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L’islam

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Unité 5- 2º ESO- La Moyen Âge

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L’islam

  1. 1. L’ISLAM 2º ESO
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Quelle est la signification du mot « Islam » ? • Qui est le prophète le plus important de l’Islam ? • Quel est le livre sacré (sagrado) de l’Islam ? • Un zoco, qu’est-ce que c’est ? • Une medina, qu’est-ce que c’est ?
  3. 3. L’ENVIRONNEMENT (EL MEDIO NATURAL) Observe la carte de la péninsule arabique : . indique le nom des océans et des mers . indique où se trouvent Damas (Damasco), Médine, La Mecque (La Meca), Bagdad et Jérusalem
  4. 4. L’ENVIRONNEMENT (EL MEDIO NATURAL) • Quel est le type de paysage de cette péninsule ? • Qui sont les nomades (nómadas)? • Qui sont les bédouins (beduinos) ? • Les caravanes, qu’est-ce que c’est ?
  5. 5. 1.1.MAHOMET (MAHOMA) • C’est le prophète de l’Islam • Il est né à La Mecque en 570 • El arcángel Gabriel le mandó predicar la religión de Alá • La religion d’Allah est l’Islam (“soumission à Dieu”, “sumisión a Dios”) • Les croyants de la religion islamique sont des musulmans (musulmanes o “entregados a Dios”)
  6. 6. Mahomet
  7. 7. 1.2. LES PRINCIPES (PRECEPTOS) DE L’ISLAM Les principes de l’Islam sont écrits dans le Coran, livre sacré de l’Islam. Il y en a cinq : • 1- Croire (creer) en Allah et en son prophète Mahomet. • 2- Prier (orar) cinq fois par jour vers la Mecque. • 3- Donner des aumônes (dar limosna). • 4- Jeûner pendant le ramadan (ayunar en el mes de Ramadán). • 5- Faire un pèlerinage à la Mecque une fois dans sa vie
  8. 8. Le Coran
  9. 9. activités • Quel est le principe islamique que tous les musulmans doivent accomplir (deben cumplir) une fois dans leur vie ? • Qui est l’empereur byzantin du VIe siècle? • Quelle est le peuple barbare qui habite dans la Péninsule Ibérique au VIe siècle ?
  10. 10. 2. L’EXPANSION DE L’ISLAM • Mahomet commence à prêcher (predicar) à la Mecque, ville où se trouve la pierre noire de la Kaaba (la Cava) • Avant (antes), les arabes étaient polythéistes • Mahomet a commencé à avoir des fidèles • Mahomet a été persécuté, il a fui la Mecque en 622 (la ville du prophète, appelée Yatrib). Cette fuite s’appelle Hégire (Hégira) • L’année 622 marque le début du calendrier musulman • Mahomet a monté une armée, qui a conquis peu à peu les villes de la Péninsule Arabique, dont La Mecque (La Meca) (630). • Il a unifié les différentes tribus arabes et il est devenu un chef religieux, militaire et politique. • Il est mort en 632. Il a été succédé par des califes (“successeurs”, califas “sucesor”)
  11. 11. 622
  12. 12. Les 4 premiers califes • Les premiers quatre califes ont fait (hicieron) la Guerre Sainte et l’Islam s'est propagé (propagó) rapidement
  13. 13. Le califat (califato) Omeya (661-750) –Sa capitale est Damas (Damasco), aujourd’hui c’est la capitale de la Syrie –Los Omeya hacen hereditario el cargo de califa. –Ils ont conquis l’empire perse, l’Égypte, la Syrie, la Palestine, le Nord de l’Afrique, la Péninsule Ibérique (Al-Andalus). Vers l’ouest, ils arrivèrent jusqu’au fleuve Indus (Indo).
  14. 14. Le califat abasí (750-1258) –Ils ont assassiné pratiquement à toute la famille Omeya. –Sa capitale est Bagdad (aujourd’hui, capitale de l’Irak) –Comenzó a debilitarse en el siglo X hasta que en el XIII cayó en manos del Imperio Mongol
  15. 15. L’expansion de l’Islam
  16. 16. activités • Pourquoi Mahomet fuit la Mecque? • Quelle est la signification de l’année 622 pour les musulmans? • Qui sont les califes? • La famille Abasí commença à gouverner en 750. Qui est l’empereur carolingien couronné dans l’année 800 ?
  17. 17. 3. L’ORGANISATION POLITIQUE- Mahomet a unifié les tribus nomades arabes sous son pouvoir. - Après Mahomet, les califes ont créé de différents postes (cargos) politiques: 1. Le calife (califa): c’est le chef religieux, politique, et juridique ; c’est la plus haute autorité de l’empire islamique. 2. Le vizir (visir o hayid ): c’est le premier ministre du calife. Il dirige l’administration et les finances (hacienda). 3. Les émirs (emires o walís): ils gouvernaient les provinces de l’empire; ils représentaient le calife et avaient le pouvoir politique et militaire. 4. Les juges (jueces o cadís): Ils appliquaient les lois d’après (según) le Coran. 5. Les trésoriers (tesoreros reales o diwanes):
  18. 18. activités - Relie avec des flèches : Calife Recauda impuestos Vizir il fait respecter la loi Émir Premier ministre Cadí la plus haute autorité Diwan il gouverne une province - Indique la date de ces événements historiques: *Mahomet a fui de la Mecque à Médine ..................... *La dynastie Omeya établit la capitale à Damas .. .................. *La dynastie Abasí établit la capitale à Bagdad. .....................
  19. 19. 3. L’ÉCONOMIE • Agriculture: – cultivos de secano (céréales, vignes et olivier) y de regadío (riz, orange, canne à sucre - caña de azúcar). –Canaux d’irrigation (canales y acequias), puits (pozos), grande roue (norias).
  20. 20. 3. L’ÉCONOMIE • Élevage (ganadería): –Pastoreo nómada –Élevage de brevis (ovejas) (l’islam interdit de manger de la viande de cochon), de pigeons (palomas) et d’abeilles (abejas). • Commerce: –Principal secteur économique de l’Islam –Zocos dans les villes –Monnaies: dinar (or) et dirham (argent) –Principales villes commerçantes: Bagdad, Le Caire (El Cairo), Alexandrie (Alejandría), Fez. –Caravanes terrestres –Contrôle des routes maritimes (route de la soie–seda-) et fluviales entre l’Orient et l’Occident.
  21. 21. 3. L’ÉCONOMIE • Les mines –Mines de fer, de plomb, d’argent, de cuivre et d’or –Carrières (canteras) • Pêche et extraction du sel (Pesca y extracción de sal (salinas) • Artisanat: esparto (cestos y esteras) –Artisanat textil et orfèbrerie (vidrio, cerámica)
  22. 22. 4.LA SOCIÉTÉ • Había grandes desigualdades: –Aristocracia: familiares de emires y califas, árabes y grandes propietarios de tierras y ganado –Grupo intermedio: comerciantes, artesanos, pequeños propietarios de tierra. –La mayoría del pueblo: campesinos, ganaderos, artesanos sin propiedad –No musulmanes: pagan impuesto para mantener su propiedad y religión.
  23. 23. 4.LA SOCIÉTÉ • La mayoría de la población islámica vivía en las ciudades. –Calles irregulares, estrechas. –Casas de uno o dos pisos con patio interior y ventanas escasas con celosías. –La medina era la zona interior de las murallas donde estaban las viviendas, mezquita y zoco –El alcázar era la residencia del gobernador y estaba fuera de la medina y amurallado –Los arrabales estaban fuera de las murallas. Allí estaba el cementerio
  24. 24. 5.LA CULTURE • El Islam impuso su religión y su lengua. • Literatura: Cuentos de los mil y una noche • Avances técnicos: astrolabio, papel, brújula, pólvora • ´Avances matemáticos: el cero.
  25. 25. L’ART ISLAMIQUE • ARQUITECTURA dominante • Escaso desarrollo de pintura y escultura (recomendación del Corán de no reproducir a Mahoma ni otras figuras de animales o personas).
  26. 26. L’architecture
  27. 27. Les arcs
  28. 28. La decoración • Caligráfica • Lacería (geométrica) • Vegetal (ataurique)
  29. 29. Materiales • Muy pobres materiales: –Yeso –Ladrillo –Azulejos –Madera
  30. 30. Cubiertas • Bóvedas: –De mocárabes –Califal –Gallonada
  31. 31. Bóveda de mocárabes
  32. 32. Bóveda gallonada
  33. 33. Bóveda de crucería califal
  34. 34. Al-Ándalus Territorio de la Península Ibérica entre 711 y 1492. Fases: - Invasión musulmana 711-722 - Batalla de Guadalete, muere don Rodrigo último rey visigodo. - Emirato dependiente de Damasco, 722-756 - Emirato Independiente de Bagdad 756-929 - Califato de Córdoba 929-1031 - Primeros reinos de taifas 1031-1086 - Imperio almorávide 1086-1130
  35. 35. Al-Ándalus - Segundos reinos de Taifas 1031- 1145 - Imperio almohade 1145 -1212 - Terceros reinos de Taifas 1212-1492 - Último reino musulmán: Reino Nazarí de Granada - Ibn Nasr- Boabdil de Granada entrega las llaves de la ciudad a los Reyes Católicos. -

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