Humanitarian Assistance: ICT related innovations

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Humanitarian Assistance: ICT related innovations

  1. 1. ICT related innovation for Humanitarian AssistanceMarc van den HombergMarch 21st, Stenden Hogeschool, Leeuwarden
  2. 2. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Contents • Introduction • ICT and its relation to humanitarian aid • Three examples of ICT innovations • Role of ICT • Vision and mission • ICT themes in relation to humanitarian aid • Empowered Living, Working and Learning • From open data to open development
  3. 3. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012TNO TNO connects people and knowledge to create innovations that boost the sustainable competitiveness of industry and well-being of society. Founded in 1932 by act of parliament. Independent and not-for-profit 14 locations in The Netherlands 14 offices abroad 35% Government 4189 employees Market 65% 564 M€ (total income 2010)
  4. 4. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012The power of TNOFrom idea to innovation Develop Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge fundamental development application exploitation knowledge With With With Embedded in the universities partners customers market
  5. 5. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Seven themes
  6. 6. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Areas of expertise To safeguard the consistency and quality of TNO’s knowledge and resources, the following areas of expertise have been identified:• Technical Sciences• Behavioural and Societal Sciences• Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences
  7. 7. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Marc van den Homberg Study and work background: Ph.D. Physics and MBA KPN Research TNO, founded ICT4D team in 2006 Reserve officer civil-military battalion since 2010 Private: Living in Rotterdam, married with two kids Hobbies: mountaineering, running
  8. 8. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Response cards
  9. 9. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012What do you study?1. International Hospitality Management 49%2. Media and Entertainment Management3. Creative Therapy4. Other 35% 14% 3% 1 2 3 4
  10. 10. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012What is your favorite topic?1. Geopolitics and International 42% Relations2. Comprehensive Analysis of Conflicts3. Humanitarian Response and Actors 34%4. Planning & Project Management5. Service Provision Logistics and Operations6. ICT related innovation for humanitarian assistance 11% 5% 5% 3% 1 2 3 4 5 6
  11. 11. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Have you travelled already to an emergingcountry? 44%1. Africa2. America3. Asia4. Not yet.. 23% 18% 15% 1 2 3 4
  12. 12. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Are you thinking of pursuing a career in thehumanitarian aid sector?1. Yes 42% 42%2. No3. Maybe 16% 1 2 3
  13. 13. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Which percentage of humanitarian aid workersgoes on a second mission? 39%1. 80%2. 60% 34%3. 40%4. 20% 24% 3% 1 2 3 4
  14. 14. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Contents • Introduction • ICT and its relation to humanitarian aid • Three examples of ICT innovations • Role of ICT • Vision and mission • ICT themes in relation to humanitarian aid • Empowered Living, Working and Learning • From open data to open development
  15. 15. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Up- and downward accountability>> SMS
  16. 16. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Empowerment of beneficiaries >>Cash transfer programming + local procurement
  17. 17. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Financial services for the Base of the Pyramid>> Mobile banking (M-Pesa)
  18. 18. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 Developing country Beneficiaries Consumers“Technology can be a major force to advance financial inclusion, which can helpimprove the lives of the poor in the developing world.” – Bill Gates
  19. 19. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 However, technology is Just One PartPhysical Human Social Financial Digital building, education, institutions, operational costs, hardware, goods, computer literacy, norms, maintenance, software,transport, motivation, political support training connectivity, roads awareness content
  20. 20. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 In the Developed World… DigitalPhysical Human Social Financial hardware, building, education, institutions, operational costs, software, goods, computer literacy, norms, maintenance,connectivity, transport, motivation, political support training content roads awareness
  21. 21. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 In the Developing World… Digital hardware, software,connectivity, content
  22. 22. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012VisionA connected world supporting poor people in developing and emergingcountries to create their own sustainable future Pro-poor (inclusive) ICT innovations IMPACTMissionTogether with strategic Western and Southern partners, we develop andapply pro-poor ICT innovations following a market based approach thatempower people to become from beneficiaries consumers andentrepreneurs and that contributes to sustainable social and economicaldevelopment.
  23. 23. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Focus areas TNO ICT4D team: • Empowered Living, Working and Learning • From open data to open development
  24. 24. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 Developing countryHumanitarian aidAid and action designed to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintainand protect human dignity during and in the aftermath of emergenciesDiffers from development aid, because of:•Humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence•Short-term in nature, immediate aftermath of a disaster>> In practice it is often difficult to say where ‘during and in theimmediate aftermath of emergencies’ ends and other types of assistancebegin
  25. 25. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Contents • Introduction • ICT and its relation to humanitarian aid • Three examples of ICT innovations • Role of ICT • Vision and mission • ICT themes in relation to humanitarian aid • Empowered Living, Working and Learning • From open data to open development
  26. 26. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012There are no scraps of man
  27. 27. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012EmpowermentA person or organisation is empowered when these three elements are available: – Information: knowledge, data – Skills: know how to… – Drive: ambition, urgency, entrepreneurial, passion(and the power relations make it possible)Examples• Autonomous and self-managing learning• Open Data______________________Own responsibility
  28. 28. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Empowered Living, Working and Learning • Empowered Working: • Mental Resilience • Security incident social network • Empowered Living: • FP7 project VOICES: VOIce-based Community-cEntric mobile Services for social development • Empowered Learning: • Conn@ct.now, new media for children in War
  29. 29. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Mental Resilience• Work has been done on how to train mental resilience for the military, but not (much) yet for humanitarian aid workers• However similar problems…, similar preparation possible?
  30. 30. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012The problem (1) Turnover during training for marines: 30-60% 1.Quality of the training 2.Self confidence 3.Dealing with problems Intent to stop Turnover29 Mentally stronger military 29
  31. 31. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Military confirms Afghanistans"invisible" tragedy (16-11-11) The problem (2)A just released Canadian Forces report says almostone in three Kandahar vets has sought some degreeof mental health treatment. The most mentally- Mission impossible? Thedamaged are about 8% with difficult to treat"Afghanistan-related PTSD." Another 5% have what impact of humanitarian aidthe army calls Operational Stress Injury (OSI). context and individual features on aid worker retention Findings are for example: only 40% of MSF aidVeel militairen Uruzgan workers goes on a second mission.kampen met mentaleproblemen (15-10-11)Zeker zestienhonderd Nederlandse militairendie op missie zijn geweest naar het Afghaanse Humanitarian Relief Workers andUruzgan, zeggen na terugkomst te kampen Trauma-related Mental Illnessmet mentale problemen.Ze hebben last van flashbacks van Relief workers, compared with the general population,gevechtsacties, woedeaanvallen en experience elevated trauma rates and suffer fromdepressies en veel militairen zijn kort na de more posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, andmissie overmatig gaan drinken. Twintig anxiety. Organizations that employ relief workersprocent van de militairen slaat de hulp die ze have varying approaches to train for these risks, andvan defensie krijgen aangeboden af. more support in the field is needed. .
  32. 32. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Phases: from healthy to sick Optimal Reacting Wounded Ill • Top achievements • Irritated • Feelings of guilt • Depression and fear • Positive attitude • Can no longer handle it • Reduction of energy • Anger/agression • Engaged • Sleeping problems • Fear • Danger for yourself and • Takes on challenges • Tense • Losing interest others • Concentration problems • Social isolation Deployabe Continuous stress Not deployable
  33. 33. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Moments for intervention Optimal Reacting Wounded Ill • Top achievements • Irritated • Feelings of guilt • Depression and fear • Positive attitude • Can no longer handle it • Reduction of energy • Anger/agression • Engaged • Sleeping problems • Fear • Danger for yourself and • Takes on challenges • Tense • Losing interest others • Concentration problems • Social isolation Deployabe Continuous stress Not deployable Employee, Manager, Colleague, Family (Medical) Professional aid Social Medical Team (Geestelijk Verzorger, Bedrijfsmaatschappelijk Werker, Doctor, Psychologue) Education Coaching & Treatment & & Training early therapy Re-integration Mental resilience engages on the whole trajectory
  34. 34. High Performance EmpowermentMental aspects and leadership Marc van den Homberg, 21032012
  35. 35. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Biofeedback game
  36. 36. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Psychophysiology 3. Cognition: Consciousness • Evalution of situation • Match situation to earlier situations • Select/adapt behaviour (in relation to coping strategies) 2. Mobilise!: Hormones • Energetic means for a continued stress reaction • Protection of indivudual against first (physical) reaction (Relation with biomarkers, feedback therapy) 1. Reflexes • ‘Flight or fight’: immediate safety
  37. 37. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Empowered Living, Working and Learning • Empowered Working: • Mental Resilience • Security incident social network • Empowered Living: • FP7 project VOICES: VOIce-based Community-cEntric mobile Services for social development • Empowered Learning: • Conn@ct.now, new media for children in War
  38. 38. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Security incidentsThe problem:Amount of incidents with field workers has increased. NGOs leavecountries that are marked as unsafe, whereas the specific area theyare active in might be safe enough. Developmental work is stoppedand the local community left behind
  39. 39. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Lead Incident sharing system for ngo’s
  40. 40. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012
  41. 41. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 Sneak preview newest version Centre for Safety and Development Any feedback on the current design?!
  42. 42. Empowered Living, Working and Learning • Empowered Working: • Mental Resilience • Security incident social network • Empowered Living: • Voice based mobile technology to reach illiterates • Empowered Learning: • Conn@ct.now, new media for children in War
  43. 43. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Voice based services for the Base of the Pyramid Rapid growth of ICT services in developing countries >> Opportunities and challenges The Mobile Web for Social Development Roadmap indicatedtwo main challenges Locally relevant content Access barriers (low end mobiles, connectivity, illiteracy, visual disabilities, language) The VOICES project aims to tackle the access barrier with voice based services>> This approach can be used for relief as well as for development aid
  44. 44. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012FP7 project VOICES: VOIce-based Community- cEntric mobile Services for social development Voice technology Business knowledge knowledge VOICES services toolboxm-Health Pilot m-Agro Pilot Mobile Training Lab
  45. 45. Example Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 developmentVOICES
  46. 46. Example Marc van den Homberg, 21032012relief
  47. 47. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Empowered Living, Working and Learning • Empowered Working: • Mental Resilience • Security incident social network • Empowered Living: • FP7 project VOICES: VOIce-based Community-cEntric mobile Services for social development • Empowered Learning: • Conn@ct.now, new media for children in War
  48. 48. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Conn@ct.Now program of War Child, Child HelplineInternational, RNTC, T-Mobile and TNO Goal: Enable children in conflict zones to give a perspective to their future using ICT and Media Where: Sudan, DR Congo, Burundi, Uganda
  49. 49. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Conn@ct.now
  50. 50. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012“My name is Dembe, and I am Concentration problemsfrom Uganda. I like to go toschool, but I find maths verydifficult. Often, I have to think so Explaining mathematicslong that I get distracted and start Overcrowdedto talk to my friends. My teacherthen gets angry with me as she classroomsalways hears me, even though wehave 50 students in our class. Iwish there was a more fun way tolearn maths”.
  51. 51. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012“My name is Mary, and I am aschool teacher. Although I love mywork, I have such a lack ofresources and so many pupiles -over 50! - that I cannot give themthe attention they need. I get reallyfrustrated that I know that some ofthem will not have the knowledgethey need when they finish school.My husband always comforts meby saying that there is only somuch I can do. But still, I wish Icould do more”.Lack of resourcesOvercrowded classroomsChildren left behindTeacher frustration
  52. 52. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Struggling learners Little support from parents Parents are not there Parents did not go to school themselves Little support from teachers There are not enough teachers There are many children per teacher Teachers are not always well educated Approach Strong basis Explicit instruction Engagement
  53. 53. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012
  54. 54. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012E-learning System Personal lesson plan per day per child Within personal lesson plan, control for child Child can move on if learning goal is mastered Know how to do it Can do it easily Can do it automatically Exercises and mini-games based on the real world Work together, if possible
  55. 55. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Contents• Introduction• ICT and its relation to humanitarian aid • Three examples of ICT innovations • Role of ICT • Vision and mission• ICT themes in relation to humanitarian aid • Empowered Living, Working and Learning • From open data to open development
  56. 56. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012From open data to open development • Open development • Open data • Examples • Open data and earth observation
  57. 57. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Open development “An emerging set of possibilities to catalyze positive change throughopen information-networked activities in international development” Possibilities are for ngo’s to increase: their transparency and accountability (e.g. open data) their efficiency (e.g. data management, data sharing) participation of stakeholders (e.g. social games) collaboration with stakeholders (e.g. crowdsourcing) Open data is first step towards open development
  58. 58. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Open data “The comprehensive availability and accessibility of development flow information in a timely and comparable manner that allows public participation in government accountability”
  59. 59. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Open data in raw format
  60. 60. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Example efficiency + collaboration +transparency (UN OCHA)
  61. 61. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Example efficiency + transparency (Worldbank)
  62. 62. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 Other leads…External transparency and accountability(NGO/MinDevAid)
  63. 63. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012External transparency and accountability(NGO sector)
  64. 64. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Open data in combination with earthobservation
  65. 65. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012Monitoring internal displacement Harare, Zimbabwe © UNOSAT (2005)
  66. 66. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 Monitoring internal displacement Harare, Zimbabwe Quickbird 25 August 2004 Quickbird 2 August 2005© DigitalGlobe, Inc. (2004, 2005)
  67. 67. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012 Monitoring IDP camps Darfur © CNES (2004)© Imagesat International (2004)
  68. 68. Marc van den Homberg, 21032012ICT related innovations for humanitarianassistance: conclusions and wrap-up A mighty interesting, challenging and rewarding area to work in! ICT on its own is no silver bullet, all other dimensions of the ecosystem have to be taken into account as well Very important to co-create with all (crucial) stakeholders, especially the beneficiaries. It is all about empowerment. Often reverse innovation or cross-fertilization possible from South to North Green field situation, e.g. M-Pesa
  69. 69. Marc van den Homberg,Questions?? Ideas? 21032012Jump in! Feel free to contact me at: Marc van den Homberg +31 6 51069884 marc.vandenhomberg@tno.nl

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