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Flowering Lesson All Slides

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Flowering is an essential part of a plant's life cycle, and getting the timing and placement of flowering right can mean the difference between making lots of seeds for the next generation (success!) and none at all (EPIC fail). In this lesson, students will explore the genes that help Arabidopsis plants decide that it's time to make flowers. Once a plant makes the decision to flower, other genes must signal the right parts of the plants to develop into flowers. When this signaling is interrupted, very strange things can happen! In this lesson module, students will use current bioinformatics tools to build their understanding of how plants use their genes to respond to their environment.

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Flowering Lesson All Slides

  1. 1. H O W D O E S A P L A N T K N O W WH E N T O F L O WE R ? P A R T I Stopping to smell the flowers…
  2. 2. Warm-Up Take a moment to consider the following questions: 1. When have you ever given or received flowers? 2. What is your favorite flower, and why?
  3. 3. Your thoughts on flowers When have you given or received flowers? Favorite type of flower?
  4. 4. Jean Giraudoux* on Flowers “The flower is the poetry of reproduction. It is an example of the eternal seductiveness of life.” *Jean Giraudoux was a French poet in the early 20th century Discuss the above quote with a partner. How does this quote connect with what we have already discussed about flowers?
  5. 5. What are flowers for? We often think of flowers as a gift for someone special to us. But plants make flowers for a really important reason that has nothing to do with people: Flowers are the way that plants reproduce sexually.
  6. 6. Flower Dissection https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=LTxkHEpH4ZU Watch Jalen, an Exploratorium Explainer, dissect a rose. What are the parts of a flower? What roles do these parts serve?
  7. 7. Anatomy of a Flower This flower has male and female parts. Find and circle the words that suggest which part is male and which is female.
  8. 8. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  9. 9. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  10. 10. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  11. 11. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  12. 12. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  13. 13. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  14. 14. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  15. 15. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  16. 16. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  17. 17. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  18. 18. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  19. 19. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  20. 20. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers.
  21. 21. Why do we care about flowers? Fruits are the products of flowers. **Wheat, rice, corn, beans, and many other staple foods also come from flowering plants!**
  22. 22. Problem: Global climate change affects when and how plants flower, which will also affect when and how they make fruit.
  23. 23. Problem: Global climate change affects when and how plants flower, which will also affect when and how they make fruit.
  24. 24. Problem: Global climate change affects when and how plants flower, which will also affect when and how they make fruit.
  25. 25. Problem: Global climate change affects when and how plants flower, which will also affect when and how they make fruit.
  26. 26. Problem: Global climate change affects when and how plants flower, which will also affect when and how they make fruit. In order to address these issues, we will need to study plants and how they grow, make flowers, and set fruit.
  27. 27. To Understand Flowers, We need to Observe Plants! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spkA1f5FmxY Watch this video showing Arabidopsis growth and make observations about the plant on the left, the plant on the right, and both plants.
  28. 28. Observations of Flowering Arabidopsis Left Plant Right Plant Both plants:
  29. 29. What is the difference between these two plants? Hypotheses about why these plants grow so differently:
  30. 30. What is the difference between these two plants? Hypotheses about why these plants grow so differently: These two plants are exactly the same with one exception. The plant on the right has a mutation in one of its genes.
  31. 31. The plant on the right has a mutation in its DNA that causes it to grow differently
  32. 32. H O W D O E S A P L A N T K N O W WH E N T O F L O WE R ? P A R T I I Stopping to smell the flowers…
  33. 33. Warm Up What are the players in this image doing, and why?
  34. 34. Warm Up What are the players in this image doing, and why?
  35. 35. Scientists have drills, too. In biology, we use model organisms sort of like drills. Instead of using a drill to break down one skill for the big game, we use model organisms to break down one part of the big question: How do living things work?
  36. 36. What was that plant from yesterday? Had you seen the type of plant that was growing in the video from yesterday? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foHiKrlY9Qc
  37. 37. What was that plant from yesterday? Had you seen the type of plant that was growing in the video from yesterday? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foHiKrlY9Qc Arabidopsis is a drill, or model organism, for understanding how [plant] genomes work.
  38. 38. Arabidopsis (Thale Cress) • Small, fast-growing relative of broccoli, cauliflower, and mustard • First plant genome sequenced • Small genome: only 5 pairs of chromosomes (people have 23 pairs) • Scientists use Arabidopsis to try to understand the biology of other plants, and even humans.
  39. 39. Arabidopsis (Thale Cress) • Small, fast-growing relative of broccoli, cauliflower, and mustard • First plant genome sequenced • Small genome: only 5 pairs of chromosomes (people have 23 pairs) • Scientists use Arabidopsis to try to understand the biology of other plants, and even humans. Many experiments have already been done on Arabidopsis!
  40. 40. The plant on the right has a mutation in its DNA that causes it to grow differently
  41. 41. The plant on the right has a mutation in its DNA that causes it to grow differently
  42. 42. If many scientists have been working to understand Arabidopsis for a long time… How can you find out what we have already discovered about Arabidopsis?
  43. 43. Araport: Google for Arabidopsis
  44. 44. What happens when you put “flower” into Google What categories of information do I want? How many results are there? Question: What would you click here if you only wanted pictures of flowers?
  45. 45. What happens when you put “flower” into Araport? Question: What would you click here if you only wanted genes that are involved in flowering?
  46. 46. Comparing Google and ThaleMine If you click on any one of these categories, you will only get results of the type that you requested. Example: if you click on “Images” in Google, you will only get picture results. If you click on “Gene” in ThaleMine, you will only get gene results. How many gene hits did we get by putting in the search term “flower?”
  47. 47. Finding the Mutated Gene in Araport We can search for the gene, constans, that was mutated in the plant that we saw above, in order to see what kind of information we can find about it. 1. Enter constans into Araport. 2. Once you get the results, filter them so you only get gene hits.
  48. 48. Finding the Mutated Gene in Araport We can search for the gene, constans, that was mutated in the plant that we saw above, in order to see what kind of information we can find about it. 1. Enter constans into Araport. 2. Once you get the results, filter them so you only get gene hits.
  49. 49. Finding the Mutated Gene in Araport We can search for the gene, constans, that was mutated in the plant that we saw above, in order to see what kind of information we can find about it. 1. Enter constans into Araport. 2. Once you get the results, filter them so you only get gene hits.
  50. 50. Finding the Mutated Gene in Araport We can search for the gene, constans, that was mutated in the plant that we saw above, in order to see what kind of information we can find about it. 1. Enter constans into Araport. 2. Once you get the results, filter them so you only get gene hits.
  51. 51. Finding the Mutated Gene in Araport We can search for the gene, constans, that was mutated in the plant that we saw above, in order to see what kind of information we can find about it. 1. Enter constans into Araport. 2. Once you get the results, filter them so you only get gene hits.
  52. 52. Finding the Mutated Gene in Araport We can search for the gene, constans, that was mutated in the plant that we saw above, in order to see what kind of information we can find about it. 1. Enter constans into Araport. 2. Once you get the results, filter them so you only get gene hits.
  53. 53. constans Gene page Once you click on the constans gene page, there is A LOT of information! Let’s focus on three types of information about constans: Genomics, Function, and Expression
  54. 54. Genomics: Where is this gene “written?” Genomics shows where in the genome the constans gene is. You can scroll around to find genes that are nearby.
  55. 55. Genomics: Where is this gene “written?” Genomics shows where in the genome the constans gene is. You can scroll around to find genes that are nearby. You can also click on the gene to see its DNA code or sequence.
  56. 56. Genomics: Where is this gene “written?” Genomics shows where in the genome the constans gene is. You can scroll around to find genes that are nearby. You can also click on the gene to see its DNA code or sequence.
  57. 57. Function: What does this gene do? In this section, you can look at what we think this gene actually does in the plant through brief descriptions called Gene Ontology or GO terms.
  58. 58. Function: What does this gene do? Can you find any GO terms on the list that match up with what you saw in the video?
  59. 59. Expression: Where does this gene work? This map shows where (and when!) the constans gene is being expressed. This information is gathered by measuring the mRNA transcripts of the constans gene in all of the plant parts shown in the image.
  60. 60. What is gene expression? What does it mean to express yourself? A gene is encoded in DNA in the nucleus of the cell. In order for DNA’s message to be “heard” and executed in the cell, mRNA copies of the gene need to be made. How many mRNA copies of a gene that are made determines the level of gene expression.
  61. 61. Gene Expression Analogy Every gene must be expressed in the right place and at the right time in order for an organism to to function well. Similarly, each member of the marching band needs to be in the right place, at the right time, and playing the right note for us to see the T Rex and hear the music.
  62. 62. It matters WHEN, WHERE, and HOW MUCH genes are expressed. Would you tell someone goodnight at 9 a.m.? Would you say “congratulations” to a friend who just lost a basketball game? It is not good for all cells in an organism to express all their genes at one time. Each type of cell has a different expression profile that describes WHEN, WHERE, and HOW MUCH a gene is expressed.
  63. 63. What happens if genes are expressed in the wrong place, or at the wrong time?
  64. 64. What happens if genes are expressed in the wrong place, or at the wrong time? When gene expression goes wrong, it’s kind of like saying the wrong thing at the wrong time. Awkward, right?
  65. 65. What happens if genes are expressed in the wrong place, or at the wrong time? When gene expression goes wrong, it’s kind of like saying the wrong thing at the wrong time. Awkward, right? *Sigh* I know what you mean, dude.
  66. 66. What happens if genes are expressed in the wrong place, or at the wrong time? When gene expression goes wrong, it’s kind of like saying the wrong thing at the wrong time. Awkward, right? *Sigh* I know what you mean, dude. This fly has legs where its antennae should be because a gene that normally tells tissue to become legs is accidentally expressed where the antennae should be.
  67. 67. Expression: Where and when does this gene work? This is a developmental map of Arabidopsis. You can see some familiar structures, like leaves and stems. There are also some new structures, like siliques, which are like seed pods, and the shoot apex, which is where the plant grows most actively. RED = lots of expression
  68. 68. H O W D O E S A P L A N T K N O W WH E N T O F L O WE R ? P A R T I I I Stopping to smell the flowers…
  69. 69. Warm Up 1. When do plants normally flower? 1. What are some factors that you think plants use to decide that it is time to flower?
  70. 70. Factors that may help a plant decide to flower:
  71. 71. QUESTION How might genes be involved in the decision to flower?
  72. 72. Araport: Google for Arabidopsis
  73. 73. What if we only want to explore FLOWERING in Arabidopsis? There is a site for that!! http://www.phytosystems.ulg.ac.be/florid/
  74. 74. FLOR-ID: A way to understand genes that help Arabidopsis to flower
  75. 75. FLOR-ID: A way to understand genes that help Arabidopsis to flower This is our constans gene
  76. 76. FLOR-ID: A way to understand genes that help Arabidopsis to flower This is our constans gene! This is an environmental factor that affects how the constans gene works
  77. 77. Play with FLOR-ID 1. Go to FLOR-ID at http://www.phytosystems.ulg.ac.be/florid/ 2. Using the right-hand side bar, take 5 minutes to play with FLOR-ID. Use the box on your handout to record thoughts, notes, observations, drawings, and/or questions!
  78. 78. Break down the Legend 1. Go to the overview pathway from the homepage. 2. Look at the legend at the bottom of the page. 3. What do the following legend items mean? 1. Genes/proteins 2. Integrator genes 3. Positive regulations 4. Negative regulations 4. Work with your group to make sense of the legend and then we will discuss its meaning as a whole class.
  79. 79. Breaking Down the Legend Legend Item What this Legend Item Means Genes/Proteins Symbol: Integrator genes Symbol: Positive regulations Symbol: Negative regulations Symbol:
  80. 80. Pathway Icons What are some of the factors that influence flowering?
  81. 81. What do the icons mean? 1. Work with your group using the tools at your disposal to decide what each of these flowering factor is, and what it does to the plant. 2. Use the icon names and images to start. You may use other resources to help you define these terms. *It is okay to not know what something is!* 3. Try to connect your ideas about what each flowering factor is to what you already know about plants and living things. Does this factor make sense? Or does it surprise you?
  82. 82. Exit Slip: Proposal for further research We will be breaking up into groups to further explore these flowering factors. With your group: 1. Write a list of the top three factors you would like to study. 2. Write a proposal as to why you would like to study this flowering factor. Your proposal should include: 1. At least one reason why this flowering factor is important. 2. At least one way that you could test the effect of this flowering factor on plant growth.
  83. 83. IMAGE CREDITS • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Small_Red_Rose.JPG • https://pixabay.com/en/tulip-flower-white-and-red-green-754304/ • https://pixabay.com/en/flower-daisy-spring-766120/ • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Giraudoux_1927.jpg • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Strawberry_flower_and_guest.jp g https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navionics_Strawberry_Team.jpg • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pine_Apple_Flower.jpg • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Honeycrisp-Apple.jpg • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navionics_Pineapple_Team.jpg • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Banana.png • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BananaFlowerOcotepec.JPG • https://pixabay.com/en/flower-apple-tree-vernal-tree-93036/ • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arabis_thaliana_Sturm6.jpg
  84. 84. H O W D O E S A P L A N T K N O W WH E N T O F L O WE R ? P A R T I V Stopping to smell the flowers…
  85. 85. Floral Research Group Assignments
  86. 86. Floral Research Group Assignments Flowering Factors Presenters
  87. 87. THE SOCIETY FOR FLOWERING PLANTS All groups will be presenting their work at the annual meeting of the Society for Flowering Plants (SFP). • Presentations will be judged by your peers as well as the leadership committee for the Society of Flowering Plants • Prizes will be given for presentations based on their quality, clarity, and originality! • See the rubric for the judging criteria. Good luck!

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