Third World Conference on Humanitarian Studies,
24th of October 2013
Anja van der Hulst
Rudy Boonekamp
Marc van den Homber...
Applied (Serious) Games
“Designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment”

It’s not the Game, it’s the Value,...
Serious Gaming: a powerful intervention method
Playing is Learning
Interaction - Collaborate and compete
Feedback - Trial ...
Making sure the game does what it should do
Design for use

Fidelity/Evidence
based models

Validate for use

Design for p...
Openbare orde Game

Levee Patrol: train dike monitoring staff

Mayor game: effective crisismanagement

Engagement Game

Vi...
Comprehensive Aproach
In international missions to conflict zones
safety, development and diplomacy must
go hand in hand
D...
Objectives Game Go4it (GCAM)

“Comprehensive approach” mostly trained
through large scale exercises or more
formal curricu...
Scenario
Location: Xona: Sub-Saharan Africa
Conflict: Eruption of violence after a
bomb-attack on the alternative
governme...
The game: Four Roles
OPFOR
Task Force
NGOs
Local Government
Domain model: Actions
For all Syndicates
Targets
Assessments (60)
Interventions (240)
Defined and derived effects (quantit...
Domain model: Effect Parameters
Reconstruction areas
Safety
Displaced persons
Basic living conditions
Agriculture
Healthca...
Domain model: Simulation
Field tests
Questions:
Fidelity
Realism of the model?

Validation
Awareness?
Deeper understanding?

Field Tests:
Five grou...
Outcomes
Realism model
Sufficient
Awareness
Yes
Deeper understanding
In competitive setting: no
In collaborative setting: ...
To conclude: applications of Go4it
Go4it board game with computer-based GCAM for:
Awareness of the comprehensive approach
...
Current and future developments of Go4it

Adaptive and flexible formats:
Board game (resource-less environments)
Board gam...
Questions
Contact details:
Marc van den Homberg
Marc.vandenhomberg@tno.nl
+31651069884

Transfer of Gaming
A gaming approach to the comprehensive approach
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A gaming approach to the comprehensive approach

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A consortium of TNO, T-Xchange and National Aerospace Laboratory of the Netherlands developed a serious game ‘’Go4IT’ aiming at increasing awareness of the Comprehensive Approach(CA). The game design consists of a game world (a failed state where a UN intervention takes place after massive conflict). It is played with four syndicates (Task Force, Local Government, Non-Governmental Organizations and Opposing Forces) with their respective strengths, mandates and roles. The syndicates can play 240 prototypical interventions, either alone or collaboratively, that affect reconstruction parameters of the game world, such as Security, Displaced persons, Basic living conditions, Agriculture, Health Care, Economy as well as Political Support from supporting nations and Hearts and Minds. The former parameters are also affected by about 40 external events. We used specialized domain knowledge from mostly the military, but also from diplomats and NGOs, to construct and validate the relations between interventions and effects, resulting in a simulation model (named GCAM) underlying the game. In this paper, we describe the results of field testing of GCAM2.0. GCAM2.0 was extensively field-tested in eight sessions with between 12 and 20 participants each, aiming at assessment of the perceived realism of the GCAM model and its learning effects. With regard to the realism of the GCAM2.0 model, it was found to provide a sufficiently authentic experience to obtain awareness of the CA in novices. With regard to improving the understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the CA for a more experienced target population, the results were to a certain extend inconclusive. Where the military experienced groups reported that they did not have a valuable learning experience, in contrast, the experienced civilian parties did report improved understanding.

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A gaming approach to the comprehensive approach

  1. 1. Third World Conference on Humanitarian Studies, 24th of October 2013 Anja van der Hulst Rudy Boonekamp Marc van den Homberg
  2. 2. Applied (Serious) Games “Designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment” It’s not the Game, it’s the Value, stupid!
  3. 3. Serious Gaming: a powerful intervention method Playing is Learning Interaction - Collaborate and compete Feedback - Trial and error Motivation - Intrinsic motivation Retention - Experience and remember Empathy – Role change Complexity – Strategies, scenario’s Flow: The mental state of being fully immersed in an activity
  4. 4. Making sure the game does what it should do Design for use Fidelity/Evidence based models Validate for use Design for purpose Validate for purpose
  5. 5. Openbare orde Game Levee Patrol: train dike monitoring staff Mayor game: effective crisismanagement Engagement Game Virtual Tactical Trainer Counter-IED Self-directed e-learning
  6. 6. Comprehensive Aproach In international missions to conflict zones safety, development and diplomacy must go hand in hand Dutch coalition agreement 2012 “The concept of cooperation between civilian and military partners is the most promising approach to dealing with contemporary crisis. We believe cooperation should start before we meet abroad in a crisis and should include all elements of mission preparation, including common exercises and training.” 1 German Netherlands Corps
  7. 7. Objectives Game Go4it (GCAM) “Comprehensive approach” mostly trained through large scale exercises or more formal curricula A gaming approach? Key Competencies Situation Assessment Situational Decision making Liaising and negotiating
  8. 8. Scenario Location: Xona: Sub-Saharan Africa Conflict: Eruption of violence after a bomb-attack on the alternative government, militias on the loose; Present situation: Humanitarian crisis; displaced persons, no functioning camps; No functioning government, agriculture nor economy; Violence against population, recruitment of child soldiers; Aim: Clear, Hold, Build and Transfer
  9. 9. The game: Four Roles OPFOR Task Force NGOs Local Government
  10. 10. Domain model: Actions For all Syndicates Targets Assessments (60) Interventions (240) Defined and derived effects (quantitative and qualitative) Preconditions Costs Delay Game leader Events Defined and derived effects (quantitative and qualitative)
  11. 11. Domain model: Effect Parameters Reconstruction areas Safety Displaced persons Basic living conditions Agriculture Healthcare Security Apparatus Governance Rule of Law Education Economic development Political support ‘Hearts and minds’
  12. 12. Domain model: Simulation
  13. 13. Field tests Questions: Fidelity Realism of the model? Validation Awareness? Deeper understanding? Field Tests: Five groups (12-16 pp) of novices Four groups of experienced users
  14. 14. Outcomes Realism model Sufficient Awareness Yes Deeper understanding In competitive setting: no In collaborative setting: yes
  15. 15. To conclude: applications of Go4it Go4it board game with computer-based GCAM for: Awareness of the comprehensive approach Strategic Decision Making in the comprehensive approach Leadership training Influencing (Netherlands Defense Academy)
  16. 16. Current and future developments of Go4it Adaptive and flexible formats: Board game (resource-less environments) Board game with computer-based GCAM simulation On line game with GCAM simulation (distributed teams) For new context: disaster management?
  17. 17. Questions
  18. 18. Contact details: Marc van den Homberg Marc.vandenhomberg@tno.nl +31651069884 Transfer of Gaming

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