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Boostrapping a Smalltalk

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Boostrapping a Smalltalk

  1. 1. Bootstrapping a Smalltalk G. Casaccio, S. Ducasse, L. Fabresse, J-B. Arnaud, B. van Ryseghem Presented by: M. Denker M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011
  2. 2. What is Bootstrapping? A process that builds the minimal infrastructure of a language that is reusable to define this language itself M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  3. 3. Example: Bootstrapping a language X Tools Language X Compiler Loader M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  4. 4. Example: Bootstrapping a language X Tools Language X Compiler Loader How to create/write all of this for language X? M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  5. 5. Example: Bootstrapping a language X Tools Language X Compiler Loader Compiler Language Y description or Loader M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  6. 6. Example: Bootstrapping a language X Tools Language X Compiler Resilient Loader ≠ Compiler Language Y description or Loader Java M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  7. 7. Example: Bootstrapping a language X Tools Language X Compiler Squeak/Pharo Loader ⊃ Compiler Language Y description or Loader Slang M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  8. 8. Why Bootstrapping? - Agile and explicit process - Explicit malleability and evolution support - Warranty of initial state - Minimal self reference M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  9. 9. Existing approaches Bootstrap Approaches Execution-based Static-based (tracing) (generation) OnAbsence OnPresence Dumping Recreating Spoon Chacharas MicroSqueak CorGen Hazelnut GNU ST M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  10. 10. Existing approaches Bootstrap Approaches Execution-based Static-based (tracing) (generation) OnAbsence OnPresence Dumping Recreating Spoon Chacharas MicroSqueak CorGen Hazelnut GNU ST M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  11. 11. Spoon - Client / Server approach - Client side starts as minimal - On each slot access if the target object is missing, fetch and copy it from the server ss ce t ac lo 1 .s t jec t jec ob ob ing g py tin co ec inj 3. 4. Server Client 2. slot absent grabbing it from server M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  12. 12. Chacharas Same approach as Spoon but: - Analyze a server side execution - All reached objects are copied on the client M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  13. 13. MicroSqueak 1 - A kernel is loaded from MicroSqueak MicroSqueak Kernel Kernel files into a namespace Fix references of Create stub objects classes and metaclasses MicroSqueak MicroSqueak Kernel Kernel Fix references of Save it compiled method M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  14. 14. Hazelnut Same approach as MicroSqueak but: - does not rely on a specific list of class that are manually edited - takes a list of classes as input and recursively copy classes into a new namespace M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  15. 15. Discussion Bootstrap Approaches Execution-based Static-based Execution-based approaches: (tracing) (generation) - difficult to control which objects will be selected for the bootstrapped image OnAbsence OnPresence Dumping Recreating MicroSqueak CorGen - reflection breaks tracing Spoon Chacharas Hazelnut GNU ST - not suitable for interactive programs + suitable to compute the minimal runtime required by a program Static-based approaches: + easier to control the result of a static generation + suitable for deep changes in a system (new object format, ...) - hard to specify / write / maintain M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  16. 16. Our approach Bootstrap Approaches Execution-based Static-based (tracing) (generation) OnAbsence OnPresence Dumping Recreating Spoon Chacharas MicroSqueak CorGen Hazelnut GNU ST M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  17. 17. CorGen Bootstrap>>bootstrap [ 1. Creation of the stub objects for literal self instantiateSmalltalkObjects; objects: nil, true, false, characters 2. Definition of classes and metaclasses importClassesFromSources; 3. Method compilation processClasses; 4. Creation of process and special object array setupSmalltalkObjects; saveImage] 5. Image serialization. M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  18. 18. Stubs Creation Bootstrap>>instantiateSmalltalkObjects [ self instantiateNilGst; instantiateTrueGst; instantiateFalseGst; instantiateCharactersTable; "build all the characters" instantiateEnvironment "create System Dictionary"] M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  19. 19. Classes/Metaclasses creation Bootstrap>>processClasses [ "fill the class stubs with real classes" self "create classes and add them to System Dictionary" createClasses; "compile and install CompileMethods" compileMethods ] M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  20. 20. Compile Methods - Methods either taken from the model or the source files - Use a compiler parametrized by an environment and a symbol table - Deep changes may be applied (change bytecode set, other optimization, ...) M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  21. 21. Initializing the System Bootstrap>>setupSmalltalkObjects [ self setupCharacter; "insert references to the Character table" setupSymbol; "insert references to the Symbol table" setupProcessor "create Processor and install it" ] Bootstrap>>setupProcessor [ | processorGst | processGst := self createProcess. processorGst := GstProcessorScheduler new. processorGst scheduler: nilGst; processes: self buildProcessList; activeProcess: processGst; idleTasks: nilGst. ] M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  22. 22. Initializing the System Bootstrap>>createProcess [ | processGst | (processGst := GstProcess new) nextLink: nilGst; suspendedContext: self createInitContext; priority: 4; myList: nilGst; name: GstString new; interrupts: nilGst; interruptLock: nilGst ] M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  23. 23. Saving the Image - Comply with image file format: - Image header - Special object array - Serialize objects according to their shape (CompiledMethods, ...) - Avoid object duplication during serializing M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  24. 24. The Result A 54 classes Smalltalk Kernel: Kernel (15 classes): Behavior, BlockClosure, BlockContext, Boolean, Class, ClassDescription, ContextPart, False, Metaclass, MethodContext, MethodInfo, Object, ProcessorScheduler, True, UndefinedObject. Collection (27 classes): Array, ArrayedCollection, Bag, BindingDictionary, ByteArray, CharacterArray, Collection, CompiledBlock, CompiledCode, CompiledMethod, Dictionary, HashedCollection, IdentityDictionary, Iterable, Link, LinkedList, LookupTable, MethodDictionary, OrderedCollection, Process, Semaphore, SequenceableCollection, Set, String, Symbol, SystemDictionary, WeakSet. Magnitude (12 classes): Association, Character, Float, Fraction, Integer, LookupKey, Magnitude, MethodInfo, Number, SmallInteger, VariableBinding, HomedAssociation. M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  25. 25. Related Work - Lisp : using image such Smalltalk, the bootstrap is done by migrate the current image, using a cross-compiler include in the host image. - Ruby : the kernel is load and initialize by the VM some low level initialization is done in C, all the other is done by ruby processing. After all the module is load separately by the Virtual Machine. - Python : the Python virtual machine is initialized. Some classes stubs are created and initialized in the virtual machine. (close of the ruby bootstrap) M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  26. 26. Conclusion and Future Work Pros and Cons: - Execution-based bootstrapping (tracing) such as Hazelnut - Static-based bootstrapping (declarative) such as CoreGen Future work: Boostrapping Pharo - use an execution-based approach as an intermediate solution - reach a static-based bootstrap that can easily be maintained and co- evolve with the system M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011 -
  27. 27. THANKS Bootstrapping a Smalltalk G. Casaccio, S. Ducasse, L. Fabresse, J-B. Arnaud, B. van Ryseghem Presented by: M. Denker M.Denker - Bootstrapping a Smalltalk November 2011

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