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Environment conference presentation by Julie Girling, MEP


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Presentation by Julie Girling MEP (South West & Gibraltar) to the Environment Conference 2017 which took place on Friday 17th March at the Royal Agricultural University, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, UK.

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Environment conference presentation by Julie Girling, MEP

  1. 1. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture
  2. 2. Welcome & Introduction by Julie Girling MEP
  3. 3. Julie Girling MEP What has the EU ever done for us? An overview of EU Environmental Legislation and Finances @juliegirling #envifuture
  4. 4. Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Introduced in 1962 • Strong culture of state intervention in founding member states • 70% of total EU spending budget (now reduced to 40%) • Subsidies led to over production • No environmental element
  5. 5. CAP Reforms • 1972 implementation of Mansholt Reform • 1980s Dairy Quotas, budget ceilings established • 1990s McSharry Reforms including set aside, retirement support, reduced coupled support, increased complexity and administrative burden
  6. 6. 21st Century Reforms • Harmonised payments for arable crops • Increased coupling for livestock • 2 pillar approach • Agri-environmental schemes now compulsory in member states • NO budget or financial reforms
  7. 7. 2003 Fischler Reforms • Decoupling principle agreed • Single payment scheme introduced (England 2003) • Cross Compliance for food safety, environment and animal welfare introduced Ciolos Reforms • Move towards stronger environmental element – Greening • Public money for public goods • Reduced price intervention • Active farmer principle
  8. 8. CAP 2017 4 Basic Regulations • Direct Payments • Rural Development • CAP financing • Single CMO/market measures Greening • 30% of direct payments must go to provide crop diversification, EFAs etc • GAEC
  9. 9. CAP Conclusions • Expensive – still 39% of total EU budget €59billion • Unwieldy – one common system from the Algarve to the Arctic • Unfair – no re-calibration of total budget • ENVIRONMENT – not delivering maximum benefits • Currently delivers circa €3.5billion direct from central fund to the countryside
  10. 10. Where CAP Finances Go: CAP - Spending Areas Billions Euros – 2014 Source: EU Commission Rural Development Fisheries Environment Direct Aid Direct Aid: 40.58Bn Rural Development: 11.19Bn Fisheries: 0.76Bn Environment: 0.27Bn
  11. 11. Who Pays for CAP? CAP - Major Contributors Billion Euros – 2014 Source: EU Commission UK Poland Netherlands Germany France Italy UK: 3.9Bn Poland: 5Bn Netherlands: 0.9Bn Germany: 6.1Bn France: 8.5Bn Italy: 5.5Bn
  12. 12. Environmental Legislation • 650 Legal Acts • Administered by DEFRA • Enforced via the European Court of Justice • Post Brexit – the administrator becomes the ultimate enforcer • New access to justice may be required
  13. 13. ECHA / EFSA • REACH regulation • PPP (pesticides) regulation • Biocides regulation • CLP regulation Impact on water, ecosystems and non target organisms
  14. 14. Nature Protection / Biodiversity • Birds Directive • Habitats Directive Objectives: 1. To maintain populations at favourable conservation levels 2. Contribute to biodiversity through habitat conservation 3. Protect natural species of flora and fauna
  15. 15. Invasive Alien Species • Provides for cross-border action and co-operation to tackle IAS • Early alert system • Regulates trade practices
  16. 16. Water Quality • Water Framework Directive • Priority substances • Nitrates Directive • Urban Waste Water Directive • Drinking Water Directive • Bathing Water Directive • Flood Directive
  17. 17. LIFE The only funding instrument directed exclusively at achieving the objectives of the environmental acquis • Since 1992 the UK has received 6.2% of all funding - €241.5m • UK is currently spending the largest ever conservation grant - €12m
  18. 18. Environmental Impacts Environmental Impact Assessment • Requires “assessment of the environmental effects of those public and private projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment” • Systematic collection and analysis of information Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive • Assessment of a wide range of public plans
  19. 19. Climate Change UK negotiates with UNFCCC as part of the EU. Uks Kyoto and Paris obligations are delivered jointly. Contribution to the Treasury from ETS is £500m pa • EU ETS • NU non ETS • LULUCF • Effort sharing
  20. 20. Climate Change Climate change obligations remain. Non EU ETS increases in importance. • Agriculture and the countryside • Forestry • Land use change • Waste • Energy efficiency – buildings, processes etc. UK target +16% carbon savings
  21. 21. Air Quality • National Emissions Ceilings Directive • Ambient Air Quality Directive • Medium Combustion Plants • Large Combustion Plants • Industrial Emissions Directive Objectives: • To reduce pollution including PM NOX and NH3 • To tackle eutrophication and acid deposition
  22. 22. Research and innovation The UK is one of the largest recipients of research funding in the EU. • Between 2007 – 2013 the UK received the fourth largest share of research and innovation funding with €8.8 billion out of a total of €107 billion • Re funding awarded on a competitive basis, the UK was the second largest recipient after Germany, with €6.9 billion out of a total of €55.4 billion. • At the start of 2017 UK was the top recipient of EU innovation funding
  23. 23. Other Issues • Organic Farming • Plant Health • Seeds Regulation • Animal Welfare • Animal Health • GMOs • Availability of labour / immigration
  24. 24. Questions Post Brexit • Jurisdiction for enforcement • Budgets – with the Treasury come up with the cash? • Replication of agencies including RPA • International competitiveness of farming • Government commitment to the environment • Trans boundary nature of policy • Unknown future trading relationships • TFEU require full compliance ……… will this continue? • How will we track EU legislative changes in the future? • Disentanglement of joint international targets / conventions
  25. 25. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture
  26. 26. Martin Lane Director, Cotswolds AONB The value of EU Environment Legislation in Protected Landscapes and future Opportunities
  27. 27. The Value of EU Environmental Legislation in Protected Landscapes and future Opportunities
  28. 28. Protected Landscapes • In England & Wales • 13 National Parks, 38 AONBs, & 43 Heritage Coasts • In the South West • 2 National Parks, 13 AONBs, & 20 Heritage Coasts • 25% of the country designated as AONB or National Park, a truly national set of assets • Our iconic high quality landscapes are home to high quality habitats and their associated species • Internationally recognised by IUCN, World Conservation Union
  29. 29. ProtectedLandscapesinEnglandandWales
  30. 30. Value of Protected Landscapes • Protected Landscapes in England & Wales • worth £20 billion to the economy • home to 85,000 businesses • receive 260 million visits a year, worth over £6 billion a year • Cotswolds AONB • £2 billion GVA of economic activity • home to 9,500 businesses • Economic contribution of Cotswolds AONB • £337 million GVA of economic activity • 9,720 jobs critically dependent upon landscape quality • attracts 23 million day visits a year, worth £1 billion
  31. 31. ProtectedLandscapes,SPAsandSACsintheSouthWest
  32. 32. Habitats Directive • 1992 - to maintain or restore natural habitats and wild species • led to Special Areas of Conservation, SACs • led to favourable condition assessments of SSSIs & NNRs • driven improved management of SSSIs , NNRs and SACs • In the Cotswolds • 5 SACs, 3 NNRs and 89 SSSIs • Ancient semi natural woodlands and flower rich grasslands are both special qualities of the Cotswolds AONB landscape
  33. 33. Birds Directive • 1979 - to maintain wild bird populations and protect vulnerable birds • Oldest piece of EU environmental legislation • led to Special Protection Areas, SPAs • The associated habitats are often a special quality of the Protected Landscape • East Devon heathland SPA, East Devon AONB and Tamar estuary SPA, Tamar Valley AONB
  34. 34. Water Framework Directive • 2000 - a framework for the protection of inland rivers and lakes, estuaries, coastal waters and groundwater • river basin districts and river basin management plans • reduced pollution of watercourses • improved management of sewage entering the sea and cleaner beaches • nitrate vulnerable zones • catchment sensitive farming
  35. 35. SEA Directive & Habitats Regulations • Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive, SEA, 2001 • Seeks to integrate environmental considerations into the preparation and adoption of plans and programmes with a view to promoting sustainable development • Habitat Regulations • Requires the assessment of certain plans or projects which affect Natura 2000 sites • Required of National Park and AONB plans – even if these are environment based plans • Safeguards the special qualities of Protected Landscapes
  36. 36. EIA Directive • Environmental Impact Assessment Directive EIA, 1985 • seeks to ensure that a local planning authority when deciding whether to grant planning permission for a project, which is likely to have significant effects on the environment, does so in the full knowledge of the likely significant effects, and takes this into account in the decision making process. • Forestry, woodland creation, change of land use • Increasing productivity of uncultivated land • Water management, irrigation, land drainage, flood defence • Safeguards the special qualities of Protected Landscapes
  37. 37. CAP • Basic payment scheme • Incorporates cross compliance • Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions • Boundaries, Public Rights of Way, SSSIs, Ancient Monuments • Statutory Management Requirements • Habitats Directive, Birds Directive, Animal Health & Welfare • Rural development programme • Agri environment • Countryside Stewardship, Environmental Stewardship • Protected Landscapes have been a target for investment • LEADER • Countryside productivity • Growth programme
  38. 38. AgrienvironmentinvestmentacrosstheCotswoldsAONB Environmental Stewardship Agreements covering 70% of the AONB 2014/15, Entry Level accounted for 43% and Higher Level Stewardship accounted for 57%. Worth £9.14 million / year
  39. 39. A farmer perspective
  40. 40. A farmer perspective
  41. 41. Natura 2000 • Natura 2000 sites (SACs and SPAs) aimed for • identification and designation of sites • improved management • favourable condition of sites • 2010 targets missed across the EU, led to revised targets for 2020 and additional finances being made available • Mainland Europe often talks of “paper parks”, a designation, but little or no management • Numbers of designations and land area has increased, but overall habitats and species remain in decline
  42. 42. EU & Europe • EU the institution v Europe the place • Landscape, biodiversity, migrating species, plant pests and diseases don’t respect administrative boundaries • Brexit = leaving the EU, not Europe • What was life like before the EU Directives ? • In 1973 as the UK joined the EU it was described as the “Dirty Man of Europe” • Only country in western Europe who had failed to control pollution from cars and power stations, it was undermining pesticide control and ignoring bathing water standards
  43. 43. EU Benefits • Have our Protected Landscapes benefitted ? • Has the wider environment benefitted ? • EU Legislation and Directives • cleaned up the environment • provided stronger protection for the environment • raised standards • Investment: CAP, LIFE, LEADER • EU Directives + their enshrinement in UK law compare well with the duties on public bodies to have regard to the purposes of National Park and AONB designation • Section 62 of the Environment Act 1995 • Section 85 of the Countryside & Rights of Way Act 2000
  44. 44. Directives & Conventions • EU Directives enshrined in our Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981, Conservation Regulations 1994, Town & Country Planning Regulations 2011 • Brexit could lead to a great Repeal Bill • After the UK exits the EU it remains a signatory to; • Ramsar Convention 1971, conservation of wetlands • Bonn Convention 1979, forerunner to Birds Directive • Bern Convention 1982, forerunner to Habitats Directive • European Landscape Convention 2004, (Council of Europe)
  45. 45. Simplify the system • Can we simplify the system ? • Bring strands from multiple regulations together into a single issue or topic specific regulation • Merge the Water Framework Directive Groundwater Directive, and Nitrates Directive into one single regulation removing duplication without diminishing their impact
  46. 46. Reduce the overlap • Can we reduce the overlaps ? • SSSI + Ramsar site + SPA + Heritage Coast + AONB (Isles of Scilly) • NNR + SSSI + SAC + National Park (Dartmoor) • AONB + National Park (North Norfolk Coast & The Broads) • Do we need two national landscape designations ? • New approaches, Natural Capital Committee ? • Would the general public better understand, appreciate, value and support a simpler system ?
  47. 47. A local menu • A menu for each Protected Landscape • Management Plan, Landscape Assessment, Strategy & Guidelines • Locally tailored, informed, owned and evidenced approach • Local rates to reflect local costs • Local advice and local delivery • Outcomes based, payment by results • A combined environmental and socio economic menu • Agri environment + Countryside Productivity + LEADER
  48. 48. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture
  49. 49. John Mortimer CLA South West Director Brexit – An Opportunity to Reshape Rural Business
  50. 50. BREXIT An opportunity to reshape rural business John Mortimer CLA Director South West 17 March 2017
  51. 51. What’s rural?
  52. 52. Government’s standard definition  Areas that fall outside of settlements with more than 10,000 resident population  10 categories on a scale between “major conurbation” and “hamlets and isolated dwellings”  Frequently aggregated to predominantly rural, urban with significant rural and predominantly urban  On the other hand – we all know it when we see it!
  53. 53. Rural urban classification 2011
  54. 54. Rural urban classification 2011by local authority
  55. 55. What’s the scale of rural business?
  56. 56. And is it worth worrying about?
  57. 57. Rural business  Rural businesses are those that operate and trade in defined rural areas - both land-based and non land based businesses  541,000 registered businesses in rural areas - 25% of all registered businesses in England  90,000 (16%) of these are land based - on agriculture, forestry and fishing
  58. 58. Gross value added  England Rural GVA (2016) – Predominantly rural: £229 billion (16%) – Urban with significant rural: £152 billion (12%)  GVA per workforce job is a measure of productivity  UK productivity is currently 20% below the G7 average  Rural productivity is 17% lower than urban productivity (7% ex London)  Gross value added (GVA) is a measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy. In national accounts GVA is output minus intermediate consumption.
  59. 59. Business activities
  60. 60. UK agri-food sector GVA (2013)  The agri-food sector contributed £103.0 billion or 7.6% to national GVA in 2013 employing 3.8 million people of which 430,000 were in agriculture and fishing
  61. 61. England tourism sector GVA (2010)  The England tourism sector contributed £67.6 billion  £10.7bn in predominantly rural areas Predominantly Urban inc London £50.1bn (74%) Predominantly Rural £10.7bn (16%) Significantly Rural £6.8bn (10%)
  62. 62. The characteristics of rural businesses  Typically micro or small businesses  96% are family owned - 89% of agricultural businesses  60% have been in the family for over 50 years  78% unincorporated  Asset rich and cash poor  Low debt/equity ratios  But they invest for the long term  Significant contributors to the national economy  But lower productivity than urban businesses  Potential for growth
  63. 63. So, rural business really matters!
  64. 64. And it’s investing for the future
  65. 65. Investment by rural land based businesses
  66. 66. Regional investment 2012 – 2015
  67. 67. Regional investment 2012 – 2015
  68. 68. What rural land based businesses invested in
  69. 69. What could possibly go wrong?
  70. 70. Inhibitors of growth in the rural economy  Low financial returns and market failure – particularly in the core land based activity  Low recognition of the value of public goods  Over regulation  Restrictive and costly planning system  Inadequate digital connectivity – broadband and mobile  Bureaucracy associated with public funding options  Labour supply and access to skills  Low confidence in the taxation system  Absence of long term governmental strategies for the rural economy  Poor productivity
  71. 71. What opportunities can we take from Brexit to make the rural economy better?
  72. 72. Reinvesting the UK's EU membership fee  In 2015 the UK government paid £13 billion to the EU budget  EU spending on the UK was £4.5 billion  So the UK’s ‘net contribution’ was estimated at about £8.5 billion  Current EU spending on agriculture and rural development is £3.2 billion
  73. 73. Helping government to invest for growth  Increasing productivity and delivering improved environmental outcomes through a new, long term, world leading food, farming and environment policy – which works for the UK  Creating markets for public goods that reflect value and not profit foregone  Retaining markets in the EU whilst discovering new markets further afield – on terms that strengthen our industry  Removing regulation and bureaucracy that unnecessarily inhibit growth  Ensuring an adequately skilled workforce from home and abroad  Connecting the rural economy to national and global markets
  74. 74. Shared visions and principles for a new policy  Objectives set out by both CLA and Defra seem to agree on a vision of a policy that:  Secures a more market oriented, productive, competitive and resilient farming and forestry sector  Recognises the value of public goods  Enhances the environment  Delivers food security  Has a dedicated UK budget  Delivers value for money
  75. 75. Creating markets in public goods  Recognising and rewarding land managers for eco-system services such as:  Uplands management  Creation and management of habitats, woodland and meadows  Carbon storage  Water and flood management  Bio-diversity  Contracts between the state and land manager based on agreed environmental outcomes  Creating new markets for private investment in natural capital services and bio-diversity offsetting
  76. 76. Trade  Outcome of EU trade negotiation will determine scale and nature of required policy intervention  Most outcomes will present opportunities  Grow existing markets at home and abroad  Bilateral trade deals to open new markets across the world  Trade agreements come with compliance strings and regulatory standards  Level playing fields or consumer choices?  Animal welfare – a trade advantage?  Quality standards and labelling
  77. 77. Regulation  Take immediate opportunities to remove obvious burdens  Provide certainty for businesses by ensuring all laws transfer into domestic law  Review and repeal to reduce regulatory burdens  Remove the gold plating  Develop new, world leading approaches to achieving regulatory outcomes  Ensure a regulatory framework that works for and is relevant to the UK
  78. 78. Labour market, skills and innovation  Establish appropriate sector specific schemes that ensure availability of seasonal, permanent and skilled labour  Invest in skills  Invest in research and innovation – and in the adoption of the outcomes.
  79. 79. Conclusion  The rural economy is diverse and rural businesses take many forms and operate across many sectors  Rural businesses contribute £229 billion each year to the English economy, representing 16% of total GVA but productivity lags the rest of the economy  Rural business matters  The CLA and Government recognise, and largely agree, what the obstacles to growth in the rural economy are  Brexit presents huge challenges – but also opportunities to reshape the rural economy  Our success is vital to the success of Brexit – and we need to make sure government doesn’t forget it.
  80. 80. 16 Belgrave Square London SW1X 8PQ Tel 020 7235 0511 Fax 020 7235 4696 Email Website THANK YOU
  81. 81. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture
  82. 82. Nick Bruce-White RSPB South West Director Brexit – Opportunities & Threats
  83. 83. BREXIT:The opportunities & threats for nature Nick Bruce-White Regional Director – RSPB South West
  84. 84. Policy wonk Pragmatist Optimist Hope I am a farmer & conservationist About me...
  85. 85. Source: University of Exeter, RSPB & PECBMS
  86. 86. Source: WWF & ZSL
  87. 87. (0.5%) Source: Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
  88. 88. Securing existing environmental laws
  89. 89. Securing existing environmental laws
  90. 90. Securing the UK’s global climate leadership
  91. 91. Securing the UK’s global climate leadership
  92. 92. Sustainable fisheries management
  93. 93. Sustainable farming & land use policies
  94. 94. Farmland bird index (FBI)
  95. 95. First ever species-based driver assessment highlights agriculture and climate change
  96. 96. What role can agri-env play? E Anglia & Oxon 0 0.5 1 1.5 2008 2011 2014 BBS HLS 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2008 2011 2014 BBS HLS West Midlands HLS +32% BBS -14% HLS +97% BBS -27% Farmland bird indicator response Source: RSPB & BTO
  97. 97. @OcelotNick
  98. 98. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture
  99. 99. Nick von Westenholz NFU Director of EU Exit & International Trade Brexit – Opportunities & Threats
  100. 100. Brexit – Opportunities & Threats Nick von Westenholz Director, EU Exit & International Trade
  102. 102. THE PROCESS • No negotiation without notification: EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill now enacted. • Article 50 triggered by end of March 2017 – EC then adopts negotiating “guidelines” • Two year process – can be extended by unanimous agreement – to negotiate “withdrawal agreement.” • Question over agreement on “future relationship” • Dutch elections March 2017, French elections April/May 2017, German elections Autumn 2017. • UK Parliamentary (and EU Parl) approval required • Great Repeal Bill & other legislation
  103. 103. THE POLITICS
  104. 104. Devolved nations Parliament 27 EU Member States Complicating factors
  105. 105. THE POLICY  Leave the single market, while seeking the greatest possible access  Out of the Customs Union, but looking for a customs agreement  Britain could pay if necessary  A final deal put to a vote of both Houses of Parliament  Guarantee the rights of EU nationals in Britain, and Britons living in Europe ASAP  A phased process of implementation  No deal' better than a 'bad deal' THE PM’s PLAN
  106. 106. NFU’s Policy Priorities Profitable, Competitive, Productive farm businesses: Economic benefits: • Contribute to UK economic growth & jobs • Continue to underpin the food industry – our largest manufacturing sector • Support vibrant and sustainable rural communities & non-food sectors (e.g. tourism, renewables) UK agriculture should be Progressive and Sustainable, both as businesses and in delivering benefits to society at large Societal benefits: • Contribute to increased UK food security, with safe, affordable food produced to high standards • Deliver public/environmental goods - “You can’t go Green if you’re in the Red…” • Manage the c. 75% of the UK land mass currently farmed
  107. 107. Focus is on the four main policy areas of: NFU’s Policy Priorities TRADE LABOUR DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL POLICY REGULATION
  108. 108. TRADE
  109. 109. TRADE
  110. 110. TRADE EU Common External Tariff rates under WTO Not to mention non-tariff barriers – entry checks, border delays, certification, standards, etc
  111. 111. TRADE Best access to EU markets • 72% of food exports to EU. Some sectors very dependent – e.g. 38% of UK lamb exported into EU • “Free and frictionless” trade: Zero tariffs and low non-tariff barriers Develop and expand non-EU markets • Government must ensure trade with the rest of the world is on level- playing field – same conditions applying to imports as UK production • Farming and food to feature from day one in trade talks, not afterthought • Identify and develop opportunities in existing and new markets
  112. 112. LABOUR Issue for whole food chain – not just agriculture/horticulture & relates to both seasonal and permanent workforce Urgent concern over labour for horticulture, pigs and poultry sectors. E.g. horticulture expected to need 95,000 seasonal workers by 2021 Government must: • Introduce measures to ensure adequate supply of seasonal and permanent labour in food and farming sectors • Grant EU workers UK right of residency • R&D and investment funding to increase competitiveness
  113. 113. DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL POLICY A package of measures to enable farm businesses to be competitive, profitable and progressive. Maintain current levels of financial support, delivered across three key themes: • Volatility: mitigation, currently through direct payment. Other mechanisms could include insurance schemes, bonds, etc • Environment: Broad farmed environment scheme; Additional designated areas/high value schemes (e.g. SSSI, National Parks) • Productivity: Aimed at competitiveness, profitability, investment (on farm; agri-tech). Capital grants, advice, and training, knowledge exchange… Emphasis on each will depend on impact of Brexit – positive or negative – on UK agriculture (e.g. trade deals/labour availability/Great Repeal Bill)
  114. 114. REGULATION Opportunity to devise a regulatory environment fit for purpose Balancing act – better regulation v complicating Brexit process. Issue of timing… • Protects animal and public health, and the environment, while supporting innovative and productive agriculture • Reduces red-tape on farmers • Complements the requirements of our new trading arrangements • Ensures a smooth transition at the point of Brexit
  115. 115. Thank You
  116. 116. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture
  117. 117. Richard Wakeford Visiting Professor of Land Use & Rural Development at Birmingham City University Brexit – How to use the opportunity to take control of agricultural policy
  118. 118. + Professor Richard Wakeford, Birmingham City University Royal Agricultural University, March 2017 What next for the countryside – post BREXIT? “Taking control” of agriculture policy
  119. 119. + Richard Wakeford The Scottish Government
  120. 120. + The optimist and BREXIT: new freedoms and opportunities?  Stronger trade deals  More sensible use of public funds without Brussels overlay  Control of national borders  Restore Britain’s special legal system  Deregulate EU’s “costly mass of laws”  Improve the economy & generate new jobs  Regenerate Britain’s fisheries  Avoid EU healthcare harmonisation  Reduce welfare payments to non-UK EU citizens  Restore British customs and traditions
  121. 121. + Particular agricultural drivers for change?  Costly mass of rules currently translated into UK law (eg on Environmental Impact Assessment, GMOs, 160 page “Higher Tier Manual” etc)  Common Agricultural Policy payments widely discredited – especially value for money of Basic Payment Scheme:  Carry out agricultural activity  Maintain land in Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition  Statutory Management Requirements “Cross Compliance” covering:  the environment, food safety, animal and plant health and animal welfare  Keep comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date records  Rural Payments Agency demands and performance
  122. 122. + Latest European Commission analysis of CAP implementation  In CAP implementation, for most Member States the historical factor more important than the three general CAP objectives  Limited correlation between pillar 1 and 2 measures  Implementation focused strongly on the general objective of locally viable food production  No systematic synergistic use of instruments to address particular objectives  Lack of appropriate tailoring and targeting of Pillar 1 instruments and Pillar 2 measures  Increased administrative complexity due to changes
  123. 123. + Lessons on CAP for the EU going forward  The study  confirms that the CAP has become more complex  reveals that the Member States’ strategy to address the 3 CAP objectives is not sufficiently documented  Raises concerns about the potential impact of the CAP  This means  Seek simplification to limit the growing concern of increased administrative burdens  Exchanging good practices between countries to propomote simplification  Looking for a more tailored approach to the Green Payment  As we each design our own processes in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland – and maybe regionally too – we should learn from this Commission research
  124. 124. + So - new opportunities BREXIT will bring for agriculture?  The optimist looks forward to new freedoms to operate and trade - at the heart of five UK Government principles  tariff-free and frictionless cross-border trade with Europe – important given that EU single market takes 60% of exports, but cost of trade deal (single market, EFTA or WTO)  a more productive workforce using latest technology and data  farmers incentivised and rewarded for caring for the environment; twin goals of productive farming and environmental improvement  promotion of animal and plant health and welfare  resilience against disease affecting farm operations; and in protcting communities from flooding
  125. 125. + New opportunities may bring new challenges too…  And yet, the agribusiness sector faces considerable uncertainty (eg access to labour, tariff barriers, future support payments from UK governments – given competition from the NHS)  Will WTO global trade rules open up our domestic markets to lower cost imports produced with fewer environmental and societal safeguards:  eg GMO products (concerning to some consumers)  routine antibiotic use in imported beef  Farm and food products from nations not willing to demonstrate action to implement COP21 action on climate change through agricultural measures?  And there would still be WTO* (and potentially EU) rules about government payments to our farmers; and about whether our products can meet other nations’ standards  Would UK really “take back control”? * BTAMS = Bound Total Aggregate Measure of Support
  126. 126. + Will the UK be influential against unfair rules over exports?  “America First”  Past challenge of exporting Scottish seed potatoes to China  Tariff free exports to Europe challenged if our government departs much from EU rules  Could we find ourselves effectively committed to working within the rules of the next CAP reform?
  127. 127. + Futures thinking?  “America first” motivated by a desire in middle US to return to the rosy days when smaller cities were rich in smaller businesses providing employment  “BREXIT” similarly harks back to the world when more of our economy related to the Commonwealth  50 years since the designation of the Cotswolds AONB, many people want to believe in an unchanging protected landscape  25+ years since Chris Patten’s comprehensive environment White Paper launched a “national countryside initiative” offering incentive payments to landowners and farmers to manage or recreate landscapes – beyond Environmentally Sensitive Areas  Looking forward is hard! Delivery takes time.
  128. 128. + No development here in the AONB, thank you!
  129. 129. We have some choices in shaping tomorrow’s world
  130. 130. + Factor in technological advances  Rapid improvements in satellite technology, reducing the time needed to provide precision land-use data to benefit farmers, foresters and fishermen  New technology in cultivation, with autonomous tractors reducing the need for a rural workforce still further  Big data; ever increasing information influencing consumers – some FAKE  Rural-urban divide disappears, as more work can be done remotely  Where will the processing and retail chain go next?  Apps to help us eat well (and source the food we really need for health)
  131. 131. + BREXIT; an opportunity to deliver? • “Subsidy system broken” • “Farmers going out of business” • “State of wildlife in steep decline • … because of intensive agriculture” • “Taxpayers should only pay public subsidy to farmers in return for things that the market won’t pay for but which are valued and needed by the public” • “The current system rewards people for the hectares they own, with very inadequate standards for wildlife and the environment,”
  132. 132. + Opportunity: translate Basic Payments into “outcome specific” schemes  Green Alliance proposes a Natural Infrastructure Scheme (NIS)  £3.1 billion spent on CAP in the UK currently encourages land managers to maximise land available for agricultural use and props up uneconomic farming  Farmers and other land managers could financially benefit from environmental improvements such as flood alleviation and habitat creation  £2.4 billion a year spent tackling water pollution, water treatment, investing in flood resilience and dealing with damage caused by river flooding; paying farmers to use natural engineering and land management in the upper reaches of a catchment can be more cost effective than paying for hard defences, end of pipe water treatment and the effects of flooding  ‘Payments for ecosystem services’ could become a mainstream market, reversing declines in nature, and supporting new, environmentally beneficial approaches to farming in the UK
  133. 133. Vision of the future – park or vineyard?
  134. 134. + Three factors of productivity  The OECD approach;  Consider capital;  Consider labour;  Consider the land  Capital is the concern of the Chancellor of Exchequer  Labour is the concern of the Business Secretary  Land is the responsibility of … DCLG, DEFRA, Transport, Culture etc  The three 1947 Acts – a joined up approach to securing the best value from our land, and from the people who worked it, with a view to building up the capital of our nation
  135. 135. + A new 'Department for Land Use' should be created: Lord Deben  "no hope of sensible land use while planning is imprisoned within the Department for Communities and Local Government, agriculture in the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, infrastructure in the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, and long-term transport planning in the Department for Transport” Lord Deben – in a CPRE report March 2017  the creation of a "Department of Land Use would bring the strategic elements of all these together”; planners should be shifted away from development management to focus on strategic land use issues  "Planning, environment, agriculture, and infrastructure make a cohesive whole and taken together enable us to decide what kind of country we want to leave to our grandchildren"
  136. 136. + Futures thinking: functions of rural land  Land managers provide  Provisioning services  Regulating services  Cultural services  …and who benefits from these?  ...and if we put value on the flow of renewable benefits, we can start to calculate the full capital value – for society and for the businesses with a right to draw on it –> NATURAL CAPITAL  Can Dieter Helm’s Natural Capital Committee help to bring economic rationale to disparate services?
  137. 137. + Land: a basis for provisioning services (often consumed in urban areas)  products obtained from ecosystems  Food e.g. crops, fruit, fish  Fibre and fuel e.g. timber, wool  Biochemicals, natural medicines and pharmaceuticals  Genetic resources: genes and genetic information used for animal/plant breeding and biotechnology  Ornamental resources e.g. shells, flowers
  138. 138. + Land: a basis for regulating processes (often benefiting urban dwellers)  Air-quality maintenance: ecosystems contribute chemicals to, and extract chemicals from the atmosphere  Climate regulation e.g. land cover can affect local temperature and precipitation; globally ecosystems affect greenhouse gas sequestration and emissions  Water regulation: ecosystems affect e.g. the timing and magnitude of runoff, flooding etc.  Erosion control: vegetative cover plays an important role in soil retention/prevention of land/asset erosion  Water purification/detoxification: ecosystems can be a source of water impurities but can also help to filter out/decompose organic waste  Natural hazard protection e.g. storms, floods, landslides  Bioremediation of waste i.e. removal of pollutants through storage, dilution, transformation and burial
  139. 139. + Rural growth potential in cultural services (enjoyed by urban dwellers too)  Many societies place high value on the maintenance of important landscapes or species  Aesthetic values: many people find beauty in various aspects of ecosystems  Recreation and ecotourism bring visitors and opportunities for business growth  Rural areas are the inspiration for art, folklore, architecture etc  Many religions attach spiritual and religious values to ecosystems and landscapes  Social relations: ecosystems affect the types of social relations that are established e.g. fishing societies
  140. 140. + The context of geography  Global, national, regional, local … different values will be ascribed to different services (Romania vs UK; Fenland vs Wales)  How to engage communities at different levels (town vs country?)  How to put values on the services delivered, other than by compensation for theoretical production foregone?  “strike the right balance between national frameworks for support measures whilst tailoring them to local landscapes and catchments” Andrea Leadsom, 21st February 2017  Neighbourhood planning – localism doesn’t extend to knowledge about the benefits taxpayers buy from farmers and landowners!
  141. 141. + Scottish farm accounts: • Government grants and subsidies of over £500 million • Without them, no net income from farming at all • So, the support must be justified by other services farmers deliver • But, even with same cash post BREXIT, buying more specific services creates challenges elsewhere • Hence the call for a long transition period to new payments for “ecosystems services” beyond mere food production
  142. 142. + Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry
  143. 143. + Futures thinking: Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Challenges: • Agricultural non-CO2 emissions = 10.3% of EU total emissions • Potentially responsible for one third of all EU emissions • One half from soils (mainly nitrous oxide); one third from animals (mainly methane from cattle); one sixth from manure management (nitrous oxide and methane) • Increased productivity since 1990s has helped but further potential limited • Plant more woodland; a challenge for farmers?
  144. 144. + Examples of Reduction Opportunities in the LULUCF Sector  Increase carbon storage by using land differently or maintain carbon storage by avoiding land degradation  Encourage the transformation of cropland to forest  Avoid the conversion of forest land to settlements  Improve management practices on existing land-use types  Reduce soil erosion to minimize losses in soil carbon storage  Make more efficient use of Nitrogen fertiliser  Make more efficient use of livestock feed  Use crop residue for bio-energy  Plant after forest disturbances to accelerate vegetation growth and minimize soil carbon losses
  145. 145. + The LULUCF challenge for the policy makers – for UK policymakers post BREXIT!  What instruments? Fiscal or regulatory? Measurable/enforceable? Global, EU or national targets/instruments?  How to identify trade-offs between foresters providing sinks and farmers creating emissions?  How to use marginal land if agriculture better managed, and forests operate to full sink potential  Can a plan to deliver the committed reductions create positive opportunities for rural growth – new forests, better managed; new investments in farming; better use of residue and food waste?
  146. 146. + … and for farmers and fishermen etc, what role for consumers?
  147. 147. + Promotions through my letterbox …
  148. 148. +
  149. 149. + Food and health outcomes; research has already identified costs for society  Big data research on retail food purchases shows clear links to obesity among the families of purchasers  Research has informed a new approach to help fast food outlets develop a toolkit to cut down on fat, sugar and salt  Food price promotions and public health; research has explored the obesity impact of “buy one, get one free” of cheap unhealthy foods; and children’s exposure to unhealthy food advertisements  Research has delivered evidence that poorer people are less physically active … and that children from poorer families are nearly three times as likely to be obese  BUT; so much research is funded by big food and drugs businesses, making governments reluctant to recommend healthier diets
  150. 150. + The case of type 2 diabetes  Healthier eating half the solution; less sugar, less carbohydrates (potatoes, cereal etc), more fish, meat, dairy products?  Are improved health outcomes relevant to food security; and to the food chain as a whole? … and to economic progress  Should the increasing cost of health services across Europe and globally be a cross cutting driver of EU funded research (ie big and strategic, rather than fragmented, compartmentalised calls?)  Emerging new advice to type 2 diabetes sufferers:  Cut carbohydrates; focus diet on protein rich and full fat products  “Butter is one of the most natural fats you can buy. It is just churned cream from a cow. Ideally, opt for grass-fed butter; it has a greater nutrient profile and a better omega 3-6 ratio.”  New approaches to pork production in China: shift from backyard pigs to mass production, but fed on imported maize…
  151. 151. + Grass fed Korean pigs
  152. 152. + Bord Bia -> Origin Green Ireland • Rich soils -> lush green grass (300 days a year grazing) • Carbon efficient dairy and beef production • Low water footprint • 80% of agriculture = grassland
  153. 153. + Tomorrow’s global food supply: producers’ challenge today  With business as usual, feeding a population of 9 billion might require “60% more food, 50% more energy and 40% more water” – Uni of Minnesota (2015)  “About 24% of all calories produced for human consumption are lost or wasted” World Resources Institute (2013)  “Malnutrition must be addressed by adopting a food systems approach- looking at the entire food system from production to consumption” FAO (2016)  How will UK Government policy, post BREXIT address global food insecurity issues – feeding into government policies and practice?
  154. 154. + Food security and forests (including biodiversity)  “Inseparable: Forests, Wildlife and Food Security” – high level discussion at the FAO  “It is time for a change in consciousness – it is a fact that agriculture and forestry can no longer be treated in isolation. Linking the two is imperative for socio-economic development in the 21st century” - Evelyn Nguleka, President of the World Farmers’ Organization  Conclusions from World Forest Week  develop integrated land use strategies taking into account the role of forests for water, soil, climate and habitats  strengthen land governance by improving tenure security and encouraging partnerships  monitor and collect data on the effectiveness of governance mechanisms and on social, economic and environmental values of forests
  155. 155. + Food security and the impact on environment What steps are required to ensure the land can continue supplying important goods and services – including an increasing demand for food - in the face of a changing climate?  Land management to:  lock up carbon in soil;  manage use of water; and  reduce risk of city flooding downstream?  Timber production as part of an adaptation strategy to lock up carbon  Biodiversity goals which require habitat for wildlife  Action to cope with sea level rise on the coast; managed retreat and coastal plains no longer available for food production What do these goals mean for human consumption habits, food retailer marketing, food processors and farmers? … and energy, transport etc
  156. 156. + Future policy is not just post-CAP; and not just agriculture and the environment Other societal challenges Our relevant suggested areas of integration Climate action: • Environment • Resource use • Raw materials • Agricultural and forestry practice (mitigation & adaptation) • Mesoplankton • Circular economy: reducing food, farm and forestry waste; avoiding plastic soup in the sea • Optimal use of land and sea: food, energy, carbon sink Europe in the changing world • Inclusive societies • Food as a unifying strand between distinctive societal groups Health • Demographic change • Wellbeing • Food production, manufacturing, marketing, information • Ecosystems services from land • Food safety Energy • Secure, clean, efficient • Food production efficiency Secure society • Freedom • Security of citizens • Resilient supply systems • Protection of facilities • Food security (ie growing enough) Transport • Green • Integrated • Supply chain logistics/packaging • Air miles • Warehouse to my house delivery FOOD 2030 linking most of the societal challenges?
  157. 157. + “What next for the countryside, post BREXIT?”  New freedoms and opportunities – after tough negotiations  An opportunity for more societal clarity about the countryside we want, and at what cost  The need to see land itself as the basic factor of productivity – requiring joined up policies at all levels (Lord ~Deben’s challenge)  The need to optimise the ecosystems services land can deliver, sustainably (Dieter Helm’s challenge)  In particular, look for the role of woodland creation, especially to help achieve climate change goals and flood management  More rational policy measures – but transition a challenge because of potential losers  An end to end question: can farmers influence what society eats – and thus help tackle the current societal cost of unwise diets*? * = according to emerging research on carbohydrate consumption
  158. 158. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture
  159. 159. Panel Discussion Open for Questions from the floor @juliegirling #envifuture
  160. 160. Closing Comments Julie Girling MEP @juliegirling #envifuture
  161. 161. Environment Conference “What next for the Countryside Post Brexit”? Hosted By Julie Girling, MEP for the South West & Gibraltar @juliegirling #envifuture