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Business Information and ICT


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Higher Business Management

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Business Information and ICT

  1. 1. Business Information and ICT ‘ _-, ‘.‘- _, , . . I ‘ P . - , 4| . . ‘ l “ Q a D ‘ ‘ ‘| I ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ . ‘ ‘. 1., V ’ i . Higher Business Management M. McGowan
  2. 2. Sources of Information I Primam — information collected by the business itself. Sometimes called Field research. It is first hand information. I Examples: Market Research data, Consumer Research I Secondary - information already published. Also called Desk research. I Examples: Government Reports, MINTEL Reports M. Mcoowan
  3. 3. Sources of Information I Internal — information collected within the business. I Examples: Employee or customer records I External - information collected from outside the business. I Examples: National Statistics, Rivals’ accounts M. McGowan
  4. 4. Type of Info Costs - Benefits + Primary expensive Reliable, verifiable Secondary Less expensive Easy to obtain, than primary, may wider number of not be relevant sources Internal No financial costs Reliable, verifiable External May have a More sources financial cost available than primary
  5. 5. T I/ pee: of Iriforrriaiizion Written — info presented on paper or computer screen Oral — info communicated by voice Pictorial — info displayed by a photo or picture Graphical — info displayed as a graph or chart Numerical — info presented in numbers rather than text
  6. 6. Qualitative & Quantitative Info I Qualitative information is descriptive in nature and includes people's feelings and attitudes towards a topic. I Example: Why is Cheese & Onion your favourite flavour of crisps? I Quantitative information is measurable and expressed numerically. It deals in facts and figures. I Example: How often do you eat a packet of crisps in a week? M. McGowan
  7. 7. Availability Accuracy Cost Effectiveness T’ Value of Information Objectivity . Completeness Conciseness Appropriateness _‘: ,l. ..5i'Lis{! t-1xva!1I-
  8. 8. Value of Information I Accuracy — is it correct? I Timeliness — is it up-to—date and reliable? I Completeness - are there any omissions? I Appropriateness -is it relevant? M. McGowan
  9. 9. Value of Information I Availability — is it at hand when needed? Easy to obtain? I Cost — is it expensive to collect? I Objectivig - is it free from bias? I Conciseness — is it straight to the point? M. McGovu n
  10. 10. Uses of Information in Business 7 Monitoring and control — used to ensure firm is heading in expected direction I Decision-making — before making any decision, managers have to weigh up alternatives or different sides of an argument. I Measuring performance - workers’ output may be measured against a standard set by the worker or colleagues. I Identifying new business opportunities — analysing consumer trends may lead to a new product or M . McGowan service to fill new customer needs
  11. 11. Mainframe I Large, powerful supercomputers (like Cray) capable of multi- tasking I Used mainly for scientific and engineering purposes. I NASA is one such user. M. M cGov:1n
  12. 12. Mainframe +/ - + _ I Enormous memory I Hugely expensive I Vast processing I Increasing power dependency I Extremely fast M. McGowan
  13. 13. PC and Laptops I Home, Office or mobile computers I Now have Notebooks and Palmtops I Have hinged screen I LCD display I Battery powered A I Trackpad instead of mouse M. McGowan
  14. 14. PC and Laptops +/ - I + I - I Good value for I Short shelf life m0n€Y I Prone to viruses and I Ever increasing breakdowns capacity and processing power M. McGowan
  15. 15. l| etworks I LANs (Local Area Networks) are linked to a geographically close server. WANs (Wide Area Networks) use telecommunications such as cable and satellite to link up across continents M. McGowa n
  16. 16. Ile"o/ vorks +/ - I + r - I Employees linked I Server breakdowns t09€th€F I Prone to viruses 7 Share data and files I Reflance on backups M. McGowan
  17. 17. E-mail I Transfer of text, graphics and other information between computer users via telephone lines. I Requires internet access and valid email address M. McGovu n
  18. 18. E-mail +/ - I + l— - I Instant I Junk mail Communication I Staff may abuse use I Same message can r Viruses be Sent to many I E-mail has same people legal liability as In Co5t'offoCtiVo written material M. McGowan
  19. 19. Videoconferencing I Sound and vision linking of people at different locations I Enables a virtual meeting between people without having to travel M. lI1cGowa n
  20. 20. Videoconferencing +/ - I+ I- I Saves I Poor connections accommodation and n Time lags travd I Hard to pick up body . SaVeS travelling | anguage I Relatively inexpensive M. McGowan
  21. 21. Internet I International network of computers I In existence since 1969! Main uses: I E-mail I Newsgroups I Sharing Information M. M cGov: i n
  22. 22. Internet I + I - I Access to vast I Check reliability of amounts of information information r Viruses I Access to wider r Staff may abuse global market access M. McGowan
  23. 23. Interactive CD or DVD I Interactive media used for staff training I CD holds 650 MB . I DVD holds 17 GB M. McGowan
  24. 24. Interactive CD or DVD +/ - I+ I- I Cheaper than using I Employees consultants unsupervised I One-on-one - More I Finite questions ll'lVO| Vll'lg fOl' staff I NC) human Contact M. McGowan
  25. 25. Computer Aided Manufacture ~ - I Computers and ‘/ T ~ - - ~ . robots used to c as control machines l a II. ‘ ‘-. 7‘ *— ,5 C W“ ij /5 M. McGowa n
  26. 26. CAM +/ - I + I - I Saves labour costs I Costly breakdowns I Consistent quality I Can't think for I Twentyfourseven tnom5o'Vo5 production M. McGowan
  27. 27. EPOS I Electronic Point of Sale I Allows an electronic record kept of all purchases and returns I EFTPOS is when Switch and Delta are used. (Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale) . 1. . Ilc(i'ov: ii1
  28. 28. EPOS +/ - I + I - I Records purchases & I Barcodes may be returns faulty I Aids stock control I Information has to T can be used for be entered correctly market research on Baloooo M. McGowan
  29. 29. Database I Database — data saved and organised in an electronic filing system I Keeping and sorting records I Searching for information I Filing reports I Mail merge ,1 » I T T ‘i _iI' l l I l l l M. McGowan
  30. 30. Spreadsheet I Spreadsheet - an electronic worksheet used to manage numbers and carry out calculations. I Produces charts and graphs I What if scenarios I Budgets, wages, sales figures, estimates M. McGowan
  31. 31. ‘. l . K c . Word Processing I Word Processing — an electronic typewriter _ I Prepare letters, .1 memos, reports I Edit text I Graphics and images I Mail merge M. McGowan
  32. 32. Desktop Publishing I Desktop Publishing — package that allows professional documents to .0: c . _ be created / I I Text, graphics, and images on I High quality documents I I Magazines, newsletters, price lists, posters, forms, booklets, manuals, catalogues, leaflets M. McGowan
  33. 33. Presentation Packages I Presentation Packages — projects an image onto large screen I Used for presentations I Can use audio and movie clips I Easily available handouts and notes M. McGowan
  34. 34. Computer-aided Design I Computer-aided Design (CAD) — computerised [ process for creating new , O parts or products or Die. altering existing ones _ ‘I-e I Mainly used by architects, ’ designers and engineers I Also used in animation and k/ W’ in simulations I Alterations can be made M My; /0iftutniout redrawing
  35. 35. Decision-Making Packages I Decision-Making Packages — analytical tools for ’ ml managers I Produces statistics and graphs I Helps managers evaluate information M. McGowan
  36. 36. Project Management Packages I Project Management Packages — enables a‘, project teams to co- ordinate activities la‘ I Details budgets V’ I Team member tasks I Records resources used or allocated I Time deadlines I Progress reports M . M cGow: in
  37. 37. Mu| ti—media systems Use a variety of ways of storing, processing, transferring and retrieving information. They can involve: I Text and sound I Text, sound and graphics I Text, sound and video I Video and sound I Interactive elements (voice command, touch screen etc. ..) M. McGowan
  38. 38. PI47 CEEFAX I4? Mon 28 J11 Teletext 16:40/I5 Eeefa: -t Headlines. .. . .101 Hone News. . . . .102 Home News. . . . .103 Foreign ueus. .101 Neus in Brief. l05 Farm News. . . . .106 Consuner Nous . 107 People . . . . . . . .108 Charivari. . . . .109 NEUSFLASH - - - >150 UEQTHER HIP“ . .115 DEIAILS II-': Iravel. weather, BBC Ileus. .. . .116 Business and Electronics. .11? Sport, Events . . . . . . .118 Consuuer Pages, Gardening. . . .119 The it-zus is regularlg tpdaled betueen Dan and Gpn. A full CEEFAX magazine would be 100 pages I A useful source of business information picked up on TV sets, but is ‘read only’. I CEEFAX is the BBC version. M. McGov: i n
  39. 39. Facsimile Transmission (Fax) I A fax sends over a telephone line identical copies of any document. I I It is fast and costs same as telephone call. M. McGowan
  40. 40. Benefits of IT I Increases productivity I Reduces waste I Increases speed of work _ Improves accuracy and quality; ‘:9’ A e-. ~;-a~. ~:-as-. ;:—I, =.i: a-. =_--: '-l_ I Increases access to information I Improves communication & decision- making I Saves floor space M. McGowan
  41. 41. I. _ Costs of IT Is» I Costly to develop, install and maintain I Deskilled workers leads to low motivation M. McGowa n Training staff is costly and timely “gap I Introduction may not be easy Requires new skills I-t. I—_ --, I Breakdowns very costly and inconven ll;
  42. 42. EI Benefits of Software I Information can be handled very quickly I Speed and quality of decision-making improved I Fewer errors made making calculations I Improved accuracy and quality I M. McGov: i n
  43. 43. Costs of Software ’ Expensive to buy as I Staff training required and costly . Staff learning curve can be costlI, I.Q; I'= "'. »" 35}- I Time can be lost due to glitches “ External threats - viruses M. McGowan
  44. 44. Uses of IT I if art‘ I Assists decision-making I Assists with providing information for staff I Helps maintain complete and accurate business records 4 I Aids effective communication within at_? ; re organisation M. McGowan
  45. 45. Effects of IT on Employees I Greater productivity I Retraining required I Changes in customer relations - more impersonal yet quicker response I Less personal contact 0 'ij'- , let. I , , , M. McGowan / V/—q
  46. 46. Effects of IT on Organisation I Decentralisation possible I Additional departments/ jobs may be created I Fewer staff required I Changes to span of control — narrower due to less staff or wider due to autonomy of staff xi 9}’ M. McGo fl
  47. 47. INTRODUCTION l‘ - A new Data Protection Act was passed in 1998 which supersedes the 1984 Act, which will be repealed. V There are eight Data Protection Principles in the Act. However, the new Principles are not exactly the same as those in the 1984 Act. M. McGowan
  48. 48. I 1. FIRST PRINCIPLE I "Personal data shall be processed fairly and | awful| y." T 2. SECOND PRINCIPLE I "Personal data shall be obtained only for specified and lawful purposes, and shall be processed only in a manner compatible with those purposes. " I 3. THIRD PRINCIPLE I "Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purposes for which they are processed. " M. McGowan
  49. 49. l 4. FOURTH PRINCIPLE f "Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date". I 5. FIFTH PRINCIPLE I "Personal data processed for any purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for those purposes . F 6. SIXTH PRINCIPLE 7 "Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this Act. " M. McGowan
  50. 50. I 7. SEVENTH PRINCIPLE I "Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data. " I 8. EIGHTH PRINCIPLE I "Personal data shall not be transferred to a country or territory outside the European Economic Area, unless that country or territory ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects in relation to the processing of personal data. " M. McGowan
  51. 51. I Personal data covers both facts and opinions about the individual. It also includes information regarding the intentions of the data controller towards the individual, although in some limited circumstances exemptions will apply. I With processing, the definition is far wider than before. For example, it incorporates the concepts of 'obtaining', holding‘ and 'disclosing'. M. McGowan