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Qualitative Research
What is the
Total Quality Framework?
Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press)
What is the TQF?
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 2
 Scope
 Coverage
• Working with complete & accurate lists.
 Sample design
• Representativeness of participants to the target
population (fair & balanced representation).
• Sorting (stratifying) the list when relevant
characteristics are known.
• Systematic, random selection across the entire list.
 Nonresponse
• Strategies to gain access to & cooperation from
participants.
Credibility
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 3
 Data Gathering
 Content/information obtained
• Interviewer, moderator guide.
• Observation guide & grid.
 Researcher effects
• Interviewer, moderator, observer bias.
– Reflexive journal
• Interviewer, moderator, observer inconsistency.
– Training
 Participant effects
• Willingness/ability to provide information.
– Building rapport
• Altering behavior (Hawthorne effect).
– Post-observation debriefing
Credibility (continued)
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 4
What is the TQF?
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 6
 Processing
 Transcriptions
• Qualities of the transcriptionist.
 Coding
• Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software
(CAQDAS).
– Can be useful but it is not sufficient.
• Intercoder reliability.
(continued)
Analyzability
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 7
 Processing (continued)
 Making sense of the data
• Selecting the unit of analysis.
• Developing unique codes.
• Coding.
• Identifying categories.
• Identifying themes or patterns.
• Drawing interpretations & implications from the data.
Analyzability (continued)
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 8
 Verification
 Add meaning & depth to the data to better inform
researcher’s interpretations & recommendations
 Evidence to support/refute findings
 Types:
• Peer debriefings
• Triangulation
• Deviant cases
• Reflexive journal
Analyzability (continued)
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 9
What is the TQF?
What is the TQF?
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 12
 “Thick description” of details in the final document
 Give consumers of the research what they need to:
• Understand the people &/or phenomena under
investigation.
• Assign value to the interpretations & recommendations.
• Evaluate the transferability to other contexts.
 Types of information to include:
• Comprehensiveness of the lists for sampling.
• Rationale for the number of research events (e.g., IDIs).
• Nonresponse, problems in gaining cooperation.
• Decisions in the field that altered the design or objectives.
• Operational logistics (e.g., group facility, observers).
• Transcription, coding, & verification processes.
• Researcher’s field notes, reflexive journal.
Transparency
What is the TQF?
What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach
(Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 13
What is the TQF?
What is the TQF?
What is the TQF?

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Qualitative Research: What is the Total Quality Framework?

  • 1. Qualitative Research What is the Total Quality Framework? Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press)
  • 2. What is the TQF?
  • 3. What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 2
  • 4.  Scope  Coverage • Working with complete & accurate lists.  Sample design • Representativeness of participants to the target population (fair & balanced representation). • Sorting (stratifying) the list when relevant characteristics are known. • Systematic, random selection across the entire list.  Nonresponse • Strategies to gain access to & cooperation from participants. Credibility What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 3
  • 5.  Data Gathering  Content/information obtained • Interviewer, moderator guide. • Observation guide & grid.  Researcher effects • Interviewer, moderator, observer bias. – Reflexive journal • Interviewer, moderator, observer inconsistency. – Training  Participant effects • Willingness/ability to provide information. – Building rapport • Altering behavior (Hawthorne effect). – Post-observation debriefing Credibility (continued) What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 4
  • 6. What is the TQF?
  • 7. What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 6
  • 8.  Processing  Transcriptions • Qualities of the transcriptionist.  Coding • Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS). – Can be useful but it is not sufficient. • Intercoder reliability. (continued) Analyzability What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 7
  • 9.  Processing (continued)  Making sense of the data • Selecting the unit of analysis. • Developing unique codes. • Coding. • Identifying categories. • Identifying themes or patterns. • Drawing interpretations & implications from the data. Analyzability (continued) What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 8
  • 10.  Verification  Add meaning & depth to the data to better inform researcher’s interpretations & recommendations  Evidence to support/refute findings  Types: • Peer debriefings • Triangulation • Deviant cases • Reflexive journal Analyzability (continued) What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 9
  • 11. What is the TQF?
  • 12. What is the TQF?
  • 13. What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 12
  • 14.  “Thick description” of details in the final document  Give consumers of the research what they need to: • Understand the people &/or phenomena under investigation. • Assign value to the interpretations & recommendations. • Evaluate the transferability to other contexts.  Types of information to include: • Comprehensiveness of the lists for sampling. • Rationale for the number of research events (e.g., IDIs). • Nonresponse, problems in gaining cooperation. • Decisions in the field that altered the design or objectives. • Operational logistics (e.g., group facility, observers). • Transcription, coding, & verification processes. • Researcher’s field notes, reflexive journal. Transparency What is the TQF? What is the Total Quality Framework? ● Adapted from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller, M.R. & Lavrakas, P. J., 2015. New York: Guilford Press) 13
  • 15. What is the TQF?
  • 16. What is the TQF?
  • 17. What is the TQF?