Storage And Retrieval Of Information

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Storage And Retrieval Of Information

  1. 1. Storage and Retrieval of Information Unit 3
  2. 2. Why Do We File Documents? <ul><li>To find them easily & quickly </li></ul><ul><li>To satisfy legal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>To keep them secure </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure data is available to answer queries </li></ul><ul><li>To protect from wear & tear </li></ul><ul><li>So up-to-date data can be provided </li></ul>
  3. 3. Features of a Good Filing System <ul><li>Simple and quick to use </li></ul><ul><li>Conveniently located </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for type of information held </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, able to expand easily </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul>
  4. 4. Manual Filing Procedures <ul><li>Collect documents for filing </li></ul><ul><li>Check for release mark </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-sort into order </li></ul><ul><li>Remove file from cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Place document in file in chronological order and replace in file cabinet </li></ul>
  5. 5. Manual Filing Procedures <ul><li>Absent/out cards should be used when files are borrowed </li></ul><ul><li>Cross reference cards used when personnel or clients change name </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential documents/files kept locked in a separate cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Old documents shredded after agreed length of time </li></ul>
  6. 6. Traditional Filing Classifications <ul><li>Alphabetical – arranged in alphabetical (A-Z) order </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical – arranged in numerical order (1-10 etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological – arranged in date order (1 st Jan 20XX comes before 31 st Dec 20XX) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Alphabetical System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Easy & straightforward </li></ul><ul><li>Direct method </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for small-medium sized firms </li></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous files/folders come at beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Need thorough knowledge of A-Z filing rules </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for large organisations </li></ul><ul><li>May be slow </li></ul><ul><li>Wasteful of space (M is a popular letter, Q is not) </li></ul>
  8. 8. A-Z Filing Rules - People <ul><li>Surname first </li></ul><ul><li>Short names before long </li></ul><ul><li>For identical names follow first names or initials </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing comes before something </li></ul><ul><li>Mac and Mc treated as Mac and filed before M </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore apostrophes </li></ul>
  9. 9. A-Z Filing Rules - Organisations <ul><li>Ignore word ‘The’ </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers change to words </li></ul><ul><li>Names identical, use street or town to determine order </li></ul><ul><li>Initials come before full names </li></ul><ul><li>Treat ‘Saint’ and ‘St’ as Saint </li></ul><ul><li>Public bodies filed under town, city or department name </li></ul>
  10. 10. Numerical System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for large organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with reference number </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to expand </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect method </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to provide miscellaneous files/folders </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chronological <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Useful when date is most important item </li></ul><ul><li>May be used along with another method </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely to be main filing method </li></ul><ul><li>Needs an index to help retrieve information </li></ul>
  12. 12. Manual Filing Forms <ul><li>Vertical Filing Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Filing Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Filing Trays </li></ul><ul><li>Lever Arch Files </li></ul><ul><li>Filoxfax </li></ul>
  13. 13. Manual Filing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Staff familiar with equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against wear and tear </li></ul><ul><li>People like reading original documents </li></ul><ul><li>Files clearly labelled </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Metal filing cabinets expensive </li></ul><ul><li>May take time to find files </li></ul><ul><li>Can become overloaded </li></ul><ul><li>No back-ups </li></ul>
  14. 14. Electronic Filing Forms <ul><li>Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Zip Drive </li></ul><ul><li>CD Rom </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul>
  15. 15. Databases <ul><li>A Database is an electronic filing system </li></ul><ul><li>Databases are tables which consist of records and fields </li></ul>
  16. 16. Records and Fields <ul><li>A record is a collection of data about one person/thing e.g. Bilbo Baggins record within Employee Database </li></ul><ul><li>A field is a piece of information contained within a record e.g. Name, D.O.B., Salary </li></ul>
  17. 17. Database Functions <ul><li>Create records & fields </li></ul><ul><li>Enter information </li></ul><ul><li>Add, delete alter records & fields </li></ul><ul><li>Search for information </li></ul><ul><li>Sort alphabetically or numerically </li></ul><ul><li>Mail merge </li></ul>
  18. 18. Spreadsheets <ul><li>A Spreadsheet is an electronic worksheet used to manage numbers and carry out calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets are made up of lettered columns and numbered rows which form a grid </li></ul>
  19. 19. Uses of Spreadsheets <ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Wages </li></ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Records </li></ul>
  20. 20. Electronic Filing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Saves filing space </li></ul><ul><li>Documents can be scanned in </li></ul><ul><li>Can use search criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Same file can be accessed by others </li></ul><ul><li>Security passwords restricts access </li></ul><ul><li>Back-ups used </li></ul><ul><li>Disdvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate for small firms </li></ul><ul><li>IT training required </li></ul><ul><li>Faults and breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with Data Protection Act </li></ul>
  21. 21. Microfilm <ul><li>Documents reduced in size on film </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in small units </li></ul><ul><li>Roll film </li></ul><ul><li>Microfiche </li></ul><ul><li>Jacket microfilm </li></ul>
  22. 22. Microfilming Users <ul><li>Large organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Museums </li></ul><ul><li>Postcode & telephone directories </li></ul>Mitchell Library
  23. 23. What equipment is needed? <ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Viewer </li></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul>
  24. 24. Microfilm +/- <ul><li>Saves space </li></ul><ul><li>Saves cost of filing and indexing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts longer than paper </li></ul><ul><li>Copies easily made </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of documents rare </li></ul><ul><li>High equipment cost </li></ul><ul><li>Time taken to film and index documents </li></ul><ul><li>Special equipment needed to view documents </li></ul>
  25. 25. Evaluating Filing Methods <ul><li>Costs – financial, search time, training, equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Training – easy to use? Ongoing? </li></ul><ul><li>Space needed – office layout </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives – is it the best? </li></ul><ul><li>Aid to management – system meet current & future needs? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Manual Filing System Considerations <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul>
  27. 27. Electronic Filing Considerations <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul>
  28. 28. Backing up files <ul><li>Why? – prevent loss of data </li></ul><ul><li>What? – copy files to new location </li></ul><ul><li>Where? – Off-site </li></ul><ul><li>How? – Refer to notes on File Mgt. </li></ul><ul><li>How? – Floppy to Floppy </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy to HD </li></ul><ul><li>HD to Floppy or CD </li></ul>
  29. 29. Ensuring security of information <ul><li>Passwords restricts access </li></ul><ul><li>Change passwords regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Put locks on disk drives </li></ul><ul><li>Place certain terminals in restricted areas </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks and CDs kept in lockable boxes </li></ul>
  30. 30. Data Protection Act
  31. 31. Principles of Data Protection <ul><li>fairly and lawfully processed; </li></ul><ul><li>processed for limited purposes; </li></ul><ul><li>adequate, relevant and not excessive; </li></ul><ul><li>accurate; </li></ul><ul><li>not kept longer than necessary; </li></ul><ul><li>processed in accordance with the data subject's rights; </li></ul><ul><li>secure; </li></ul><ul><li>not transferred to countries without adequate protection. </li></ul>

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