Companion Planting at the Bock Community Garden, Middleton, Wisconsin

1,608 views

Published on

Companion Planting at the Bock Community Garden, Middleton, Wisconsin

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Companion Planting at the Bock Community Garden, Middleton, Wisconsin

  1. 1. The Bock Community Garden Monthly Newsletter - May 2011 What’s in this Issue? Cardboard pg 2 Healthy Garden Series pg 2 West Ag Research Evals pg 2 Transplant or Direct Seeding pg 3 Transplanting Suggestions pg 4 Garden Journals, What to Track pg 4 Here Come the Weeds pg 5 Garden Journals Bock Fruit Tree Orchard pg 6 Bock Garage SaleIf you want to be a successful gardener - you should keep a Coming Soon pg 6garden journal, noting such things as soil preparation,planting, weeding, fertilizing, bloom time, date crops ripen, Row Covers for Rabbits pg 7and growing results. Also note any problems with weeds,insects, or rainfall, and whether the harvest of each item was Planting Techniques pg 8sufficient, too much, or not enough.At the end of the growing season, youll have a complete Companion Planting pg 9-11record of what you did, and this information will give you thebasics for planning next years garden. More ideas on page 4. Workdays pg 12 Patty Zehl, Communications Coordinator Garden Committee pg 12
  2. 2. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011Cardboard - Bring to the GardenStart saving and collecting cardboard for use in pathway construction andto surround the native trees - which we will be doing during upcomingworkdays. We must put cardboard beneath any woodchips we lay, or theweeds will just grow through the woodchips to reach sunlight.Flatten it, remove tape and staples and bring it to the garden. There is a pileoutside the double-door entrance at back of garden - on North side of fence. Be sure it’ssecured under the wood pallet - so it doesn’t blow around cashing a trash problem. Healthy Garden Training Series The USDA Peoples Garden Initiative promotes growing healthy food, people and communities. It encourages USDA employees and communities to plant gardens because we believe the simple act of planting a garden can make real and lasting change to improve food access and healthy lifestyles. The USDA People’s Garden Initiative and Cooperative Extension Servicebring you this series of training sessions on a wide variety of horticultural and garden related topics.There is no charge for registration and all sessions are open to the public. Visit this website to learn moreand register:http://www.extension.iastate.edu/broadcasts/emg/West Ag - Research EvaluationsFlower and vegetable evaluations have long been a part of the trial gardensprogram. Each summer we trial hundreds of new flowers and numerous newvegetable cultivars. We receive the newest selections from growers acrossthe United States and from some European Countries.Please check out the links to PDFs of evaluation sheets below, to find theresults of our evaluations for flowers and vegetables. You will findevaluations from 2007 and 2008 for both flowers and vegetables. Inaddition to the evaluations, we post our Favorite Picks for peppers,tomatoes and other various vegetables. Watch this website for newFavorites for annual flowers trialed during 2009 season.http://www.cals.wisc.edu/westmad/garden/Evaluations.html 2
  3. 3. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011Transplant or Direct Seeding?There are advantages and disadvantages to using transplants or direct seeding in your garden. Transplantsare starter plants that are at least 4-6 weeks old when you plant them, started by you or a nursery fromseed in containers. Direct seeding is placing seeds directly in the soil of your garden.Advantages of Direct Seeding: o Direct seeding is more cost effective - a package of seeds is often much less expensive then transplants. Example: a $2.59 package of 100 seeds compared to a $2.59 pack of four transplants. o When purchasing seed you can often find a much greater variety of cultivars than purchasing transplants. o Quick growing crops direct seeded in the garden will quickly catch up to transplants. o Root crops with tap roots, like carrots generally don’t transplant well and need to be direct seeded.Advantages of Transplants: o Transplants give higher early yields o For a shorter growing season, like we have in Wisconsin it’s better to use transplants for vegetables that take a long time to reach maturity from seed. o If you want six different varieties of one type of vegetable, the cost of transplants when purchasing single plants are similar to purchasing seeds.Plants that are Usually Direct Seeded:Beans, beets, carrots, corn, cucumbers, garlic, lettuce, muskmelons,okra, parsnips, peas, pumpkins, radishes, rutabaga,salsify, spinach, squash, turnips, watermelonPlants that Transplant Well:Basil, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, Chinese VEGETABLE GROWN BYcabbage, cauliflower, celery, chard, chives, collards, Artichokes Root Divisionseggplant, endive, escarole, kale, kohlrabi, leeks, Asparagus 1-Year Old Rootsmustard, okra, onions, parsley, peppers, tomatoes Garlic/Shallots Cloves Horseradish Root CuttingsThen there are a handful of vegetables that aren’t Onions Setsusually grown from seed at all. They’re grownvegetatively. (See table on right.) Potatoes Seed Potatoes Rhubarb Root Crowns Patty Zehl, Communications Coordinator Sweet Potatoes Slips 3
  4. 4. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011 Transplanting Suggestions Most vegetables are ready to set in the garden when they are 4-6 weeks old. Set only the best plants that are strong, stocky, vigorous and disease free. Tomato plants 4-5 weeks old grow and yield better than older transplants. Avoid disturbing roots when transplanting. Moisten the soil of the transplant and remove the plant from the container before placing in the garden. Some containers such as the peat pellet may be inserted directly into the soil, resulting in a reduction in transplant shock. Transplant when conditions are best — soon after a rain, when cloudy, or in the late afternoon. Protect plants 2-4 days after transplanting with something that provides a wind and sun barrier like an upright board, shade cloth or use hay or straw and create an artificial bowl around the transplant. When setting the plant into the soil, do not compress the soil around the roots; gently pour water into the hole to settle the soil around the roots. After the transplanting water has dried a bit, cover the wet spot with dry soil to reduce evaporation.  Patty Zehl, Communications Coordinator Garden Journals - What to TrackYou can record as much, or as little as you want, in your garden journal. Just make sure its a fun activity,rather than a chore. Some suggestions for the kinds of information you may want to include are:  Names of all seeds and plants used  Planting dates for seeds and plants, and you garden layout  Source and cost for plants and seeds, any guarantees  Weather particulars such as rainfall, frost dates and results  Plant characteristics, date of germination, date they emerge in spring, appearance of blooms  Date and type of fertilizer or other chemicals applied, and to which plants  Watering schedule  Diseases, insects that you experience and what you do  Date of harvest (for vegetables) or cut flowers taken  Observations: what was/was not successful, ideas from other gardeners  Helpful web sites, gardening books or magazinesAs you garden and plant through the years, a journal such as this becomes indispensable. There is no wayyou can keep it all in your head, even if you think you can. Write it down, and keep the facts for the yearsahead. Include pictures, seed packages and drawings. You will treasure your efforts in the future. 4
  5. 5. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011Here Come the WeedsOf all the issues that gardeners have to deal with,weeds are probably the most vexing. How often dowe hear gardeners confess: “the weeds got ahead ofme!” Many BCG gardeners have already faced abarrage of over-wintering biennial or perennialweeds as we prepared our plots for planting. And rises to optional levels (usually by early June), it’sthere are millions of carry-over seeds from last year time to apply the marsh hay between the rows (3-4and many years past just waiting to germinate inches thick) and rely on hand weeding to pull outalong with our garden seeds and among our those pesky weeds that manage to poke through thetransplants. mulch or in the rows. Don’t forget the weeds alongSo, as the orientation handout “Weeds – What the borders of your plots where they take advantageEvery Gardener Needs to Know” admonishes: stay of the thinner mulch and exposed soil.ahead of them by starting early in the season! If you have questions about weed identification orBefore planting, it’s important to remove the entire weeding practices, please don’t hesitate to consultplant structure (tops, roots, rhizomes, etc.) of all your neighbors with clean plots. I try to visit myweeds that over-wintered in your plot. If you hold plot several times a week, usually early afternoonsoff on mulching until the soil warms up enough to or early evenings, and would be happy to answerfavor your garden seeds and plants, you’ll have to questions about weeds and weeding or othercope with some weeds emerging in and between gardening issues such as watering, insects, andyour rows. But these can be easily controlled by diseases. If I don’t have adequate answers, I’ll tryhand weeding in the rows and by using a small hoe to help you find them.(I prefer a child’s hoe) to lightly rake/chop themout between the rows. Once the soil temperature  Emil Haney, Education Coordinator Garden Tip: Do you have weeds in your garden? If the answer is yes, don’t think of all of them as the enemy and put them in the compost bins as some gardeners have done. Attached to these weeds are clumps of soil that your garden needs, and valuable organic matter - great ingredients for healthy soil. Use a fork or spade and turn the weeds over. Shake the soil loose and lay your weeds on an empty section of your garden - allowing them to dry out in the sun. When you know the weeds are dead use them as mulch, eventually they will decompose and improve your garden soil. Carry out and discard weeds with seed heads, or invasive plants.  Patty Zehl, Communication Coordinator 5
  6. 6. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011Bock Fruit Tree OrchardDuring the 2010 gardening season, the Bock throughout theCommunity Garden received 28 fruit trees from growingJung’s Nursery as one of several Madison area season.winners in a competition sponsored by Edy’s Fruit Priorities forBars. Planted in the new orchard – located along the the 2011northern and eastern sides of the garden – are 16 growing seasonapple trees, 4 pear trees, 4 cherry trees, and 4 peach will includetrees. pruning theThe 2011 gardening season will be the first full trees to assuregrowing season for the trees after planting. During healthythis season watering, pruning and observation for branches, and the removal of any fruit blossoms.disease will be critical for the future health and Removing potential fruit early on in the tree’s lifeproduction of the trees. With careful attention, the cycle ensures stronger, healthier trees in theorchard should be producing fruit within 3-5 years. future.A drip irrigation system was installed at the same With much care and attention, the fruit trees willtime that the orchard was planted. Watering by drip provide bountiful harvests for Bock gardeners forirrigation assures that the trees will receive deep years to come.watering that enables strong root systems to form. Itis imperative that gardeners, even with the bestintentions, do not water the fruit trees. Volunteers  Kurt Zimmerman, Native Area and Orchardwill make sure the trees remain watered and healthy CoordinatorBock Garage Sale - Coming Soon What: Items are needed to sell at our garage sale, including bakery items. When: Sometime in June - the date has not been set yet. Where: Somewhere in Middleton - we’re still working out the details. Why: to raise money for Bock garden operating expenses. Who: Lisa Garsee, the Bock Fundraising Coordinator needs your help. Contact her with items to donate, and if you can help during the sale. Contact her at: garsee636@aol.com, 228-5133 6
  7. 7. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011Row Coversfor RabbitsFloating Row Coversare lightweight blanketsmade from spunbondedpolyester or polypropylene. Row Cover InstallationThere are two basic types of Floating Row Covers: Row covers can be anchored by piling loose soil,1. Frost protection mulch, rocks or bricks over the edges or by using2. Insect barrier plastic or metal staples.If the desire is to extend the growing season by The plant bed to be covered should be fertilizedprotecting crops from low temperatures, be sure to and planted prior to installation of the row cover.purchase the frost protection type. Floating Row When properly installed, the fabric should beCovers generally come in rolls 6 to 30+ feet wide to loose on the top to allow for plant growth.nearly any length desired. Typical lengths range from Management of Row Covers25-50 feet to over 2,000 feet. Plants can be watered directly through the rowTo protect vegetable and fruit crops planted in rows cover material. Add another 2 to 4°F of extraor narrow beds from rabbits cover the newly sprouted frost protection by using two layers. Do not useseedlings with either typed of floating row cover, more than two layers of row cover - it will reduceallowing air, light and rain onto the plants, but light transmission an additional 10 to 12 percent.blocking rabbit access. Weeds will grow very well in the microclimateMaintain the protective cover until the young created under the row cover .To weed theseedlings have passed their most tender and delicious covered plant beds, lift the row cover, pull weedsstage and become less attractive to rabbits. When they and reinstall. To minimize the need to weed,flower, be sure to remove the fleece material so mulch can be used under the row cover.pollinating insects can reach them. In the case of As the plants grow, the row cover will be liftedberries, lettuce and other salad greens, remove the up, providing protection for the plants. The rowcover only when necessary for harvesting. cover can be left on until the plants pull the slackAdvantages Using Floating Row Covers out of the row cover. At this point, the row cover1. Frost protection, +2-4 F must be removed to enhance plant growth.2. Wind protection for plant seedlings3. Insect protection Remove the row cover when dry and roll it up,4. Rabbit protection paying attention not to damage it and store in dry5. Transmits light (85% average), water, and air location free of rodents for another season.6. May be reused 2 to 3 years if gently used Recommended Garden PlantsDisadvantages Using Floating Row Covers The following plants will perform well for plant1. Weeding under covering requires lifting of row protection and season extension: carrots, chard,cover cucumber, green beans, lettuce, pumpkin,2. Pollination of crops is prevented unless the row summer squash, and winter squash. Works greatcover is periodically folded back to expose flowering to protect young green beans from rabbits.plants  Source: USDA Natural Resources3. There is some potential for plant abrasion on Conservation Service: httphttp://plant-sensitive plants, such as tomato and pepper seedlings. materials.nrcs.usda.gov/news/features/com munitygardens.html 7
  8. 8. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011 the same diseases. For example, tomatoes, peppers,Planting Techniques eggplants, and potatoes belong to the Solanaceae family and all are susceptible to early blight.Plan to use all the space in your garden. Through Rotating vegetable placement in the garden helps tothe following planting techniques you can make control plant diseases. Rotation also helps curbmaximum use of the space you have. insect infestations. Some insects overwinter in the soil and begin feeding when their specific host isVertical Cropping - Train veggies like pole beans, present. If a crop is moved to a different location inpeas, cucumbers, squash and gourds to some type the garden, the insect population may decrease.of support to save space in the garden. Fences,poles, wire cages, trellises can be used for support. Interval Planting - To provide fresh vegetables over a long period of time, plant one vegetable every 10-Succession Planting - This technique involves 14 days. This practice works particularly well forgrowing a crop like lettuce in the spring and crops such as beans, sweet corn and peas, whichreplacing it when the warm weather hits with a have a short "peak" period of quality.crop like beans. In the late summer, you can reversethe process and replace the beans with a cool Other Garden Tipsseason crop like lettuce or radishes. Dont plant too much of any one crop at one time, especially those crops which must be eaten fresh,Intercropping - Is the growing technique of like radish, and cannot be stored.planting fast growing vegetables among slowgrowing vegetables. An example of this technique Run rows north and south, when possible so thatwould be planting radishes, lettuce or green onions exposure to sunlight is even for all rows.among caged tomato plants. Allow space between rows for convenient cultivationPlant Placement - Arrange crops so planting, with the type of tool you plan to use.cultivating, pest control, and harvesting can be Use stakes, string and a yardstick to lay off straightdone with the least effort. Plant perennial crops, rows. Place a garden label at the head of each row;such as rhubarb, asparagus, strawberries, and bush include the crop, variety and planting date on label.fruits along one side of the garden. These crops stayin the same location for several years and should be Plant sweet corn in blocks rather than in single rowsplaced where they will not be in the way or be so that much pollen is present in the air around thedamaged at soil preparation time. Whenever corn stalks. This practice should produce betterpossible, plant tall crops to the north of lower pollination and ear fill-out.growing crops to avoid shading. Plant two or more varieties having different maturityPlant Rotation—Many disease organisms are soil- dates to prolong the season for any one crop. Whileborne and can infest a vegetable yearly when the genetic crossing may occur, this is a problem only insame crop is planted in the same location. Plants in sweet corn where "xenia" effects show up on the earsthe same botanical family often are susceptible to (example: yellow kernels mixed with white ones)  Source: University of Florida & Iowa State http://jefferson.ifas.ufl.edu/horticulture/veg_garden_tips.shtml http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM814.pdf 8
  9. 9. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011Companion Planting The most dependable functions of companion plants include: o Hiding or masking a crop from pests, o Producing odors that deter or confuse pests, o Providing trap crops which draw pest insects away from other plants, o Acting as nurse plants that provide breeding grounds for beneficial insects, o Providing food to sustain beneficial insects as they search out their prey,Many people think of organic gardening as o Creating a habitat for favorable creatures.growing without the use of pesticides orherbicides. This is obviously a fundamental part Some common companion planting ideasof organics however; organic gardening is include:composed of numerous aspects that make up awhole interconnected system. This system relies o Plant marigolds in garden to repel pests.upon insects, birds, shade, sun, and all other o Plant flowers in the Aster familyaspects of a living and working community. By (sunflower, purple coneflower, black-growing numerous types of crops you create eyed susan) to attract beneficial insectshabitats for beneficial insects or animals, deter such as lady beetles, spined soldier bugs,problem pests, and enrich your soil to create a assassin bugs, and predatory wasps.living ecosystem of beneficial bacteria and o Plant beans and potatoes together tohelpful fungi. repel Colorado potato beetles and Mexican bean beetles.One method used by some organic gardeners is o Plant onions to repel many insects andcompanion planting. There is no scientific potentially, wildlife.evidence that companion planting works, butmany gardeners have sworn by it for centuries. Below is a partial list of companion crops fromCompanion planting is the practice of "Plant by Plant Guide" in Rodales Successfulinterplanting vegetables, herbs, and flowers in Organic Gardening Companion Planting:order to attract beneficial insects or tocamouflage pest-prone crops. Plant Companion(s) and Effects Asparagus Tomatoes, parsley, basil Tomatoes (improves growth & flavor); said to dislike rue; Basil repels flies & mosquitoes Potatoes, carrots, cucumbers, cauliflower, cabbage, Bean summer savory, most other veggies & herbs Sunflowers (beans like partial shade, unless you live up north, sunflowers attract birds & bees for pollination), Bean (bush) cucumbers (combination of heavy and light feeders), potatoes, corn, celery, summer savory Bee Balm Tomatoes (improves growth & flavor). Beet Onions, kohlrabi 9
  10. 10. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011 Tomatoes (attracts bees, deters tomato worm, improves Borage growth & flavor), squash, strawberries Cabbage Family (broccoli, brussels Potatoes, celery, dill, chamomile, sage, thyme, mint, sprouts, cabbage, pennyroyal, rosemary, lavender, beets, onions; aromatic cauliflower, kale, plants deter cabbage worms kohlrabi) Caraway Loosens soil; plant here and there Peas, lettuce, chives, onions, leeks, rosemary, sage, Carrot tomatoes Catnip Plant in borders; protects against flea beetles Celery Leeks, tomatoes, bush beans, cauliflower, cabbage Chamomile Cabbage, onions Chervil Radishes (improves growth & flavor). Carrots; plant around base of fruit trees to discourage Chive insects from climbing trunk Corn Potatoes, peas, beans, cucumbers, pumpkin, squash Cucumber Beans, corn, peas, radishes, sunflowers Dead Nettle Potatoes (deters potato bugs) Dill Cabbage (improves growth & health), carrots Eggplant Beans Fennel Most plants are supposed to dislike it. Flax Carrots, potatoes Roses & raspberries (deters Japanese beetle); with herbs to Garlic enhance their production of essential oils; plant liberally throughout garden to deter pests Potatoes (deters potato beetle); around plum trees to Horseradish discourage curculios Cabbage (deters cabbage moths), grapes; keep away from Hyssop radishes Nutritious edible weeds; allow to grow in modest Lambs Quarters amounts in the corn Leek Onions, celery, carrots Lemon Balm Here and there in the garden The workhorse of pest deterrents; keeps soil free of Marigold nematodes; discourages many insects; plant freely throughout the garden. Marjoram Here and there in the garden Mint Cabbage family; tomatoes; deters cabbage moth Tomatoes, radish, cabbage, cucumbers; plant under fruit Nasturtium trees; deters aphids & pests of curcurbits Beets, strawberries, tomato, lettuce (protects against Onion slugs), beans (protects against ants), summer savory Parsley Tomato, asparagus Squash (when squash follows peas up trellis), plus grows Pea well with almost any vegetable; adds nitrogen to the soil Petunia Protects beans; beneficial throughout garden 10
  11. 11. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011 Horseradish, beans, corn, cabbage, marigold, limas, Potato eggplant (as a trap crop for potato beetle) Helps tomato, but plant throughout garden as deterrent to Pot Marigold asparagus beetle, tomato worm & many other garden pests Pumpkin Corn Peas, nasturtium, lettuce, cucumbers; a general aid in Radish repelling insects Carrots, beans, cabbage, sage; deters cabbage moth, bean Rosemary beetles & carrot fly Roses & raspberries; deters Japanese beetle; keep away Rue from basil Rosemary, carrots, cabbage, peas, beans; deters some Sage insects Soybean Grows with anything; helps everything Spinach Strawberries Squash Nasturtium, corn Strawberry Bush beans, spinach, borage, lettuce (as a border) Summer Savory Beans, onions; deters bean beetles Sunflower Cucumber Plant under fruit trees; deters pests of roses & raspberries; Tansy deters flying insects, also Japanese beetles, striped cucumber beetles, squash bugs; deters ants Tarragon Good throughout garden Thyme Here and there in garden; deters cabbage worm Chives, onion, parsley, asparagus, marigold, nasturtium, Tomato carrot, limas Valerian Good anywhere in garden Wormwood As a border, keeps animals from the garden Plant along borders, near paths, near aromatic herbs; Yarrow enhances essential oil production of herbs Resource: The Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening, J.I. Rodale (editor) Sources:  Washington State University, Clark County Extension http://clark.wsu.edu/volunteer/mg/gm_tips/CompanionPlant.html  Seeds of Change: http://www.seedsofchange.com/enewsletter/issue_55/companion_planting.aspx 11
  12. 12. THE GOOD NEIGHBOR GARDENERS MAY 2011Workdays Garden Committee Who do you contact if: o You need to reschedule Voting Committee: o You think you are scheduled for Garden Coordinator - Bill Bogenhagen, one of these dates, but don’t see bogiemsn@yahoo.com, 836-7906 your name Cathy Arndt, the Rules Coordinator - her Communications Coordinator - Patty Zehl, contact information is in the list to the right pztwister@yahoo.com, 233-1074 Supporting: Koren Schemmel Garden Registrar/Treasurer - Jane Prejean,Wednesday May 18, 6-8pm jeprejean@yahoo.com, 831-0999 Workday Leader is Emil Haney Grounds Coordinator - Brad Sherman, brad.sherman@hologic.com, 215-9761Katy Bixby Donna Leet Historical & Records Coordinator - Wava Haney,Mark Felten Jennifer Magee wava.haney@uwc.edu, 827-5419Liz Freitick Beth MiscoDon Gibbard Robert Moldenhauer Rules Coordinator - Cathy Arndt,Mike Golden Greg Paveck cslanders@charter.net, 239-0590Nancy Korn Ancillary Committee: Children’s Garden Co-Coordinators - Julie Kessel,Saturday June 4, 10am-noon jmkessel@pediatrics.wisc.edu, 233-1592 Workday Leader is Patty Zehl Barbara Gallay, bgallay@gmail.com, 237-1744 Supporting - Brad ShermanMichael Fischer Don Gibbard Education Coordinator - Emil Haney,Jennifer Magee Dale Klubertanz ehaney@uwc.edu, 827-5419Mike Golden Donna LeetNancy Korn Katy Bixby Fundraising Coordinator - Lisa Garsee,Ruth Pedersen Donna Erickson garsee636@aol.com, 228-5133 Supporting - Bill Bogenhagen Native Area & Orchard - Kurt Zimmerman, kjzimmrmn@yahoo.com, 219-6425Saturday June 11, 10am-noon Supporting: Emil Haney Children’s Garden, no Workday Leader Plant-a-Row for the Hungry - Katerina Stephan, katerina@chorus.net Janet Rother-Harris Supporting: Cathy Arndt Supporting: Jane Prejean Ed Greiner Luke Greiner Social and Outreach - Koran Schemmel, Jessica Greiner kschemmel@gmail.com, 234-0913 12

×