order Main Effect  Second Field Trip, Real or Virtual, shows more Learning Activity -- Practice Makes Perfect!  H3a: Mean First Experience < Mean Second Experience  Frist Total (M = 1.58, SD = 2.53)  Second Total (M = 5.75, SD = 2.18)  F(1,11) = 16.23, p = 0.002  First Plant-Only (M = 0.75, SD = 1.42)  Second Plant-Only (M = 4.82, SD = 2.12)  F(1,11) = 49.00, p < 0.000 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  31. 31. Virtual to Real Transfer for Total  If there is no transfer of skill, in situ learning activity should be the same. If there is a significant difference, then there is evidence of transfer.  The t-test for two independent groups (one-tail, post-hoc analysis) was carried out to help explain the results.  H4a: Total Activity: Mean Real (First) < Mean Real (After Virtual)  Real (First) (M = 2.8, SD = 2.6)  Real (After Virtual) (M = 5.8, SD = 1.9)  t = -2.29, df = 10, p = 0.023 (one-tailed, α = 0.01)  Prime the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  32. 32. Virtual to Real Transfer for Plant  If there is no transfer of skill, in situ learning activity should be the same. If there is a significant difference, then there is evidence of transfer.  The t-test for two independent groups (one-tail, post-hoc analysis) was carried out to help explain the results.  H6a: Plant-Only Activity: Mean Real (First) < Mean Real (After Virtual)  Real (First) (M = 1.5, SD = 1.8)  Real (After Virtual) (M = 4.0, SD = 1.26)  t = -2.83, df = 10, p = 0.000 (one-tailed, α = 0.01)  Prime the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  33. 33. Real to Virtual Transfer for Total  In the past, such an analysis was impossible for life-critical training - - combat military training. Educational and learning applications, the question is valid and viable.  The t-test for two independent groups (one-tail, post-hoc analysis) was carried out to help explain the results.  H5a: Total Activity: Mean Virtual (First) < Mean Virtual(After Real)  Virtual (First) (M = 0.0, SD = 0.0)  Virtual (After Real) (M = 3.8, SD = 2.4)  t = -3.88, df = 10, p = 0.000 (one-tailed, α = 0.01)  Reinforce the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  34. 34. Real to Virtual Transfer for Plant  In the past, such an analysis was impossible for life-critical training - - combat military training. Educational and learning applications, the question is valid and viable.  The t-test for two independent groups (one-tail, post-hoc analysis) was carried out to help explain the results.  H7a: Plant-Only Activity: Mean Virtual (First) < Mean Virtual(After Real)  Virtual (First) (M = 0.0, SD = 0.0)  Virtual (After Real) (M = 5.67 SD = 2.58)  t = -5.38, df = 10, p = 0.000 (one-tailed, α = 0.01)  Reinforce the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  35. 35. Interaction? Interaction? (Total Map Annotations by Group) Total Activity: Interaction Groups x Order  F(1, 5) = 30.69, p = 0.003 Thus, some factor is effecting the variables in a non-constant way? Something in the real world is having an interesting impact Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  36. 36. Environmental Salience - The Salamander Effect as a “Salient Event”  Some probability distribution of events that occur only in the real environment, and result in highly salient, personally meaningful recordings and memories, “Salient Events”  Episodic “Teachable Moments” are critical design features. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  37. 37. Results for Attitudes on Environments Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  38. 38. Correlations  Significant correlation between Beauty and Learning Activity in the Virtual (Spearman Rank Order Coefficient, r = 0.76, p = 0.00) was found, but this was not found in the Real (Spearman Rank Order Coefficient, r = 0.00, p = 1.0), even though Beauty ranked identically in both Environments Presence and Beauty in the Virtual (Spearman Rank Order Coefficient, r = 0.64, p = 0:03), a correlation not found in the Real (Spearman Rank Order Coefficient, r = 0.49, p = 0.11)  These results suggest Complex Interaction between emotion, perception, and learning in Real and Virtual spaces, interactions that are worthy of future analysis and research Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  39. 39. Take away # 1 (Information Fusion)*  The Real Environment shows more learning activity than the Virtual Environment. The Salamander sighting was only observed in the Real, an event that was outside of the simulation, not in the curriculum, yet impacted learning of the curriculum in some way.  When content in the Virtual matches the Real, the learning outcomes are the same.  There is evidence of Priming, Transfer, and Reinforcement, thus indicating that the best practice is to use the Virtual first to prime, transfer to the Real where the most learning occurs, and then reinforce with the Virtual, for the highest overall learning gains and best ROI value.  Environmental Salient Events trigger a Teachable Moment, if used, leverage Episodic Memory to anchor entire curriculum Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  40. 40. How to Design Such Systems?  How to use Virtual Reality for Education?  Virtual Reality as a Simulation to match the Real Field Trip?  What are the UX and software design factors and what are their impacts? “Can Simulated Ecological Environments of nature inspire independent exploration, an intrinsic desire to learn and acts of creation for the child?” Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  41. 41. Review of Main Study --Empirical Evidence on Design Factors in SEEE– Study Two Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Harrington, Maria, C. R. (2008). Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE): A Tripartite Model Framework of HCI Design Parameters for Situational Learning in Virtual Environments, Dissertation Abstracts International. July 17,2008. University of Pittsburgh
  42. 42. Research Questions  What are the design parameters of these information systems  How do they impact learning and usability?  What are the subjective emotional reactions to those factors  Impact user experience, usage rates, and effectiveness  Can we fit data to, and design a priori empirical models to forecast the effectiveness of such systems prior to construction? Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  43. 43. Framing the Design One System used to Isolate, Control, and Measure outcomes Planned orthogonal contrast, and control over input factors -- Visual Fidelity (scaled from low to high levels of graphics quality), and Navigational Freedom, (scaled from low to high levels of user navigational style and freedom of choice). Rigorous statistical design (2X2 ANOVA), and to measure outcomes with confidence. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  44. 44. Study Two : 2x2 ANOVA Independent Variables : Visual Fidelity: Two Levels: Low (LF) and High (HF) Navigational Freedom: Two Levels: Low (LN) and High (HN) Dependent Variables : Knowledge Gained Salient Events Fact Cards Inquired Time in System Emotional Reactions Acts of Creation Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Visual Fidelity NavigationalFreedom Low Visual Fidelity (LF) High Visual Fidelity (HF) Low Navigational Freedom (LN) High Navigational Freedom (HN) Group LFHN n=(16) Group HFHN n=(16) Group HFLN n=(16) Group LFLN n=(16)
  45. 45. Study Two Design Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 64 Volunteers, given a demographic survey, pre-test, randomly assigned to one of the 4 conditions, then a post-test, microworld study, and a post- experience attitude survey
  46. 46. Hypotheses  The Two-way ANOVA tests main effects and interaction effects for all variables under investigation in one system, in a controlled Planned Orthogonal Contrast.  HF= High Fidelity Condition  LF = Low Fidelity Condition  HN = High Navigational Freedom Condition  LN = Low Navigational Freedom Condition  For each of the Dependent Variables (DV): Salient Events, Fact Inquiry, Time in System, and Knowledge Gain, three statistical tests were possible for each of the Conditions  H01: μ DVHF = μ DVLF  Ha1: μ DVHF ≠ μ DVLF  H02: μ DVHN = μ DVLN  Ha2: μ DVHN ≠ μ DVLN  H03: No Interaction  Ha3: Interaction Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  47. 47. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  48. 48. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  49. 49. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  50. 50. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  51. 51. Results on Learning * Knowledge Gained (Test Score Gains) • Visual Fidelity Significantly Impacts  High Visual Fidelity (Μ = 30.95, SD = 14.76)  Low Visual Fidelity (Μ =19.99, SD = 13.39)  F(1,60) = 10.54, p = 0.0019 (p < 0.05) • Navigational Freedom Trends an Impact  High Navigational Freedom (Μ = 28.24, SD = 16.51)  Low Navigation Freedom (Μ =22.69, SD =13.06)  F(1,60) = 2.71, p = 0.105 • Strong and Significant Evidence of Interaction between Visual Fidelity x Navigational Freedom  F(1, 60) = 4.85, p = 0.0315 (p < 0.05)  Highest Learning Gains on tests in the Condition with Both High Fidelity and High Navigational Freedom (M = 37.44%, SD = 13.88) Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  52. 52. Results on Learning Activity * Salient Events (Evidence of Inquiry) • Visual Fidelity Significantly Impacts  High Visual Fidelity (Μ = 14.46, SD = 6)  Low Visual Fidelity (Μ =11.31, SD = 6.37)  F(1,60) = 4.35, p = 0.00413 (p < 0.05) • Navigational Freedom Strong Trend Impact  High Navigational Freedom (Μ = 14.25, SD = 6.99)  Low Navigation Freedom (Μ =11.53, SD = 5.38)  F(1,60) = 3.23, p = 0.0773 • No Evidence of Interaction between Visual Fidelity x Navigational Freedom  F(1,60) = 1.48, p = 0.2285  Highest Rates of Inquiry in the Condition with Both High Fidelity and High Navigational Freedom (M = 16.75, SD = 6.27) Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  53. 53. Both Visual Fidelity and Navigational Freedom required for highest learning outcomes on Tests  Visual Fidelity and Navigational Freedom and as Design Factors:  There is significant interaction, F(1,60) = 4.85, p = 0.0315, between Visual Fidelity and Navigational Freedom on Knowledge Gained, so both factors must be in the design for such results  The combined conditions of High Visual Fidelity x High Navigational Freedom result in far superior Knowledge Gained on tests, (cell mean = 37.44, SD = 13.88) when compared to Low Visual Fidelity x Low Navigational Freedom condition, (cell mean = 20.93, SD = 13.36)  Visual Fidelity is strong and significant F(1,60) = 10.54, p = 0.0019  Navigational Freedom shows a trend, F(1.60) = 2.71, p = 0.105 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  54. 54. Visual Fidelity Impacts Behavior -- Exploration and Inquiry Learning Activity  There is no interaction, F(1,60) = 1.48, p = 0.2285), between Visual Fidelity and Navigational Freedom, on Salient Events.  Salient Events measure the number of times student behavior changes from exploration to deep inquiry.  Visual Fidelity is strong and significant, F(1,60) = 4.35, p = 0.00413). It alone, is responsible for significantly increasing learning activity.  Navigational Freedom, as a factor, shows a strong trend, F(1,60) = 3.23, p = 0.0773. The data show that the High Visual Fidelity condition (Row Mean = 14.46, SD = 6) resulted in more Salient Event counts than did the Low Visual Fidelity condition (Row Mean=11.31, SD = 6.37).  The more a virtual reality environment, simulation, or serious game looks high fidelity and photo-realistic, the more times a child’s behavior will change from exploration to inquiry. Thus, Visual Fidelity increases a child’s desire to learn, to understand, and to stop in order to independently and actively inquire. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  55. 55. Emotions  Spearman's rho Correlations (N=64) Sig(2-tail)  This shows the correlation and relationships between Beauty, whatever it may be for the individual, the emotional reaction of Awe and Wonder, and the empirical data on test scores, Knowledge Gained  Knowledge Gained is correlated to Awe and Wonder  rho = 0.273, p = 0.032  Beauty correlated with Awe and Wonder  rho =0.506, p =0.000  Beauty correlated with Total Attitudinal Survey ranking  rho = 0.727, p = 0.000  A major contribution shows empirical link between Beauty and Learning. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  56. 56. “Empirical link between Beauty and Learning” ~ Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  57. 57. Take away # 1 (Information Fusion)  The Real Environment shows more learning activity than the Virtual Environment. The Salamander sighting was only observed in the Real, an event that was outside of the simulation, not in the curriculum, yet impacted learning of the curriculum in some way.  When content in the Virtual matches the Real, the learning outcomes are the same.  There is evidence of Priming, Transfer, and Reinforcement, thus indicating that the best practice is to use the Virtual first to prime, transfer to the Real where the most learning occurs, and then reinforce with the Virtual, for the highest overall learning gains and best ROI value.  Environmental Salient Events trigger a Teachable Moment, if used, leverage Episodic Memory to anchor entire curriculum Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  58. 58. Take Away # 2 There is statistically strong and significant interaction, F (1, 60) = 4.85, p = 0.0315, between Visual Fidelity, as a design factor, and Navigational Freedom, as a design factor, on Knowledge Gained, (pre-posttest differences) thus proving that both of these factors must be present to have the greatest impact on learning. The Virtual Trillium Trail resulted in 37.44% increase on knowledge gained for facts and concepts after one hour of free play. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  59. 59. Take Away # 3  There is no interaction, F (1, 60) = 1.48, p = 0.2285, between the two factors for Salient Events, (a measurement and count of the changes in student navigational behavior from terrestrial exploration to deep inquiry of information).  The main effect of Visual Fidelity is statistically strong and significant, F (1, 60) = 4.35, p = 0.00413, and thus, is a critical software design factor to use to increase the probability of learning activity. Navigational Freedom, as a factor, shows a strong trend, F (1, 60) = 3.23, p = 0.0773.  Implying that, "scientific inquiry," can be "designed" to have a higher probability of occurrence in realistic simulations (High Visual Fidelity), important for STEM educational applications. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  60. 60. Take Away # 4  Interesting correlations between Beauty, Awe and Wonder, Curiosity, Inquiry, and Knowledge Gained are present in the data, so are high affective ratings of Desire to Share and Desire to Create, thus hinting at the role the environment (Real or Virtual) has on feelings, behavior, and emotion.  Significant correlation between Beauty and learning activity in the Virtual was found (Spearman Rank Order Coefficient, r = 0.76, p = 0.00), important for STEAM applications as they relate to STEM education. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  61. 61. Conclusions*  Real is better than Virtual, use Virtual to Prime, Transfer to Real, then Virtual again to Reinforce  Use Virtual-Environmental Salient Events, to open Teachable Moments, and anchor Curriculum in Episodic Memory  Salient Events become a software design feature desired in the Virtual to increase learning activity  Use combined Visual Fidelity (Photorealistic VR) and Navigational Freedom (Free Choice) to increase Knowledge Gained on tests  Use Visual Fidelity (Photorealistic VR) to increase Salient Events and change behavior from Exploration to Inquiry  Use Beauty to spark a causal chain of reactions -- Awe and Wonder, Inquiry, Learning, Desire to Share, & Desire to Create Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  62. 62. Questions?  Invitation to collaborate? It starts with trust! Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  63. 63. Cave Art or Training Simulator? Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Lascaux Caves France nearly 20,000 years ago Retrieved from the web 11/3/2016: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La scaux
  64. 64. Framing Future Possibilities  Connection between external world and internal feelings and thoughts  Art is the non-technical VR of the past  It communicated information  It changed what we knew  It changed how we felt  It moved us to take action  VR is the 21st Century Art of impact if used as such  A cultural artifact of high information density  A new form of stories, theater, and opera  A way to communicate brilliant ideas, vision, and beauty Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  65. 65. What is Art? Art is Beauty Art is Information Art is Story Art is Paradox Great Art Transcends Time… and Culture Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  66. 66. We know it when we see it Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Sandro Botticelli. The Birth of Venus (Detail) 1480. Uffizi Gallery. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Birth_of_Venus_%28Botticelli%29_detail.jpg What do you see? What is her emotion? What do you feel?
  67. 67. 1452 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Jean Fouquet. Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels, Melun Diptych, (Right wing of the diptych), (1452). Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melun_Diptych#/media/File:Fouquet_Madonna.jpg
  68. 68. Undisputed Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa (1503- 1506). Louvre Museum. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Mona_Lisa,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_fr om_C2RMF_retouched.jpg
  69. 69. What is Technology?  Tools applied to art or science as a means to an end  A collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used for artistic expression or in scientific investigation  Computers are used as tools, as a kind of technology to achieve goals in calculation or expression Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Pedro Reyes, Imagine (Double Psaltery), 2012. Retrieved from http://www.blog.pedroreyes.net/
  70. 70. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  71. 71. Camera Obscura Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Camera obscura, from a manuscript of military designs. 17th century, possibly Italian. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera_obscura#/media/File:Camera_obscura2.jpg
  72. 72. Game Engines Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  73. 73. 3D Models  3D Model, 2D Art, joints rigged for motion and animation  Character specific behaviors, expressions, or reactions  UV mapping (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UV_mapping) Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/deer-animation-3d-model/542770
  74. 74. 2D Art, Textures & Skins Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 https://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop.html
  75. 75. Rigged & Animated  http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/deer-animation-3d- model/542770 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  76. 76. Open World Demo Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clakekAHQx0
  77. 77. Are Video Games ART? Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuZdHTKzXa8 Is a Hot Dog a Sandwich?
  78. 78. VR as Art -- Char Davies. Osmose (1995) Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=54O4VP3tCoY
  79. 79. The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch in VR – Art? Burrell Durrant Hifle website (2016, March 16). VR Bosch. Retrieved from http://www.bdh.net/work/boschvr/ Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  80. 80. Walk into a Dali with VR – Art? The Dali Museum (2016, January 21). Dreams of Dali: Virtual Reality Experience. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nh1itve0AQ The Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida, or at dreamsofdali.org. Opens January 23, 2016. Go inside and beyond Dalí’s painting Archeological Reminiscence of Millet’s Angelus Experience Dreams of Dalí in the special exhibit Disney & Dalí: Architects of the Imagination Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  81. 81. Artistic Experience in VR Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 http://vrse.com/
  82. 82. Future Research and Teaching Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  83. 83. Future possibilities for research and teaching  Art & Science of Virtual Reality for Education (Virtual Field Trips for K-12)  Human Factors Research on the Ambient Array and impacts on Perception, Emotions, and Creativity as Action (AI of Creativity)  Design Frameworks for Collaboration & Co-Creativity (frameworks that support work)  Future Cities, Space Stations, and Colonies co-designed and tested in Virtual Reality (Scenario analysis & Emergent Design & Consensus decision-making)  Future Realities, Simulations, Data Visualizations (Algorithms)  Landscapes as Art and Virtual Reality Experiences (ART as Information and Emotion) Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  84. 84. SEEE -- User Centered Design, Human Computer Interaction, UX of VR Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  85. 85. Art & Science of Virtual Reality for Education  Virtual Field Trips for K-12 Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  86. 86. Ambient Perceptual Semantic Array Human Factors Research on Spatial Ambient Array and impacts on Perception, Emotions, and Creativity as Action (AI of Creativity) James J. Gibson, Ph.D. Ecological Psychology  Visual perception  Extend his idea of an Ambient optical array into meaning Extend to creativity research  How do we know we don’t know?  How do we perceive the unknown?  How do we create something new?  What is Beauty and how does that trigger inquiry and creativity? Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  87. 87. Measure Psychophysical Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  88. 88. Measure the Geometry Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  89. 89. Design Frameworks for Collaboration & Co-Creativity  Frameworks that support co-creativity  3 large IRB studies: Investigation and Evaluation of Virtual Worlds, 3D Environments, and Simulations for Alternative Learning, Collaboration, Co-creating, and Decision Support Formats: Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  90. 90. How to use Virtual Reality to co-create the Future? Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  91. 91. Pittsburgh Renaissance Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 © 2016 University Library System, University of Pittsburgh, “Frank Lloyd Wright’s concept for Point redevelopment,1947.” Retrieved from http://digital.library.pitt.edu/pittsburgh/exhibits/thepoint/
  92. 92. Future Cities, Space Stations, and Colonies in VR Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 NASA website (2016, January 16) Research & Technology Images. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/content/research-and-technology-image-gallery Space-grant University: Founded in 1963, UCF opened to provide personnel to support the U.S. space program at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on Florida's Space Coast
  93. 93. NASA Concept Art to communicate ideas, model, and inspire Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 NASA Ames summer studies in the 1970s. Colonies housing about 10,000 people were designed. A number of artistic renderings of the concepts were made. Bryan Yager, Toroidal Colonies, NASA ID NUMBER AC75-1086-1. Retrieved from http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/70sArt/art.html
  94. 94. Rama, by Eric Bruneton Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 3D animation of a spacecraft freely inspired from the book "Rendez-vous with Rama" from Arthur C. Clarke. Making of Rama: http://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=wKM2n D... See also: http://ebruneton.free. fr/rama3/rama.html Bruneton, Eric. (2009, July 19) Rama. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBIQCm54dfY
  95. 95. Virtual Reality in the hands of an Artist Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  96. 96. Intersection of Art and Technology  I create immersive, virtual landscapes that are dynamic and responsive to past and future scientific data sets, in addition to user interaction scenarios  These tools offer a new medium and process for the artist to explore and harness, resulting in new cultural artifacts relevant to our era  My artwork is an investigation of landscapes, much like the Hudson River School of the past, Clayton Merrill and Clifford Ross of the present  It hints at a powerful connection between art and technology, the land and the self – artifact form and function, internal mind and external environment Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  97. 97. Hudson River School Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Thomas Cole. The Oxbow (The Connecticut River near Northampton) (1836)
  98. 98. Clayton Merrill Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Fire and Sun Smoke, 2012
  99. 99. Clifford Ross Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016 Clifford Ross, "Sopris Wall I," 2015 (Installation view) MASS MoCA
  100. 100. Artistic Statement The intent of my art is to present landscapes in different perspectives to viewers. By doing so, I aim to challenge them, intellectually and emotionally, to reflect on their personal relationships with nature and with themselves, within the ideals of truth and beauty. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  101. 101. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  102. 102. Artistic Statement My landscapes intentionally frame views with impossible, almost surrealistic perspectives that are completely unreal, yet made real by the visualization, and application of simulation and virtual reality technology. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  103. 103. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  104. 104. Artistic Statement Placing the viewer into a frame of reference of the earth—using anything from a leafy tree to a rippling river— the viewer is cast in an impossible role. But it feels natural because it is perceived as real as the real world, and thus very familiar. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  105. 105. Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  106. 106. Future possibilities for research and teaching with Art Human Factors Research on Ambient Perceptual Semantic Array and impacts on Perception, Emotions, and Creativity as Action (AI of Creativity) Design Frameworks for Collaboration & Co-Creativity (frameworks that support work) Landscapes as Art and Virtual Reality Experiences (ART as Information and Emotion), Extend Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication to Beauty Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016
  107. 107. What are you going to Create? Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D. | Assistant Professor of Digital Media | School of Visual Arts & Design | University of Central Florida | 11/14/2016

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