Function: To cut or divide a loaf of bread into slices.The world’s first mechanical sliced bread went on sale July 7, 1928. Patent: 1,867,377 (US) issued July 12, 1932 Inventor: Otto Frederick RohwedderCriteria; First practical. Entrepreneur. Birth: July. 7, 1880 in Des Moines, Iowa Death: November 8, 1960 in Concord, Michigan Nationality: AmericanMilestones:1912 Otto Rohwedder toys with the idea of producing a machine to slice bread1916 Rohwedder begins to design a machine to slice bread1917 fire destroys his factory, prototype machine and the blueprints1926 Toastmaster begins selling pop-up toasters1927 Rohwedder finally saves enough money to begin again to build a bread slicer1928 Rohwedder files patent application for a single step bread slicing machine1928 forms a company Mac-Roh Sales & Manufacturing to build and sell the bread slicer machine1928 first mechanical pre-sliced bread goes on sale to the public in Chillicothe, Missouri1929 St. Louis, Missouri baker, Gustav Papendick, adds improvements to Rohwedder's machine. 1930 Wonder Bread begins selling pre-sliced bread, most bakeries follow suit1932 toaster sales skyrocketed, thanks to the standardized size of sliced bread1933 American bakeries were turning out more sliced than unsliced bread 1933 Rohwedder sells patent rights to and goes to work for Micro-Westco, Inc.1934 Patent 1,970,379 issued August 14, 1934 for Slicing Machine assigned to Papendick, Inc.sliced bread, bread slicer, bread slicing and wrapping machine, toaster, Otto Rohwedder, Gustav Papendick, M. Frank Bench, wonder bread, invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invented, invention of, fascinating facts. The Story:Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods, dating back to the Neolithic era when cereal grains and water were mixed into a paste and cooked. In ancient Egypt bread-making became one of the most significant areas of food preparation, along with the making of beer; both had religious significance as well. It is thought that the Egyptians invented the first closed oven for use in baking. Bread was a primary staple of diet in much of European history, from at least 1000 BC into modern times. In the 19th century people either made their own bread at home or purchased bread at the local bakery sold in loaves. But Otto Frederick Rohwedder, an inventor changed the history by creating the presliced-loaf and sealed-bag process. Without Otto Frederick Rohwedder, no one could exclaim: "It's the greatest thing since sliced bread!" Rohwedder was born Des Moines, Iowa and grew up in Davenport, Iowa. He married Carrie Johnson in 1905, and the couple had two children. Rohwedder was a jeweler by profession, and owned three jewelry stores in St. Joseph, Missouri. Beginning in 1912 while living in St. Joseph, Missouri Otto toyed with an idea for a bread slicing machine that would revolutionize the baking business. Convinced that such an invention would work, he sold his jewelry stores and used the funds to finance his new venture.He returned to Davenport at the end of 1916 and spent several months working on a prototype which included the sliced bread being held together by metal pins and was unsuccessful.. His first venture ended in tragedy in November 1917 when fire destroyed a Monmouth, Ill., factory that was to have produced the first slicing machine. Rohwedder's blueprints and prototype were also destroyed. It took Rohwedder several years to recoup his losses and assemble investors and financing for another go-at-it. In the meantime, he worked as an investment and security agent during the 1920s.In 1927 he designed a machine that not only sliced the bread but also wrapped it. His new and improved commercial bread slicer, was completed in 1928. Rohwedder' filed his application for a patent on November 26, 1928 and formed a company Mac-Roh Sales & Manufacturing to build and sell the bread slicer machine. There were objections from skeptic bakers that pre-sliced bread would quickly dry out. Despite this, Rohwedder took his slicer to the Chillicothe Baking Company in Chillicothe, Missouri where he convinced a baker friend and owner of the company, M. Frank Bench, to use it. History was made on July 7, 1928, when bread was sliced and wrapped commercially for the first time by a bread slicing machine. For the record, the brand name was Sliced Kleen Maid Bread. Customers marveled at the evenly sliced pieces, which were handy for making sandwiches and toast. A baker in St. Louis, Missouri Gustav Papendick, bought the second slicer produced by Rohwedder. He improved the cutting action, but found bakers objected to sliced bread: They felt the loaf would dry out too quickly. So, Papendick set out to invent a machine that would wrap the bread, and keep it fresh. To do this he needed to keep the sliced bread together long enough so his machine could wrap it. He first tried rubber bands and then metal pins to keep the loaves intact, but both failed. Finally a simple idea hit him: Put the bread in a collapsible cardboard tray, which would precisely align the slices so a machine could wrap them. His sliced bread made sales in St. Louis jump by a whopping 80%. The Continental Baking Company altered the course of bread forever in 1930 when it introduced sliced Wonder Bread. Sales were slow at first as suspicious consumers were slow to accept a pre-sliced bread, but convenience overruled apprehension and soon everyone wanted sliced Wonder Bread on their dinner table.This gave a boost to another new invention: Charles Strite's spring-loaded, automatic, pop-up toaster which had been languishing on the shelves since 1926. With Rohwedder's standardized slices on the market, Strite's invention suddenly made sense.By 1933, only five years after its introduction, American bakeries were turning out more sliced than unsliced bread. Rohwedder sold his invention to the Micro-Westco Co. of Bettendorf, Iowa, and he became vice-president and sales manager of the Rohwedder Bakery Machine Division of Micro-Westco, Inc. Rohwedder retired to Albion, Michigan in 1951 with his wife Carrie, where their daughter Margaret Steinhauer, and his sister Elizabeth (Rohwedder) Pickerill lived.Without Otto Frederick Rohwedder, no one could exclaim: "It's the greatest thing since sliced bread!" Rohwedder invented the first machine to slice bread. But was sliced bread really such a great thing? Yes! Sliced bread was the culmination of a century of technological innovation. It needed electricity, a uniform sized loaf of bread, a plastic wrap and a toaster to build up the demand.Rohwedder Bread Slicer Patents (1927-1936): U.S. Patent 1867377 -- Bread slicer U.S. Patent 1867378 -- Bread feeding appliance U.S. Patent 1740038 -- Bread slicer wire U.S. Patent 1591357 -- Bread rack U.S. Patent 1724368 -- Bread staples U.S. Patent 1759592 -- Bread staples U.S. Patent 1935996 -- Bread handler U.S. Patent 2034250 -- Bread handler U.S. Patent 2061315 -- Bread handler Note:Half the resources say sliced bread was introduced in Battle Creek, Michigan the other half say it was in Chillicothe, Missouri. The Missouri story has the more robust documentation.
ICE CREAM: Ice cream as a dairy delight was probably “discovered” in the 1600’s. The concept of flavored ices evolved, but no one is sure how. We do know that Charles I of England, or rather, his chef (either French or Italian), made ice cream a staple of the royal table. Depending on which version you read, either the chef had a secret recipe for ice cream and the king paid him a handsome reward to keep it a secret, or the chef was threatened with death if he divulged the recipe. Either way, once Chuck-One was beheaded in 1649, the chef blabbed. Soon nobility in Europe knew of, and enjoyed, “crème ice.”Augustus Jackson invented ice cream recipes around 1832.Give credit to Nancy Johnson. In 1843 she developed the first hand-crank ice cream maker, and despite what you might read elsewhere, received a patent for it. Much of the confusion (and lack of credit) to Ms. Johnson comes from the fact that she sold her rights to William Young for just $200 (still a pretty good sum in those days). He at least had the courtesy to call the machine the “Johnson Patent Ice-Cream Freezer.”
Everyone knows what Post-it® notes are: They are those great little self-stick notepapers. Most people have Post-it® Notes. Most people use them. Most people love them. But Post-it® Notes were not a planned product. No one got the idea and then stayed up nights to invent it. A man named Spencer Silver was working in the 3M research laboratories in 1970 trying to find a strong adhesive. Silver developed a new adhesive, but it was even weaker than what 3M already manufactured. It stuck to objects, but could easily be lifted off. It was super weak instead of super strong. No one knew what to do with the stuff, but Silver didn't discard it. Then one Sunday four years later, another 3M scientist named Arthur Fry was singing in the church's choir. He used markers to keep his place in the hymnal, but they kept falling out of the book. Remembering Silver's adhesive, Fry used some to coat his markers. Success! With the weak adhesive, the markers stayed in place, yet lifted off without damaging the pages. 3M began distributing Post-it ® Notes nationwide in 1980 -- ten years after Silver developed the super weak adhesive. Today they are one of the most popular office products available.================So, was the development of a "personal" stereo system an obvious step in the evolution of audio? ShuUeyama of Sony cites that this invention was purely accidental. Organizational changes were taking place at Sony in 1979 and the tape recorder division was pressed to market something soon, or risk consolidation. They came up with a small cassette player capable of stereo playback. The invention was born from a tweaked Pressman (Sony's monaural portable cassette recorder) and a pair of headphones.Sony chairman and founder Akio Morita heard of the invention and was eager to market it. The final design of the TPS-L2, the personal stereo cassette player was completed on March 24, 1979. Sony then formulated a unique marketing campaign to sell the contraption. But first, what to call it?The name needed to present the idea of portability, so they considered Stereo Walky. Unfortunately, Toshiba was already using the "Walky" name for their portable radio line. The new product was a descendant of the Pressman so Walkman was proposed next. Senior staff responded to this name with doubts, as it sounded like a Japanse phrase clumsily made English. The name would fly in Japan but the product would be marketed in the US as the Sound-About and in the UK as the Stowaway.Again, senior staff thought twice about the naming conventions--globally marketing a product with regional labels would prove costly, so Walkman was ambivalently accepted as the name of this new personal stereo system.The next task was marketing the product. The story behind Sony's market research was legendary: they didn't do it! Said Akio Morita in a 1982 Playboy interview, "The market research is all in my head! You see, we create markets." But how does one convince the public they need a product that they've never owned or seen? The first step was to get the word out to people who had influence on the public, like celebrities and people in the music industry. Sony sent Walkmans to Japanese recording artists, tv and movie stars free of charge. They also began an innovative marketing campaign, targeting younger people and active folks. The Walkman was engineered carefully to make it affordable to this market, priced to be around 33,000 yen (Sony was 33 years old at the time. Coincidence?) The imagery Sony successfully used around their Walkman gave the feelings of fun, youth and most importantly, freedom. Their invention allowed one to bring an exceptional listening experience anywhere.
Harper College Scholars Prez
The Value of CREATIVITYto Corporations<br />Maria Thompson<br />Director, Innovation Strategy<br />Motorola Solutions, Inc<br />July 20, 2011<br />
Who Am I?<br />Maria B. Thompson<br />Director, Innovation Strategy<br />Masters in Mathematics & Computer Science <br />Passions<br />tools, technology, patents, creative problem solving and inventing<br />2 issued patents<br />Equestrian sports – jumping my thoroughbred<br />Wife and Mother of two<br />Proud to be a GEEK!<br />
“Chance favors only the prepared mind.”<br />Louis Pasteur (1822-1892)<br />
need to solve problems</li></ul>Roger von Oech – “Creative thinking involves imagining <br />familiar things in a new light, digging below the surface to <br />find previously undetected patterns, and finding <br />connections among unrelated phenomena.” <br />
"The mere formulation of a problem is far <br />more often essential than its solution, which <br />may be merely a matter of mathematical or <br />experimental skill. To raise new questions, <br />new possibilities, to regard old problems from <br />a new angle requires creative imagination<br />and marks real advances in science."<br />Albert Einstein<br />
Intellectual Property & Innovation<br />INVENTION:<br />Solution or fix to a problem<br />Conversion of cash into ideas<br />INNOVATION:<br />Commercially successful use of inventions<br />Conversion of ideas into cash<br />Innovation is codified and protected through <br />INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY:<br />PATENTS, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, <br />Know-how<br />9<br />
Patents & Intellectual Property Rights<br />“Next came the patent laws. These began in England in 1624, and in this country with the adoption of our Constitution. Before then, any man might instantly use what another man had invented, so that the inventor had no special advantage from his invention. The patent system changed this; it secured to the inventor for a limited time the exclusive use of his invention, and thereby added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius in discovery and production of new and useful things."<br /> - Abraham Lincoln<br />Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of <br />America’s Greatest Inventor<br />by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott<br />
“Nothing is more important than to see the sources of invention which are, in my opinion, more interesting than the inventions themselves.”<br />Gottfried Leibniz, German Mathematician and Philosopher (1646-1716) <br />
What is so great about PATENTS?<br />Novel solution to problem<br />Teach others to advance science<br />"The patent system is nothing more than a way to encourage people to<br />innovate... to take risks... to make the world a better place.” <br /> -- Dean Kamen, Spotlight On: The U.S. Patent System<br />Prevent others from using, copying or selling your solution (invention)<br />
Why you and your employer might need patents<br />Considerations<br /><ul><li>Costs – 1 patent filing (US) ~ $15,000;
3 additional maintenance payments to keep for ~20 yrs.
What is your market differentiator, core competencies or “crown jewels?”
What (novel aspects of your work) do you want or need to exclude others from replicating?
Who is in a position to easily practice your art or copy your idea?
Who are your competitors? Do they already have patents, trademarks, copyrights?
In what countries do you plan to ship product or provide services?</li></li></ul><li>The power of patents - continued<br />Cost Avoidance / Loss of Market Share<br /><ul><li>RIM paid NTP $612M in litigation settlement
RIM had to stop selling Blackberry’s in US for period of time until settled</li></ul>Detectability & Enforceability<br /><ul><li>Will you be able to identify whether someone is copying (“infringing”) your product or service?
If not, better to pursue trade secrets, copyrights, etc. </li></ul>NEED TO USE CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS EVERY BUSINESS DAY!<br />
RESILIENCYrebounding from adversity<br />Self-efficacy: belief in one's agency and the ability to be a catalyst for <br />Change - Shapes key human behaviors*:<br /><ul><li>Courses of action people choose to pursue
Read every book in public library</li></li></ul><li>Thomas EdisonEdison demonstrated positive attitude, perseverance, resiliency. <br />"Results! Why man, I have gotten a lot of results. I know several thousand things that won't work."<br />"Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up." <br />"Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time." <br />"Just because something doesn't do what you planned it to do doesn't mean it's useless." <br />So the next time you make a mistake, or feel discouraged, ADOPT Mr. Edison's attitude on mistakes! <br />
John Vincent AtanasoffThe Man Who Invented the Computer<br /><ul><li>A physicist and mathematician who invented the computer </li></ul>largely out of frustration and laziness!<br /><ul><li>designed a machine to do what his own mind could not
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) hardly became known at all because he didn’t PATENT it!
Mauchly, patented Eniac computer, not a better scientist than Atanasoff, but more ambitious</li></ul>- In his Eniac patent application, claimed responsibility for >100 innovations<br />- judge invalidated the Eniac patents, ruling Mauchly’s invention was based on the ABC <br />
Robert Morris<br /><ul><li>cryptographer who helped develop the Unix computer operating system;
chief scientist of the National Security Agency’s National Computer Security Center</li></ul>Son: Robert Tappan Morris<br /><ul><li>Comp Sci grad student at Cornell University, wrote computer worm in 1988 -virus- able to propel itself through the Internet; intended to hide in the network, but due to design error, spread wildly out of control, jamming more than 10 percent of 50,000 internet computers
convicted under an early federal computer crime law, sentenced to probation; ordered to pay a $10,000 fine; performed community service</li></ul>- later PHd CS from Harvard; now teaches CS @ MIT <br />
The Obvious Corporation Founders<br />The Obvious Corporation makes systems that help people work together to <br />improve the world. … relaunching the company that originally incubated Twitter with a high level of commitment to making a difference and developing products <br />that matter…Also, there’s room for innovation in how Businesses measure success and more meaningful definitions of ambition.<br />Biz Stone<br />GQ named him ‘Nerd of the Year’ but Biz is better known as a <br />progenitor of social networking, blogging, co-founder of <br />Twitter, and a philanthropist. There's more about Biz on his <br />foundation site.<br />Evan Williams<br />One of Inc. Magazine’s Entrepreneurs of the Decade, Ev’s the co-founder and <br />former CEO of two of the biggest sites on the web — Blogger and Twitter. (He’s also <br />done some stuff that’s gone awry.)<br />Jason Goldman<br />Jason is a failed astrophysicist with over a decade of <br />experience in product management. He led product for <br />Blogger at Google and was VP of Product for Twitter Inc.<br />
“I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free.”<br />Michelangelo (1475-1564) <br />
Many Techniques to Think Creatively<br />TRIZ<br />6 Thinking Hats<br />Idea of Ideas<br />A Whack on the Side of the Head<br />Brainstorming<br />
33<br />Our mind tends to automatically organize new information with our current knowledge.<br />
34<br />“Even though one was correct at each stage, the situation may still have to be restructured to proceed.” Ed deBono<br />Key Insight:<br />Be willing to rearrange what you know<br />contradictions<br />
“Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why.”<br /> Bernard Baruch<br />
How Questions Help Creative Problem Solving<br />Clarifies problems<br />Engages minds<br />Increases brain flow<br />Cultivates curiosity<br />Improves Listening<br />Promotes analogous thinking<br />Enhances quality thinking<br />Accelerates innovation<br />Improves idea management<br />36<br />
What is the Question Banking Methodology?<br />IDENTIFY Sources of Questions<br />COLLECT Questions<br />ORGANIZE Questions<br />IMPROVE Questions<br />APPLY Questions (Questionate to Ideate)<br />37<br />
Questions to Ask When Collecting Questions<br />What are ALL the questions that people might answer in order to address the goal(s), challenge(s) or problem(s)?<br />What are all the obstacles or challenges <br />that might relate to the goal(s)?<br />What are the 3-5 MOST IMPORTANT questions that should be asked to address the goal(s)?<br />
Question Banking TIPS & Checklist<br /><ul><li>Search the internet for existing solutions and </li></ul>reframe as questions<br /><ul><li>Wordsmith and polish questions</li></ul>Use www.thesaurus.com<br />Increase “open-ended” questions<br />Eliminate “closed” questions that can be answered “yes” or “no”<br />Replace “can” and “could/should” with “might” and “may”<br />Genericise so non-experts can engage and invent<br />Tease out conflicts, contradictions and tradeoffs<br />√ Quality ReviewCHECKLIST<br /><ul><li>Brief and concise
Functional, action-oriented verbs that describe the desired result or outcome</li></ul> <br />
Recommended Books for Skills Building<br />Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of <br />America’s Greatest Inventor<br />by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott<br />Think Better: An Innovator's Guide to <br />Productive Thinking <br />by Tim Hurson<br />Simplified TRiZ: New Problem-Solving<br />Applications for Engineers & Manufacturing<br />Professionals<br />by Kalevi Rantanen, Ellen Domb, www.triz-journal.com<br />Making Questions Work: A Guide to What and How to Ask for Facilitators, Consultants, Managers, Coaches, and Educators <br />by Dorothy Strachan<br />
3. Ask WHY ideal<br />(5 times)<br />2. Ideal <br />Attributes<br />1. Focus/Goal:<br />2. Ideal <br />Attributes<br />3. Ask WHY ideal<br />(5 times)<br />IFR<br />What are all the ways we might characterize the Ideal/Perfect World solution based on the resources we have available to us?<br />
3. Opportunities<br />w/o limitation<br />2. limitations<br />1. Focus/Goal/Objective/Problem:<br />2. limitations<br />3. Opportunities<br />w/o limitation<br />PS<br />QuestionGeneration-Recipe: How might we use Opportunity #3 to overcome Limitation #2 and achieve/remove #1? <br />OR How might we achieve/remove #1 by using #3 without #2?<br />
How might we identify valuable mobile applications?<br /><ul><li>Trend spotting
www.AndroidZoom.com</li></li></ul><li>I keep six honest serving-men. <br />They taught me all I knew; <br />Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who.<br />Six Key Questions<br />Rudyard Kipling <br /> Indian-born British writer and poet<br />
Trend Spotting<br />Whoare all the people that use mobile devices?<br />Whatare their unmet needs?<br />Whendo people have access to their mobile devices?<br />Wheredo people take their mobile devices?<br />Whyare people pleased with or disappointed by their mobile devices?<br />Howmight peoples’ mobile devices better serve their needs?<br />
Trend Spotting – RolesWHO are all the people you know that use their mobile phones regularly?<br /><ul><li>Family
Service Providers ( e.g., store owners, restauranteurs, plumbers, construction workers, tollbooth operators, government workers, ice cream vendors, security guards, etc.)</li></li></ul><li>Functional Analysis / “Job” Identification<br /><ul><li>WHATare all the jobs or functions people need to do that a mobile phone application might support?
What upsets people or angers people?</li></li></ul><li>HOW might peoples’ mobile devices better serve their needs?<br /><ul><li>What types of information might we bring to people in real-time?
How might we eliminate the need to perform tasks by automating them?
How might we eliminate the need for people to travel to experiences?
How might we enhance existing mobile device experiences to make them more gratifying and satisfying?
How might we help people perform their “jobs” more effectively and efficiently in all contexts?
How might we help people better connect with those they want in their lives and disconnect from those they don’t?</li></li></ul><li>Value Analysis of the Mobile Application<br /><ul><li>Does it make the user able to perform a task (job) more effectively?
Is the performance of a user task (job) more convenient?
Is performance of the task (job) more affordable, so more users can improve their efficiencies?
Are the user’s functional, social and emotional needs met in order to perform the job perfectly?</li></li></ul><li>“Technical skill is mastery of complexity while creativity is mastery of simplicity.”<br />Christopher Zeeman, Mathematician (1925- )<br />
“Don’t Ever Stop Asking Questions”- Albert Einstein<br />