Motorola\'s Directed Innovation Process: Leveraging Multiple Creativity Best Practices To Increase The Generation Of High-Quality Novel Solutions And Re-Establish Your Competitive Edge
Maria Thompson Director, Intellectual Asset Management Process, Tools & Quality Motorola Law Department Motorola’s Directed Innovation Methods & Tools 5th Annual Process Excellence Week for the Service & Transactional World September 21st - 24th, 2009 The Wyndham Chicago
Why increase your “Innovation IQ?” Your “IQ” can be thought of as a predictable measure of intelligence and performance… We will cover ways to enhance you and your team’s performance in creative problem solving to support Invention: novel idea generation Innovation: successful implementation of novel ideas Creative problem solving skills are critical success factors in today’s competitive environment!
Patents & Intellectual Property Rights Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America’s Greatest Inventor by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott “ Next came the patent laws. These began in England in 1624, and in this country with the adoption of our Constitution. Before then, any man might instantly use what another man had invented, so that the inventor had no special advantage from his invention. The patent system changed this; it secured to the inventor for a limited time the exclusive use of his invention , and thereby added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius in discovery and production of new and useful things.&quot; - Abraham Lincoln
What is so great about patents? Novel solution to problem Teach others to advance science &quot;The patent system is nothing more than a way to encourage people to innovate... to take risks... to make the world a better place.” -- Dean Kamen, Spotlight On: The U.S. Patent System Prevent others from using, copying or selling your solution (invention)
Why you and your employer might need patents Intellectual Property Rights include: Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, Service Marks, Trade Secrets, Domain Names Considerations Costs – 1 patent filing (US) ~ $15,000; 3 additional maintenance payments to keep for ~20 yrs. What is your market differentiator, core competencies or “crown jewels?” What (novel aspects of your work) do you want or need to exclude others from replicating? Who is in a position to easily practice your art or copy your idea? Who are your competitors? Do they already have patents, trademarks, copyrights? Check out http://www.micropat.com/cgi-bin/easylogin http:// compass.mot.com/go/patenttraining Freedom of Action In what countries do you plan to ship product or provide services?
The power of patents - continued Cost Avoidance / Loss of Market Share RIM paid NTP $612M in litigation settlement RIM had to stop selling Blackberry’s in US for period of time until settled Detectability & Enforceability Will you be able to identify whether someone is copying (“infringing”) your product or service? If not, better to pursue trade secrets, copyrights, etc. BOTTOM LINE: NEED TO USE CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS EVERY BUSINESS DAY!
Paths to Motorola Value Innovation creates value through... Engaging team members in forward-looking activities. Networking and knowledge sharing. (Engineering Effectiveness) Employee satisfaction. (Engineering Effectiveness; Retention) Product Feature. Customer-funded feature. Help “making the sell”. (Decision to buy depends not only on most-useful features but also feature bundles, cool features, brand, etc.) Cost improvements/synergies implementing other features. Enabling a service revenue stream/ new business model. Patent/ Intellectual Property (IPR). Improved IPR licensing costs/ opportunities for Joint Ventures. Litigation cost avoidance. Brand equity/ thought leadership. Courtesy Tom Tirpak, Motorola
Paths to Motorola Value Product Feature + Patent. Exclusive feature/ market differentiator. (Higher Margins) Product Feature + Standard. Implementation cost advantage. Easy interoperability with other standards-based solutions. Product Feature + Partnership. Market differentiator, with fast access to market. (Even Higher Margins) Patent + Standard. Licensing royalties. Product Feature + Patent + Partnership. Exclusive market differentiator, with fast access to market. (Highest Margins) “Monetizing innovation in multiple ways creates opportunities for even greater value.” Courtesy Tom Tirpak, Motorola
Example Activities Conceive Validate/Implement (Refine and Resource) Monetize Identify “white space” (Benchmark, VOC, etc.) Question-storm. Envision solution. Filter and combine envisioned solutions. Document envisioned solution. Document architecture/interfaces. Document design/ operation/ use cases. Estimate business opportunity. Estimate business value of a patent. Determine fit with product roadmap. Prototype/ Evaluate Critical Parameters. Document Business Case. Conduct customer demo. Implement feature in product. Submit patent application. Submit standards proposal. Pay patent issuance fee (granted claims). Gain customer acceptance of feature. Licensing deal. Gain standards acceptance. Courtesy Tom Tirpak, Motorola
Strategic Technology Analysis Metrics Identify Motorola Recipe for Success Component areas of focus Identification of what do we have How good is it (quality & value) ? Competitor Scan Inventory Trend analysis based on published applications Gap analysis What do we need for desired end state? Prioritization Allocation
Example – Competitive Analysis-Patents Companies # Patents in Strategic Categories within Technology Domain
History Advanced Inventing Ad hoc brainstorming by project teams Infrequent Patent attorney participation Direct to patent filings
Many Techniques to Think Creatively TRIZ Brainstorming 6 Thinking Hats A Whack on the Side of the Head Idea of Ideas
History Strategic Portfolio Development Focused on generating solutions & patents from new promising technology TRiZ used rarely to identify conflicts & tradeoffs in new technology Attorney = scribe SME = facilitator (sometimes) Project &/or technology team participation Participants vote on ideas to patent
Directed Innovation (DI): Treat Your Inventing session like a PROJECT and MANAGE it! 1.0 PLAN 4.0 ACT 3.0 CHECK 2.0 DO
History Directed Innovation Agnostic facilitator Provocation/Question Banking Diverse & cross-functional team Innovators = scribes Balanced left brain vs. right brain activities Idea Sheets & Competition Post-its –> Problem Storming Chocolate, Cinnamon, Peppermint Concept Evaluation by SMEs & Patent Attorney Inventor Mentors Prior Art searching/ Patcomm review
Directed Innovation: 1.0 PLANning phase 1.4 BUILD (3-5 yrs.) 1.2 Comp et itive Analysis 1.3 IP Landscape Review 1.1 Conduct Market Research 1.4 Build vs. Buy/JV ? BUY/JV CSO 1.6 Select “ Inventing” TEAM 1.7 Problem STORMING 1.5 Garner budget VP- sponsor? Key Tech Area? Who catches the ball?
PLAN Select Inventing team (1.6) Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) in Technology Domain Identify/select team members critical thinkers (problem-oriented) divergent thinkers (creatives) Facilitator (see IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation) process observer objectivity no emotional connectivity to outcome
Albert Einstein &quot;The mere formulation of a problem is far more often essential than its solution , which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science.&quot;
Problem Storming w/ critical thinkers (1.7) Describe and list all attributes of Ideal Solution(s) see TRiZ @ http://www.triz-journal.com Identify known solutions X and current patents Y Describe characteristics and parameters of X and Y and why they are insufficient: CRITICAL CHALLENGES 39 Parameters Matrix ( http://triz40.com/) & 40 Inventive Principles Once have Critical Challenges, transform these problem statements to thought-provoking questions to inspire radical thinking Generate an open-ended question in the form of &quot;How might we achieve the IDEAL attribute by applying X or Y technology or solution without introducing a limiting characteristic (parameter) of X or Y technologies or solutions?” PLAN *The format of the problem statements and related open-ended thought-provoking questions is key to successful results
“ Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why .” Bernard Baruch
The Older People Get The Fewer Questions They Ask How often do people ask questions? Why does the typical 5-year-old ask 65 questions a day? Why does the typical 44-year-old ask only 6 questions a day? Why is it that the older we get, the fewer questions we ask? PLAN
How Questions Help Creative Problem Solving = DI Clarifies problems Engages minds Increases brain flow Cultivates curiosity Improves Listening Promotes analogous thinking Enhances quality thinking Accelerates innovation Improves idea management PLAN
SolutionPeople’s Client ROI for Questions More Questions = More Ideas Facilitations using Question Banks generated 34-65% more ideas More Ideas = Better Solutions 10,000 Questions = 3,000,000 Ideas Over $1 Billion Value
Questions Accelerate the M-Curve and Help Produce Breakthrough Ideas Faster VALUE Breakthroughs! TIME ????????????????? STIMULANTS ??????????????? PLAN Old Ideas New Solutions
What are Question Banks? Question Banks are organized topical collections of questions that inspire diverse, creative and innovative thinking to achieve goals, overcome challenges, or solve problems Creative problem solving is the goal of Directed Innovation Sessions Courtesy Gerald Haman, SolutionPeople PLAN
What is the Q uestion B anking Methodology? IDENTIFY Sources of Questions COLLECT Questions ORGANIZE Questions IMPROVE Questions APPLY Questions (Questionate to Ideate) PLAN
WHO are the question sources ? ASK a DIVERSE group of people Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) Competitors Industry Experts Patent Portfolio Managers Intellectual Asset Managers (IAMs) Patent Portfolio Managers Market Research Competitive Intelligence Sponsors Ideation Participants Problem-oriented, critical thinkers (Skeptics) Champions or supporters Outsiders (Open Innovation!) Speakers/Presenters End users, Customers, Clients, Consumers Historians Field engineers Yourself, Family, Children Spiritual Guides Legal People
What tools are the sources of questions? KnowBrainer “analog” tool & PodBrainer “mobile” tool Thought-provoking questions, words & pics organized by Problem Solving Steps that include: Investigate, Create, Evaluate, Activate Pack of 40 Principles (Triz card deck) Triz 99-Question Bank
Questions to Ask When Collecting Questions What are ALL the questions that people might answer in order to address the goal(s), challenge(s) or problem(s)? What are all the obstacles or challenges that might relate to the goal(s)? What are the 3-5 MOST IMPORTANT questions that should be asked to address the goal(s)? PLAN
Advanced Questions What do we know? What don’t we know? Who knows what we don’t know? How do we get to know what we don’t know? PLAN
I keep six honest serving-men. They taught me all I knew; Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who . Rudyard Kipling Indian-born British writer and poet Six Key Questions
Activate to Innovate Questions (Inspired by Rudyard Kipling’s Quote) Who should know what you learned? What ideas were valuable? When will you apply the ideas? Where will you apply the ideas? Why are the ideas valuable or important? How will you share or apply the ideas? Title of Presentation January 7, 2011
“ Problem Storm” on #3…AND ideate potential thought-provoking Questions for the DI session (Steps #2-4+) Which of those conceptual directions in #3 is the Boldest Provocation? Provocations – what would be possible if each of our constraints were removed? Address each limitation individually in #2; try to gen 2-3 per item in #2. List & # perceived limitations, boundaries, constraints. Technical Conflict/Problem Area:
You can use steps 1-4 of the PROVOCATION process to get yourself in the right mindset for generating problem statements = “PROBLEM STORMING.” Checklist to generate your problem statements and questions: 1. Identify and list as many of the attributes & characteristics of the ideal solution/system in your technical domain as possible. 2. Identify the current technologies in play that address achieving each of these attributes. 3. Characterize and list all the attributes, constraints and limitations of the current technologies that prevent achievement of the ideal attributes. 4. Generate an open-ended question in the form of &quot;How might we achieve THE IDEAL ATTRIBUTE by applying x technology without compromising on the CHARACTERIZATION OF A LIMITATION DUE TO CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES IN PLAY?&quot; Advice for Writing Good Directed Innovation Questions
Favorite Action Words to Improve Questions Verbs that are best to use (reframe initial domain-specific verb choice as one of): 1. Obtain : evolve, extract, obtain, produce, synthesize 2. eliminate: absorb, break down, decompose, remove, treat 3. Move: agitate, orient, rotate, stir, transmit 4. Retain: apply, deposit, embed, hold, join, retain 5. Protect: preserve, protect 6. Separate: comminute, crush, extract, separate, spray 7. Change substance’s Properties: change, produce 8. Measure properties: change, define, detect, determine, measure, visualize 9. Generate: create, evolve, generate, initiate, produce 10. Absorb 11. Redistribute energy: concentrate, disperse, orient, reflect, transmit 12. Accumulate (energy) 13. Change field’s properties 14. Measure field’s characteristics: detect, measure, visualize TFM Problem Analysis Step 3
What are the most important questions you should ask and answer to improve innovation performance? Title of Presentation January 7, 2011
1. Focus/Goal/Objective/Problem: 2. limitations 2. limitations 3. Opportunities w/o limitation 3. Opportunities w/o limitation QuestionGeneration-Recipe: How might we use Opportunity #3 to overcome Limitation #2 and achieve/remove #1? OR How might we achieve/remove #1 by using #3 without #2 ? Provocation Template
Conflict Zone Identification Apply TRIZ to identify tradeoffs in Technology Design Parameters & Use to create Ideation Questions
How can you collect questions? Plain paper PLAN
HOW do you organize questions? Develop an outline (MS Word) or database (MS Excel) to manage and share collection Identify specific domain problems, goals or challenges Clarify logical categories, subjects, topics and subtopics Arrange questions into categories, subjects and topics Remove duplicates Prioritize important questions PLAN
Question Banking TIPS & Checklist Archive Word outline or Excel database Distribute to diverse community for feedback Review & reuse problem statements Search the internet for existing solutions and reframe as questions Review other Question Banks Wordsmith and polish questions Use www.thesaurus.com Increase “open-ended” questions Eliminate “closed” questions that can be answered “yes” or “no” Replace “can” and “could/should” with “might” and “may” Genericise so non-domain experts can engage and invent from different domains Tease out conflicts, contradictions and tradeoffs √ Quality Review CHECKLIST Brief and concise Provocative, inviting and inspiring Clear and focused Understandable by variety of people Grammatically correct Functional, action-oriented verbs that describe the desired result or outcome PLAN
“ Don’t Ever Stop Asking Questions” - Albert Einstein
TRIZ T eoriya R esheniya I zobretatel’skikh Z adach The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Dan Heck 847.570.0449 847.420.1744 c 847.400.0880 fax http://www.bluefuseinc.com PLAN
TRIZ-An amazing set of tools Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Techniques for creative problem solving validated by over 50 years of research and 19 years of real world application Invented by Genrich Altshuller in 1946 Premise: Creative Problem Solving isn’t just brainstorming!!!
Objects and Functions Psychological Inertia Lines of engineering system evolution Ideal Model Some Aspects of TRIZ Contradictions
Problems can be constructed as Substances and Fields of Interactions S1 S2 Psychological inertia Key Insight #1: Strip descriptions of domain language
Action Words to Reframe Interactions or Functions Verbs that are best to use (in place of domain-specific verbs): 1. Obtain : evolve, extract, obtain, produce, synthesize 2. eliminate: absorb, break down, decompose, remove, treat 3. Move: agitate, orient, rotate, stir, transmit 4. Retain: apply, deposit, embed, hold, join, retain 5. Protect: preserve, protect 6. Separate: comminute, crush, extract, separate, spray 7. Change substance’s Properties: change, produce 8. Measure properties: change, define, detect, determine, measure, visualize 9. Generate: create, evolve, generate, initiate, produce 10. Absorb 11. Redistribute energy: concentrate, disperse, orient, reflect, transmit 12. Accumulate (energy) 13. Change field’s properties 14. Measure field’s characteristics: detect, measure, visualize TFM Problem Analysis Step 3
Our mind tends to automatically organize new information with our current knowledge.
“ Even though one was correct at each stage, the situation may still have to be restructured to proceed.” Edward de Bono [ http://www.edwdebono.com/] contradictions Key Insight #2: Be willing to rearrange what you know (overcome psychological inertia!)
Technical Contradiction A situation when an improvement of one characteristic (parameter) leads to the deterioration of another characteristic (parameter). How to improve both A and B Parameter B ENGINEERING SYSTEM Used with permission: Invention Machine Corporation Parameter A
How do engineering techniques handle contradictions? &quot;You can't have it both ways...&quot; Trade Offs Optimize!
What did Altshuller observe? Inventors Don’t Optimize First…
Inventors start with a different question! How can I build a SMALL cellphone that’s lightweight, AND with BIG buttons my elderly parents can see and select without misdialing?
Clever inventions achieve the desired function without harming or deteriorating other parameters of the product, software, or service. Burn bright without burning up! View exactly what the film will see without obstructing the light Heavier than air AND weigh nothing. Guttenberg printing press, oil-based ink - print a page as clear as a custom woodblock print single lens reflex camera ELIMINATE COMPROMISE!
400,000 Inventions Studied by Altshuller – The Most Clever Solved Contradictions Key Insight #3: If you find yourself trading off features, reframe your desire into, “I want BOTH [feature 1] AND [feature 2].” Then stay in this creative space!
You Think… Identify a fix you want to make or an area under your control you want to improve. Write it down: “I want to __________.” Now, what is one of the obstacles to doing that? Write that down: “If I do what I want, then _______ becomes a problem. Rewrite the contradiction with an inventor’s mindset: “How might I have BOTH ______ AND _______?” or “How might I have ______ without ____________?” Now, don’t dismiss it… Park on it… Ponder it… Find a solution that “resolves the contradiction.”
“ Do inventors use any common approaches to solve contradictions?” Altshuller was a very curious fellow…
Summarize 40 Inventive Principles Recognize the Contradiction
Summarize 40 Inventive Principles Select a few Likely Approaches Recognize the Contradiction
Summarize 40 Inventive Principles Select a few Likely Approaches Brainstorm Ideas Around Each One Recognize the Contradiction Question # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #
Do different engineering disciplines use the same Inventive Principles to solve analogous contradictions? Lines of Evolution Simplified TRiZ: New Problem-Solving Applications for Engineers & Manufacturing Professionals by Kalevi Rantanen, Ellen Domb www.triz-journal.com
S-curve of Evolution 2 3 I , main parameter T , Eng Sys Life Span 1 Function Value = -------------- Cost ???
Key Insight #4: Technology matures along repeated curves. Look for solutions already implemented in any area you think might have trade-offs similar to yours.
Ideality -in the physical world…applies to software An Ideal System occupies no space, has no weight, requires no service or maintenance, but still performs the Main Function with all the benefits and no harmful interactions. What is the ideal software program? What is ideal data? no memory? functions require no cycle time?
Key Insight #5: Clearly define the IDEAL outcome … if anything were possible, what are all the parameters & characteristics that describe the ideal solution?
Think CreaTRIZively TM ! #1 Strip descriptions of domain language #2 Be willing to rearrange what you know #3 Describe contradictions and park on them! #4 Is this problem or trade-off solved in other disciplines ? #5 What would this ideally look like?
2.0 DO = CREATE Schedule venue & gather materials Laptop w/ projection system Round table(s) Easel boards w/ large Post-it 3M sheets to hang on walls Small lined Post-its 3M – CAPTURE PROBLEMS TOO! Provocation Templates, Idea Booklets, Idea Exchange Template Pens & Pencils & Colored Markers Toys & puzzles & Silly Putty TM or Play-Doh TM Chocolate & cinnamon & popcorn Chocolate may boost brain power: http://health.yahoo.com/news/162487 Painting with Chocolate: http:// painting.about.com/cs/inspiration/a/chocolatepaint.htm DO
Idea Sheets Idea Exchange Directed Innovation: 2.0 DO Phase (create) Tools DO
Idea Exchange Gerald Haman: http:// www.solutionpeople.com/people.htm Challenge : _____________________________________ 1. One idea per light bulb 2. Generate high volume and wide variety 3. Build upon ideas passed to you 4. No evaluation yet! Inventor Initials Directions :
Directed Innovation: 2.0 DO Phase (create) 2.3 Core team will combine similar concepts, rank best Concepts - well-formed ideas that solve critical challenges, eliminate those without novelty, and notify assigned lead inventors 2.4 Reconvene co-inventors w/ attorney for mini-inventing sessions on combined high-value ideas + “Inventor Mentoring” – DAY 2 best practice Conduct prior art searching & differentiate idea from findings Google scholar or www.freepatentsonline.com search 2.5 Document top disclosures and submit to Patent Committee for review (disclosure management system) DO
12 Steps to Higher Quality Patent disclosures FOCUS the invention in strategic technology areas of value to Motorola. Show how your idea is NOVEL! Differentiate it from prior art found by searching Google, Yahoo!, Patentweb. WHEN is your idea valuable? Describe a context / scenario in which your idea demonstrates usefulness . A picture is worth 1000 words! Draw pictures to show how your invention differs from the cited art. WHAT are ALL the problems your idea addresses or solves? WHO are ALL the potential USERs or Beneficiaries of your idea? HOW did/will you implement your idea? Describe ALL the alternatives! (see TRiZ!) What are potential OTHER PROBLEMS that may be identified by implementing your idea? Anticipate new problems to be solved in order for your idea to be successful. We can expand the patent application or generate several patent applications to help put your idea into action! WHERE is your idea useful or valuable? Environments, Ecosystems, other related innovations to pair with it to allow it to be leveraged? Ask yourself 5 times WHY the problem exists and WHY your solution effectively solves the problems. Are you solving a valid problem of value to Motorola's businesses? How might someone WORK AROUND your invention (all the possible ways), and why are none of these alternatives desirable? Bounce off someone else/witness. Patent prosecution & maintenance can easily reach investment levels of US$100,000. How might “your company” make money from your idea? Are you selling a product, service, license? How much development work (resources and dollars) is needed to realize your product? What is the revenue opportunity over the next 5-7 years? List all your assumptions.
Good News! &quot;The truly great advances of this generation will be made by those who can make outrageous connections, and only a mind which knows how to play can do that.&quot; - Nagle Jackson, Playwright Science of Play http://abcnews.go.com/Video/playerIndex?id=7001867 National Institute for Play http://www.nifplay.org/ Play: Introductory Video http://www.nifplay.org/index2.html
CHECK Directed Innovation: 3.0 CHECK Phase (evaluate) 3.1 Ideation Post-Process Evaluation For each concept or idea generated, assign a VALUE score Which Problem was it intended to solve? How well does the concept “solve” the original Problem? Is the solution novel vs. patent & internet search? Engage additional Subject Matter Experts to assess, evaluate, broaden initial high-value concepts – Inventor Mentors! Identify unsolved problems for further ideation
3.2 Patent Committee evaluation of disclosure portfolio 3.3 Analyze ideation results and pursual rate of disclosures generated 3.4 Stay abreast of industry/domain trends 3.5 Keep current with Business-IP Strategy alignment and changes 3.6 Review Acquisitions’ impact on strength of IP portfolio CHECK Directed Innovation: 3.0 CHECK Phase (evaluate)
4.1 Stay vigilant and track trends: Google industry-specific news = business or technology press releases http://www.googlescholar.com Monitor relevant blogs, RSS feeds, email alerts, twitter Review internal and external competitive intelligence and trends reports Analyze portfolio pipeline (disclosures, filings, issuances): Innovation, Delphion, Derwent (Thomson Reuters) Read patents USPTO, EPO, JPO, wipo.org = patent trend analysis http://www.google.com/patents or www.freepatentsonline.com ACT 4.0 ACT
4.2 Redirect non-patentable ideas to other suggestion systems or to business strategy teams 4.3 Provide inputs to business strategy on attractive IP Acquisitions 4.4 Determine other (cross-functional) teams to engage in follow-up ideation sessions 4.5 Identify new/emerging problems (trends) for solution invention OR assignees w/ existing solutions to partner with 4.6/1.0 “Plan” for follow-up inventing sessions (continuous process improvement) ACT Directed Innovation: 4.0 ACT Phase
Post mortem – DI lessons learned 1. Two Day agenda - infuse with networking and fun! 2. INVENTOR MENTORS 3. Follow-through! Post the problem statements; share and reuse QUESTION BANKS Engage employees as creative problem solvers worldwide Involve more critical thinkers sooner in the Planning/problem storming PLAN new sessions on low yield problem areas 4. Continue to evolve and publicize Question Banks to feed ideation pipeline
To know and not to do is not to know. Title of Presentation January 7, 2011
&quot;If I were to wish for anything, I should not wish for wealth and power, but for the passionate sense of the potential, for the eye which, ever young and ardent, sees the possible. Pleasure disappoints, possibility never. And what wine is so sparkling, what so fragrant, what so intoxicating, as possibility!&quot; - Soren Kierkegaard For more information go to: http://www.linkedin.com/in/mariabthompson
Recommended Books for Skills Building Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America’s Greatest Inventor by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott Think Better: An Innovator's Guide to Productive Thinking by Tim Hurson Simplified TRiZ: New Problem-Solving Applications for Engineers & Manufacturing Professionals by Kalevi Rantanen, Ellen Domb, www.triz-journal.com Making Questions Work: A Guide to What and How to Ask for Facilitators, Consultants, Managers, Coaches, and Educators by Dorothy Strachan
Wireless Technology in the Classroom 1. > Information Quantity and Accessibility How might we apply mobile devices and WiFi to... Make research/information resources more readily available to students while preventing access to test answers? Inform parents of student's progress while maintaining privacy of information? Connect teachers to each other while preventing student access to teachers’ exchanges?
Wireless Technology in the Classroom 2. Communication Devices How might existing devices be utilized... 2.1 In the classroom to facilitate learning? 2.2 Assist faculty and staff? 2.3 Streamline public safety/drills? 2.4 Connect students? 2.5 Connect parents and faculty?
3. Services/Other Potential Applications… 3.1 Security (fire drills to kid-tracking) 3.2 Lessons (information tied to lecture and lesson plans) 3.3 Completing homework 3.4 Deter plagiarism 3.5 Seamless grading and report cards 3.6 Enable home-schooling 3.7 Kids with disabilities/classroom inclusion 3.8 Connecting schools (accessing a global network) 3.9 Integrate technology into lesson plans (lectures are now blended solutions) Wireless Technology in the Classroom
Problem Storming Exercise List Ideal System/Solution Attributes List Problematic Attributes (obstacles) with Current Known Solution s Map Ideal Solution’s attributes to Y axis and “issues” with Current Solutions to X axis of 39 parameters matrix…
Engineering Contradiction A situation when an improvement of one component (parameter - Y) of a system leads to the deterioration Of another component (parameter - X) How to get both X and Y ENGINEERING SYSTEM Parameter Y Parameter X
Problem Storming Exercise: 39 Parameters Matrix
Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles 1. Segmentation divide an object into independent parts, make an object easy to disassemble, increase the degree of fragmentation (or segmentation) of an object. Examples: escalator, clarinet (modern musical instruments) 2. Taking out separate an ‘interfering’ part (or property) from an object, or single out the only necessary part (or property) of an object. Examples: any filter/filtration system, coffee or air filter, aquarium or pool filter 3. Local quality change an object’s structure from uniform to non-uniform, change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform, make each part of an object function in conditions most suitable for its operation, make each part of an object fulfill a different and useful function. Examples: heat exchanger, swiss army knife, multi-function can-opener (both ends of handle serve as handle and an additional function)
4. Asymmetry change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical, if an object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry. Examples: wankel engine, pop-up tent 5. Merging bring closer together (or merge) identical or similar objects, assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations, make operations contiguous or parallel, bring them together in time. Examples: multi-head tape deck, Big Mac, bottle capper Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles 6. Universality make a part or object perform multiple functions, eliminate the need for other parts. Examples: pen as a back scratcher or a pointer, razor blade as a knife or scraper, knife as a screwdriver in addition to cutting tool, chair as a stepstool, bed as a trampoline, condom as head ware, swim cap, or water carrier; sheets as table cloths or drapes, glasses as hearing aid or drug tester, cellophane as telephone or hammer, teeth as bottle opener, two way radio as a baton for crowd control, women’s slip (worn as a dress), pager also functions as a clock and messaging device 7. ‘Nested doll’ place one object inside another, place each object, in turn, inside the other, make one part pass through a cavity in the other Examples: lunch box with inserts, power antenna on automobile, extendable pointer, backscratcher 8. Anti-weight to compensate for the weight of an object, merge it with other objects that provide lift, to compensate for the weight of an object, make it interact with the environment (e.g., use aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, buoyancy and other forces). Examples: children’s floaties for arms, hydro-foil boat, MagLev (magnetically levitated) train
9. Preliminary Anti-action if it will be necessary to do an action with both harmful and useful effects, this action should be replaced later with anti-actions to control harmful effects, create beforehand stresses in an object that will oppose known undesirable working stresses later on. Examples: shock treatment for swimming pools 10. Preliminary action perform, before it is needed, the required change of an object (either fully or partially), pre-arrange objects such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery. Examples: vending machines 11. Beforehand Cushioning prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object. Examples: auto insurance Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
12. Equipotentiality in a potential field, limit position changes (e.g., change operating conditions to eliminate the need to raise or lower objects in a gravity field). Examples: airport jetway 13. ‘The Other Way Around’ invert the action(s) used to solve the problem (e.g., instead of cooling an object, heat it), make movable parts (or the external environment) fixed, and fixed parts movable, turn the object (or process) ‘upside down’. Examples: trackball vs. mouse, windtunnel (for a plane), shoot birds at planes, haunted mansion ride At Disneyland vs. Disneyworld (one goes up, other takes you down and under), man down switch on radio that automatically calls for help when radio re-oriented on its side (also of Mechanics Substitution and Another dimension), man machine interface of car vs. motorcycle, new medicine bottle caps (lift up instead of pushing down) 14. Spheroidality instead of using rectilinear parts, surfaces, or forms, use curvilinear ones, move from flat surfaces to spherical ones, from parts shaped as a cube (parallelepiped) to ball-shaped structures, use rollers, balls, spirals, domes, go from linear to rotary motion, use centrifugal forces. Examples: domed stadium, ball point of a pen, trackball, Mazda rotary engine, rack and pinion steering, poppels on Microtac (underneath rubber buttons), Nike gel spheres in tennis shoes, hamster exercise ball that also works as enclosure Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
15. Dynamics allow (or design) the characteristics of an object, external environment, or process to change to be optimal or to find an optimal operating condition, divide an object into parts capable of movement relative to each other, if an object (or process) is rigid or inflexible, make it movable or adaptive. Examples: moving shelves in refrigerator/freezer; folding trays in tools, fishing tackle, or cosmetics box 16. Partial or excessive actions if 100 percent of an effect is hard to achieve using a given solution method then, by using ‘ slightly less’ or slightly more’ of the same method, the problem may be considerable easier to solve. Examples: nuclear reaction, controlled nuclear decay for energy production 17. Another dimension to move an object in two- or three-dimensional space, use a multi-story arrangement of objects instead of a single-story arrangement, tilt or re-orient the object, lay it on it’s side, use ‘another side’ of a given area. Examples: pull down stairs for attic, man down switch activation once radio on its side, Com1 Reticule Stocker, WIP Stocker Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
18. Mechanical vibration cause an object to oscillate or vibrate, increase its frequency (even up to the ultrasonic), use an object’s resonance frequency, use piezoelectric vibrations instead of mechanical ones, use combined ultrasonic and electromagnetic field oscillations. Examples: pager vibration feature, megasonic cleaning, coin sorter, atomic force microscope, magnetic resonance Imaging 19. Periodic action instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions, if an action is already periodic, change the periodic magnitude or frequency, use pauses between impulses to perform a different action. Examples: anti-skid or anti-lock brakes, rotating beam celometer (to measure cloud height) 20. Continuity of useful action carry on work continuously; make all parts of an object work at full load, all the time, eliminate all idle or intermittent actions or work. Examples: wrist-watch centrifugal movement, MEC-Grabber (progressive shotgun shell loader) Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
21. Skipping conduct a process, or certain stages (e.g., destructive, harmful or hazardous operations) at high speed. Examples: freeze dried food (process), spinning photo-resists onto wafers at high-speed 22. ‘Blessing in disguise’ use harmful factors (particularly, harmful effects of the environment or surroundings) to achieve a positive effect, eliminate the primary harmful action by adding it to another harmful action to resolve the problem, amplify a harmful factor to such a degree that it is no longer harmful. Examples: radiation of food to sterilize, composting for fertilization, building materials which rust for architectural/artistic effect 23. Feedback introduce feedback (referring back, cross-checking) to improve a process or action, if feedback is already used, change its magnitude or influence. Examples: noise canceling microphone, phase-locked loop (reduces noise in signal and enhances “ good” part of signal), signal generator, thermostat, oscillator Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
24. ‘Intermediary’ use an intermediate carrier article or intermediary process, merge one object temporarily with another (which can be easily removed). Examples: FM sub-carrier for stereo, chalk on blackboard, photoresist, radiotransmitter 25. Self-service make an object serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions, use waste resources, energy, or substances. Examples: heat pump, compost heap, solar heating for windows & floors, popsicle sticks, biodegradable trash bags, break package to mix chemicals for ice/heating packs 26. Copying instead of an unavailable, expensive, fragile object; use simpler and inexpensive copies, replace an object, or process, with their optical copies, if visible optical copies are already used, move to infrared or ultraviolet copies. Examples: disposable contact lenses, costume jewelry, rubber knife Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
27. Cheap Short-living replace an expensive object with a multitude of inexpensive objects, compromising certain qualities (such as service life, for instance). Examples: disposable camera, styrofoam cups, recyclable containers 28. Mechanics Substitution replace a mechanical means with a sensory (optical, acoustic, taste or smell) means, use electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields to interact with the object, change from static to movable fields, from unstructured fields to those having structure, use fields in conjunction with field-activated (e.g., ferromagnetic) particles. Examples: photo electric light switch, smart cards - Indala - you hold up the card vs. swiping it, laser level for construction, capacitor sensors, magnetic refrigerator doors, “the clapper,” airport metal detector, magnetics-based Studfinder for hanging shelves/pictures, retail store exit sensors to catch shop lifters, sonic curing, ultrasonic camera lens focusing 29. Pneumatics and Hydraulics use gas and liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts (e.g., inflatable, filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic, hydro-reactive). Examples: car tires , hover craft, Ferro magnetic fluid allows for flexible viscosity, air shocks, seat suspension on earth mover equipment, automobile air bag Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
30. Flexible Shells and Thin Films use flexible shells and thin films instead of three dimensional structures, isolate the object from the external environment using flexible shells and thin films. Examples: Fish Scale Paint for Sailboats, Oil film on ponds to kill mosquitoes, Teflon on pots and pans, thermal coatings on wires or Printed Circuit Boards, sunscreen, mylar coating on windows, self cleaning oven films (that protect oven surfaces from corrosion, paper wrapping (instead of Styrofoam) on Big Mac 31. Porous Materials make an object porous or add porous elements (inserts, coatings, etc.), in an object is already porous, use the pores to introduce a useful substance of function. Examples: thermarest mattress for camping, goretex for rain-gear (breathable, yet water-resistant material), polypropylene long underwear, paper towels, air/water filters, soft contact lens (“gas- permeable”), aquafoam soaker hose, de-ionized water reverse osmosis filters 32. Color Changes change the color of an object or its external environment, change the transparency of an object or its external environment. Examples: Photo chromatic lens on cameras, Bleachable dyes for lasers, self adjusting rear view mirrors (automatically adjust to night-viewing position based on amount of sunlight), battery testers in the battery package, propane bottle level sensors Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
33 . Homogeneity make objects interacting with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties). Examples: old cellophane paper, multi-layer PCB 34. Discarding and Recovering make portions of an object that have fulfilled their function go away (discard by dissolving, evaporating, etc.) or modify these directly during operation, conversely, restore consumable parts of an object directly during operation. Examples: rechargeable batteries, cold capsules, dri-marker ink, ozonation, pins placed in cups for placement 35. Parameter Changes change an object’s physical state (e.g., to a gas, liquid, or solid), change the concentration or consistency, change the degree of flexibility, change the temperature. Examples: Oxy-acetalyne torch, Bondo, plastic wood, spackling compound, paint, fillings, jello, ice-cream, starch (ironing), mascara, lipstick that won’t rub off after applied, spray dry (for manufacturing processes, fingernail polish), spot remover Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
36. Phase Transitions use phenomena occurring during phase transitions (e.g., volume changes, loss or absorption of heat, etc.). Examples: Expansive wax, memory metal, plastic molding, ice/heat packs, light sticks for scuba diving & halloween visibility 37. Thermal Expansion use thermal expansion (or contraction) of materials, if thermal expansion is being used, use multiple materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion. Example: thermostat, hot air balloon, mercury in thermometer 38. Strong Oxidants replace common air with oxygen-enriched air, replace enriched air with pure oxygen, expose air or oxygen to ionizing radiation, use ozonized oxygen, replace ozonized (ionized) oxygen with ozone. Examples: coca cola, lemonade, CMOS gate oxidation Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles
39. Inert Atmosphere replace a normal environment with an inert one, add neutral parts, or inert additives to an object. Examples: goldplate connector, argon welder, argon laser, insulated windows 40. Composite Materials change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials. Examples: bullet proof vest, golf club shafts, Iridium satellites, gym shoe soles, lycra shorts w/gel, cotton-poly clothes, bullet-proof vest Problem Storming Exercise 40 Inventive Principles