Companion Planting Chart - Edible San Marcos, California


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Companion Planting Chart - Edible San Marcos, California

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Companion Planting Chart - Edible San Marcos, California

  1. 1. Companion Planting ChartPublished by Suzi Fields for Edible San MarcosThe Need For DiversityFrom a field to the under-stories of the woods you find diversity in nature. The reason for diversity innature is a habitat for a variety of different ecosystems and niches that support various animal, bacterial,fungal and insect life that keep our ecosystem in balance. By mimicking this in your garden you provideplaces for beneficial insects and predators to forage and live.Companion Planting Benefits1. Increased yields2. Improved soil quality3. Greater diversity of plants = Greater diversity of insects4. Provides shelter and food for Insect predators and parasites to control pest5. Color, shape, height and smell confuse pests6. Interplanting changes microclimate in garden7. Healthier plants are more resistantUnderstanding Plants to Find the Right CombinationsWe will explore what things to consider when companion planting. These things are listed on thecompanion planting chart on the following pages, you will then understand how to use the chart.1. Root Depth and StructureThe key to strong plants and bigger yields is to consider the rooting structure and pair plants with differentrooting structures to work together. You do not want to plant two plants that are competing for the samespace or they get crowded and weak. Think of the forest again When there are too many trees they get allspindly. Or think of seedlings, when you donʼt thin them they get crowded, thin and weak. Ideally we takea shallow growing root with at long growing tap root. Pair carrots, onions or beets that have shallow rootswith lettuce or broccoli that have deep tap roots.2. Plant Nutrient NeedsBy pairing plants according to their nutrient needs you donʼt deplete the soil. Pair a heavy feeder likesquash, corn, broccoli or kale along with a nitrogen fixer like beans, vetch, clover or alfalfa that supplynitrogen. Make sure anytime that you are using a crop that has a Rhizobia bacteria symbiosis relationshipthat you fix it with an inoculant for that particular crop. Not all inoculants are the same and they will not allinterchange. You also need to get a fresh one each year or when expired. Check the date on yourpackage. Keep the inoculant stored in the refrigerator, it is heat and light sensitive.3. Plant Light RequirementsPlants need a certain number of hours of daylight to be healthy each day. A plant will become stunted andsick without enough sunlight, the leaves may not be deep green, and itʼs growth poor. You can use thetaller crops to shade the crops that like partial shade, just like an understory in a forest.Full Sun - 8 to 12 hours of direct lightPartial Shade - 5 hours of direct sunlight (most of your cool weather crops)Deep Shade - Few hours of sun or filtered light - watercress and lettuce4. Plant Companions and EnemiesUse these columns respectively. They are in here to guide you through your planting. It does not meanthat they have to be 50 yards away from each other! Beans and onions hate each other for instance, donot put them side by side but leave a few feet in between them and plant maybe squash as a buffer.5. Timing and ArrangementIf you plan out your garden you can plan what is coming ahead. Just plant in between the existing mid lifeplants so you donʼt have empty space in your garden when you harvest the mature plants. Example :Bunching onions followed by chard,or eggplants, peppers. 3 way relay : Peas-Broccoli-Summer Squash6. Planting for BeneficialsThe most important thing you can do in your garden is plant for beneficials, they control the pests.Beneficial insects need shelter from the sun and from other insects and birds of prey. Low growing herbsserve as both shelter and a food source when they flower. They also need food, a carbohydrate sourcewhich is nectar from small flowers. So plant lots of herbs and let them flower, also plant small flowers suchas alyssum. They also need water, give them a little dish of water to drink from.Map out your garden ahead of timeTake time to sit down and look at the chart before you plant, it is wort the time and effort. Have a wonderfulseason. It lasts all year in Texas, a never ending relay! Suzi
  2. 2. NAME ROOTING LIGHT NUTRIENT, COMPANION ENEMY DEPTH NEEDS WATER NEEDS PLANTS PLANTS ALFALFA Long Growing Full sun Nitrogen Fixer, Barley, Corn, Reduced Tap Root 6ʼ first Low N, Cotton, Mustard germination of year, up to 20ʼ Peas, Corn, after that. Oats, Soybean, Breaks up soils. Timothy HayAMARANTH Long Tap Roots Full Sun Med N,P,K, Low Carrots, Cotton, Soybean said to break up H2O Tomatoes, soil good for Cowpeas carrotsASPARAGUS Long Spreading Partial Shade Heavy Feeder, Tomato, Beet, Onion, Weeds Roots 5-6ʼ in Heavy H2O Basil,Parsley, both directions Carrot, Grape, Lettuce, Spinach,BUSH BEAN 36-48” Fibrous Full Sun Nitrogen Fixer, Carrot, Borage, Onion Spreading Roots Low N, Med H2O Cabbage,Potato, Beet, Marigold, Squash, Savory, Strawberry, Corn BEETS Short taproot, Full Sun, Low N, High P, Brassicas, Bush Pole Beans, most roots Partial Shade Med H2O Beans, Lettuce, Field Mustard limited to upper Garlic, Onion 1 ft of soil. fibrous roots reaching down as far as 5ʼ.BROCCOLI 18 to 36” Tap Partial Shade Heavy Feeder, Dill, Garbanzo, Mustard, Tomato, Root Heavy H2O Garlic, Hyssop, Pepper, Marigold, Mint, Eggplant, Onion, Nightshades Nasturtium, Strawberries Pennyroyal, Pole Beans Thyme, Radish, Southernwood, WormwoodBRUSSEL 18 to 36” Tap Partial Shade Heavy Feeder, Garbanzo,Garlic, Mustard, Tomato,SPROUTS Root Heavy H2O Hyssop, Pepper, Marigold, Onion, Eggplant, Nasturtium, Mint, Nightshades Pennyroyal, Dill, Strawberries Thyme, Radish, Pole Beans Southernwood, Wormwood CARROT Short taproot Partial Shade Moderate N, Radish, Dill, Parsnips, with fibrous foots High Potassium Peas,Lettuce, Apples, Grapes, reaching down & Phosphorus. Onions,Leeks, Nuts, Fruit trees as far as 5ʼ, Heavy H2O Sage, Rosemary, most roots Wormwood, limited to upper Scorzonera, 2ʼ of soil Tomatoes
  3. 3. NAME ROOTING LIGHT NUTRIENT, COMPANION ENEMY DEPTH NEEDS WATER NEEDS PLANTS PLANTS CELERY Shallow fibrous Partial Shade, Heavy Feeder, Tomatoes, Garlic, Carrot, Parsnip roots limited to Deep Shade Heavy H2O, Cabbage, Onions, upper 6” of soil Beans, Spinach, Squash, Coriander, Chive, Nasturtium CHARD Tap Root 12 - 24” Full Sun, Heavy Feeders, Beans, Brassicas, Pole Beans, Partial Shade Med H2O Onions Field MustardCOLLARDS 18 to 36” Tap Partial Shade Heavy Feeder, Dill, Garbanzo, Mustard, Root Heavy H2O Garlic, Hyssop, Tomato, Marigold, Mint, Pepper, Onion, Nasturtium, Eggplant, Pennyroyal, Nightshades Thyme, Radish, Strawberries Southernwood, Pole Beans WormwoodCUCUMBER Fibrous 12” Tap Partial Shade Heavy feeders, Broccoli, Beans, Anise, Potato, Root 2-3ʼ High H20 during Cabbage, Kale, Marjoram, fruiting Med Tansy, Rue, Celery, Basil, Sage, Normally Oregano, Melon, Rosemary, Radish, Eggplant, Strong Herbs, Sunflower, Peas, Summer Tomato, Marigold, Savory, Radish Nasturtium, Corn (trap crop)EGGPLANT Tap Root 4-7ʼ Full Sun Heavy Beans, Pepper, Potatoes (trap Deep Feeder,High N, Coriander, Thyme, crop) Heavy H20 Marigold, Mint Goldenrod, Tarragon, Wormwood GARLIC 2”- 2ʼ short root Partial Shade Light feeder, Low Roses, Brassicas, Beans, Peas H2O Fruit Trees, Beet, Celery, Chamomile, Lettuce, Raspberry, Savory, Tomato KALE 18 to 36” Tap Partial Shade Heavy Feeder, Dill, Garbanzo, Mustard, Root Heavy H2O Garlic, Hyssop, Tomato, Marigold, Mint, Pepper, Onion, Nasturtium, Eggplant, Pennyroyal, Nightshades Thyme, Radish, Strawberries Southernwood, Pole Beans WormwoodLETTUCE Fast-growing Partial Shade, Heavy Feeder, Peas, Radishes Broad Beans, taproot, usually Deep Shade Med H2O, Cabbage, Beet, Sensitive to stays in upper 2ʼ Kale, Collards, Residues of of soil can go to 5ʼ Carrots, Cucumber, Broccoli, Vetch, Onion, Pole Lima Barley, Wheat, Bean, Strawberry Rye
  4. 4. NAME ROOTING LIGHT NUTRIENT, COMPANION ENEMY DEPTH NEEDS WATER NEEDS PLANTS PLANTS OKRA shallow 3-10 feet Full Sun, spreading roots Partial ShadeONION Small bulb with Partial Shade Light Feeder, Cabbage, Beets, Beans, Peas fibrous roots Med H20 Strawberries, growing 6-8” Lettuce deep PEAS Shallow fibrous Full Sun Fixes N , low N, Tomato, Beans, Garlic, Onion, 3ʼ Low H2O, before Eggplant, Corn, Potato bloom heavy Lettuce, Spinach, after bloom, High Peppers, Radish, P, K Coriander, Dill, CucumberPEPPER Fibrous, Full Sun Med to High Basil, Carrot, Fennel, Kohlrabi spreading roots, feeder, med to Eggplant, Onion, mostly confined high H2O Tomato to the top 8” of soil, but can extend 4ʼ deepPOTATO Early growth is Full Sun Light feeder, Med Beans, Cabbage, Apple, Pear, shallow but late H20 Corn,Peas, Eggplant (trap in the season Horseradish, Crop) fibrous roots may Onion, Radish, reach 1-2ʼ Lettuce, Petunia, Marigold,SPINACH Fast-growing Partial Shade Heavy Feeder, Beans, Potato taproot up to 5ʼ Light H2O Brassicas, long. usually Celery, Onions, limited to upper Peas 1ʼSQUASH Taproot usually Full Sun Heavy Feeder, Beans, Borage, Potato, Pumpkin in upper 2ʼ can High N, Heavy Catnip, Celery, go 6ʼ H2O Celeriac,Corn, Nasturtium, Marigold, Onion, Oregano, Radish,TansyTOMATO Fibrous, Full Sun Heavy Feeder, Brassicas, Chive, Corn, Dill, spreading roots Med and deep Carrot, Celery, Fennel, Kohlrabi, 3-4ʼ deep,usually H2O Onion, Pepper, Potato, Walnut top 8”. Roots Cucumber, Basil, spread to a Marigold, Melon, diameter of 5ʼ Nasturtium, Pea,