The road to sustainable mobility: Innovations for drive systems and vehicle technologyDaimler AGCommunications, 04/2008Stuttgart | Germanywww.daimler.com
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 2 3 Introduction We are proactive: In 1950, the world’s automobile population num- bered about 70 million. Today, the figure is around 900 million; and two billion vehicles are predicted Sustainable drive systems and innovative safety The road to sustainable mobility for the year 2050. How do we, as the inventors of the automobile, deal with the challenges brought technologies are the mainstays of our vision of about by this immense growth? mobility for the future. As a leading automobile Individual mobility and goods transport are prere- quisites for growth and prosperity in every society. producer, we are just as much committed to the We intend to retain this mobility for future genera- tions too, by securing it in a sustainable manner. protection of the climate and our environment as This guiding principle means reducing emissions, preserving natural resources, and at the same time to the safety of our vehicles and the prevention ensuring the highest level of road safety. In this brochure we explain how we are shaping the future of accidents. Our customers – and all other partici- of mobility: with innovative drive systems and vehicle technology along the road to emission-free pants in road traffic – throughout the world can driving – sustainable mobility. put their trust in this commitment. Daimler’s road map to sustainable mobility: Concerted development Further enhanced efficiency Emission-free driving with and optimization of our through hybridization. fuel cell and battery-powered internal combustion engines. vehicles. Energy for the future: Clean fuels for internal combustion engines. Forms of energy for emission-free driving.
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 4 5 Contents | PrologueWhat will our future mobility look like?Contents We are proactive: 3-7 Rapidly and effectively reducing fuel consumption Discussions centered on the so-called “greenhouse ing requirements for power output, safety and comfort. The road to sustainable mobility and thus CO2 emissions is essential not only gases” highlight the conflict of interests between the In commercial vehicles, too, the average fuel consump- against the background of the CO2 discussion, but desire for individual mobility on the one hand and the tion has dropped over the past few decades by around Climate change: 8 - 13 also in view of the limited nature of fossil fuels. responsibility this entails on the other. As the inventors one-third. The success of our ecological commitment Joining forces to reduce CO2 emissions This task cannot be accomplished with one tech- of the automobile, we have both the ambition and the is also borne out by environmental certification, as nology alone, with legislation, or by one branch of responsibility to secure the future of mobility in a prescribed by the internationally recognized ISO 14062 Today’s mobility: 14 - 25 industry. The global challenge can only be mas- sustainable manner. Sustainability means making use standard for environment-oriented product develop- Safety and comfort with optimal tered if each and every country, every branch of of natural resources to fulfill diverse human require- ment. This certification was first issued in 2005 for the environmental compatibility industry, every household, and each and every ments without restricting the actions of our children S-Class; this was followed last year by the new C-Class, human being on our planet makes a contribution. and grandchildren. For us, this means making engines and the A and B-Class models will also receive certifica- Tomorrow’s mobility: 26 - 41 more efficient, reducing emissions, and – throughout tion in early 2008. We are thus the world’s only automo- Groundbreaking technologies, fascinating Since the requirements placed on mobility of the a vehicle’s life cycle – making careful use of the materi- tive manufacturer to have been given this recognition. vehicles, emission-free driving future are becoming increasingly differentiated, als that we use in manufacturing our cars, vans, trucks, We are demonstrating the entire scope of our commit- there will be more than just one vehicle with one and buses. It also means developing alternatives to tra- ment in our annually produced report titled “FACTS on The driver’s role: drive system in future. We are therefore working ditional fuels, and giving thought to new drive concepts Sustainability,” which was recently examined by the Economical driving 42 - 43 simultaneously on all technologies that we see as and the future of our transportation systems. independent Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and was appropriate: optimization of our vehicles with awarded the classification “Level A+” – the highest Life cycle assessment: internal combustion engines; further enhanced The intensity of our climate protection measures is possible recognition for the implementation of sustaina- More than CO2 reduction – environmental 44 - 45 efficiency with hybrid drive; emission-free driving also reflected by our financial commitment: In 2007, bility guidelines. protection as a corporate objective with fuel cell and battery-powered vehicles. We are we invested 4.1 billion euros in research and develop- also promoting the development, production, and ment, including 1.5 billion euros in Europe alone for For more than 120 years, we have been finding answers Conclusion: distribution of clean fuels for internal combustion the environmental compatibility of our Mercedes-Benz to the automotive challenges of the respective eras. We invented the automobile – and are 46 - 47 engines and of forms of energy for emission-free products. From 1990 to 2007, for example, we re- Tradition, pioneering spirit, and a sense of responsibility shaping its future with passion driving. duced the fleet consumption of our passenger cars in have invariably been our driving force. In the following Germany by 32 percent – and this in the face of grow- chapters, you can read about Daimler AG’s commitment to sustainable mobility of the future. Mercedes-Benz F 700 research vehicle Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco-D study vehicle
6 7 Prologue We invented the automobile – and are shaping its future with passion. As the pioneers of automotive engineering, it is our ambition to shape future mobility in a safe and sustainable manner with groundbreaking technologies.Cutting-edge technologySustainabilityResponsibilityEnvironmental protectionSaving natural resources
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 8 9 Climate change Climate change: Joining forces According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), anthropogenic CO2 emissions – those caused by human activity – Climate change. Worldwide CO2 emissions must to reduce CO2 emissions are one cause of global warming along with other so-called greenhouse gases (e.g. methane, nitrous be drastically reduced. This will only be possible oxide and CFCs). Road traffic worldwide accounts for around 13 percent of these anthropogenic with concerted action on the part of all parties CO2 emissions. The remaining approximately 87 percent of worldwide CO2 emissions derive responsible. We continually bring about marked from other sources. As these figures show, the problem cannot be solved by focusing on the reductions in environmentally detrimental automotive sector alone. The automotive industry is undertaking all technically and economically emissions from our cars and commercial vehicles. feasible measures to reduce its share of CO2 emissions. However, we can only influence Our objective is emission-free driving with global warming if all other parties responsible for emissions play their part as well. battery and fuel-cell vehicles. Overall CO2 emissions worldwide: Energy production (25.9 percent) Waste / wastewater (2.8 percent) Industry (19.4 percent) Domestic / employment (7.9 percent) Forestry (17.4 percent) Agriculture (13.5 percent) Transportation / road, air, rail, water (13.1 percent) Cars (6 percent) Trucks (3.5 percent) Other (3.6 percent) Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 10 11 Climate change Automobiles and transportation are held primarily responsible for changes to the environment and the CO2 worldwide. The originators of CO2 are distributed CO2. Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is a chemical com- The greenhouse effect. The so-called green- climate. At the center of this intensive and at times very emotional discussion is CO2. Solutions can only over the entire globe. Almost 60 percent of carbon pound comprising carbon and oxygen. It arises house gases absorb and reflect a certain be found with dry, scientifically founded facts and figures. In discussions of the climate and CO2, too, dioxide emissions in the 20th century arose in the USA in the combustion of coal, oil, and gas, but also amount of the earth’s infrared heat radiation. differing and often contradictory analyses and opinions are the order of the day. Some light is cast on and Europe (source: World Resources Institute). In the in all vital processes of nature, for example Nocturnal cooling is thereby reduced, and the the matter by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations, also known 21st century the share of major national economies when humans or animals breathe, and during average temperature rises. Life on our planet as the “World Climate Council”: Their more than 2,500 experts do not carry out research themselves, but marked by dynamic growth, such as India or China, will bushfires or volcanic eruptions. A non-toxic, would not be possible without this “greenhouse assess existing research findings with a view to their credibility. This method, known as “peer review,” is markedly increase. The situation is different in the non-combustible gas, CO2 is a natural cons- effect.” The average temperature on the earth’s seen as a reliable way of distinguishing genuine knowledge from half-truths. Some statements from the European Union, where greenhouse gas emissions have tituent of the earth‘s atmosphere, which con- surface is currently around plus 15 degrees Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, submitted in February 2007, are summarized in the following. fallen somewhat, although with considerable variation sists primarily of molecular nitrogen (78 per- Celsius; without the natural greenhouse effect, among the member states: While Germany managed to cent) and oxygen (21 percent). The remaining the figure would be around minus 18 degrees curb CO2 emissions, Portugal, Spain, and Greece for one percent is accounted for by CO2, argon,The CO2 debate: Celsius. When the naturally occurring green- example showed a considerable increase. This was due water vapor, and trace gases. Our climate house gases are artificially increased or supple- to a reorientation in energy production. And energy is influenced by an increasing share of CO2, mented by further climate-relevant substances,What does the World Climate Council say? requirements are constantly rising. China is now the world‘s second-largest originator of CO2 after the USA. In terms of pro-capita emissions, on the other hand, due to the so-called greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere; in direct comparison with the greenhouse effect is reinforced. Tempera- tures at ground level and in the lower atmo- sphere continue to rise as a result. This green- China still lies well behind the industrial nations, with other greenhouse gases, however, CO2 has house effect is referred to as anthropogenic – CO2: The various branches of industry’s shares in CO2 Over the past few years, Daimler AG has already 2.5 tons of carbon dioxide per inhabitant. According to a less pronounced effect on the climate. i.e. caused by human activity. emissions are subject to considerable variation among brought about a continual considerable reduction in WWF, each German produces on average ten tons of Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and above individual countries. In Germany, for instance, accord- CO2 and other emissions from its cars and commercial CO2 per year, US citizens 20 tons, and the inhabitants all chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are much more ing to statistical data of the Federal Environmental vehicles, and shall continue to do so. Along with the of the Arabian Gulf state of Qatar on average no less detrimental to the climate, since they have a Office, the energy industry accounts for 41.3 percent, further development and optimization of our internal than 60 tons of carbon dioxide annually. greater influence on the climatic mechanism and the entire transportation sector for 19.1 percent combustion engines – both with and without the hybrid and remain in the atmosphere for a longer of CO2 emissions. Surveys conducted throughout the option – and the reinforced application of high-quality period. EU arrive at different figures. These often large fluctua- and alternative fuels, our goal is emission-free driving tions are due in part to genuine regional discrepancies, with vehicles powered by batteries and the fuel cell. but also to differing methods of data acquisition and assessment. Whatever the discrepancies in absolute CO2 originator: homo sapiens. According to mea- figures, however, we must acknowledge one fact above surements and calculations of the climate researchers, all: CO2 is not the problem of one single branch of industry. None of the originators mentioned can solve the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide content has been steadily increasing since 1750 – the birth of the In- Facts: CO2 Facts: Climate change the problem of CO2 alone; emissions can only be re- dustrial Revolution. The figure has now reached more Combustion of one liter of diesel fuel gives rise to Stern Review: The economy of climate change: “The costs of stabilizing the climate duced by the concerted efforts of all active partici- than 380 ppm; and it is continuing to increase, current- 2,650 g of CO2, and one liter of gasoline around are considerable, but bearable; delays would be dangerous and much more expensive. pants in an industrial economy. ly by 1.5 to 2 ppm annually. There are many causes 2,370 g. There is no significant difference in this Time is limited. If we were to wait another ten or twenty years, we would be in a dan- of this: industrialization, population growth, energy regard between premium and standard gasoline. gerous situation. We must not let this opportunity pass.” consumption, transportation, deforestation. Carbon Sir Nicholas Stern, author of the “Stern Review”* dioxide arises at many sources, above all through the A crate of mineral water contains approx. 72 g use of fossil fuels. Energy generation in power plants of CO2. Key statements of the Stern Review*: with coal, oil, and gas produces CO2; oil and gas Source: Informationszentrale Deutsches MineralwasserClimate change heating produces CO2; cars, trucks, aircraft and ships There is still time to avert the worst consequences of climate change if we act now produce CO2; volcanic eruptions and deforestation A rider of a bicycle emits an average of 6.6 g with determination. produce CO2; humans and animals exhale CO2. of CO2 per kilometer. At the same time, the researchers have established Source: Deutsche Sporthochschule Acting against climate change is essential for all countries and need not hinder an increase in the average temperature on our planet, the growth ambitions of either rich or poor nations. a process of receding glaciers, a rise in the sea level, 76 g of CO2 per second worldwide are released and an increase in devastating rainstorms and long through the clearing of forests and arable land. Climate change requires a concerted international response, with agreement on periods of drought. Source: Food and Agriculture Organisation long-term aims and a framework of action. A human exhales on average approx. 28 g of CO2 *Sir Nicholas Stern, former Chief Economist of the World Bank, is now head of the United per hour. Kingdom’s Government Economic Service. In October 2006, on commission from the British Facts: The climate Source: Deutsche Sporthochschule government, Stern presented an analysis of climate change in the light of the national economy. The text of this report is available on the Internet at www.sternreview.org.uk. The CO2 concentration of the atmosphere is now much higher than at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. During its last eruption, the volcano Mt. Etna released 348,808 g of CO2 per second. It is highly likely (probability of error: less than 10 percent) that anthropogenic CO2 emissions – Source: Geophysikalisches Observatorium i.e. those caused by humans – are the prime cause of climate change. A German dairy cow produces an average of Assuming constant or increasing CO2 emission levels, in the 21st century the effects on the climate will 271 g of CO2 per hour. be stronger than those observed in the 20th century (probability of error: less than 10 percent). Source: Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft Contributions to global CO2 emissions worldwide: Energy production (25.9 percent), industry (19.4 percent), forestry (17.4 percent), agriculture (13.5 percent), transportation / road, air, rail, water (13.1 percent), domestic / employment (7.9 percent), waste / wastewater (2.8 percent). Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 12 13 Climate changeUniversal commitment for reduced emissions Achievements to date Reducing emissions: How is Daimler contributing? Universal commitment for reduced emissions. Technical triathlon: Consumption, emissions, To illustrate the countless measures and the success achieved to date, we shall As an automotive manufacturer, we are carrying out An all-encompassing view of the CO2 issue shows that safety. A central challenge is the conflict of aims allow some figures to speak for themselves; these point out what the European intensive research and development work to reduce not only the technological features of new and existing between minimum consumption and noxious emissions and German automotive industries in general and Daimler in particular have consumption and emissions. In pursuing this aim, we vehicles have a decisive influence on emissions, but on the one hand, and maximum safety on the other. accomplished for climate protection over the past few years: are counting not on individual technologies and also the fuel they use, the transport infrastructure, the It would not be appropriate to optimize just one of vehicles, but on the sum total of all possible measures transport management, and the driving behavior of these aspects, since they directly influence each other. 01 From 1995 to 2005, the European manufacturers reduced CO2 emissions from involving drive systems, lightweight design, energy the customer. Increasing the share of renewable fuels, A reduction in particulate emissions from diesel en- their passenger cars by some 14 percent (from 186 to 160 grams). Over the same management, and fuels. We are concerned with con- for example, is a powerful lever for reducing CO2 emis- gines by means of filters, for example, is accompanied period, Daimler achieved a reduction of about 20 percent (from 230 to 187 grams). stantly increasing the efficiency with which fuel is put sions, since it takes immediate effect in all vehicles, by an increase in fuel consumption. We must also 02 The market share of low-consumption diesel vehicles has doubled in the EU since to use in the transportation of people and goods. These not only in the more recent models. By comparison: comply with safety requirements – regarding pedestri- 1998 and has exceeded the share of gasoline vehicles since 2004. measures are to the benefit of the entire passenger car Around 14 million automobiles are newly registered an protection, for instance – and fulfill the customer’s and commercial vehicle fleet. Our strategy is paying each year in Europe, but there are currently 140 million demands for comfort. This increases both vehicle 03 Already in 2004, more than 60 percent of all new ACEA cars emitted less than off: The CO2 emissions from our passenger car fleet cars on the European roads. With an appropriate weight and fuel consumption. As with a triathlon, 160 g of CO2 per km. fell by some 22 percent between 1995 and 1997 – driving style, the consumption and thus also the CO2 the disciplines of consumption, emissions, and safety 04 By comparison with 1990 (EURO 0), modern diesel engines in trucks and buses more than for any other European automotive producer. emissions of these vehicles can be reduced by up to 20 are concerned with achieving the best overall result, complying with the EURO 5 standard now only emit between 5 and 20 percent Fuel consumption in trucks and buses has fallen by percent. And the political sphere is ultimately respon- not merely coming first in one individual event. of particulates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. around one-third since the mid-1980s. sible for providing an adequate transportation infra- structure and sensible transport management. These 05 The average fuel consumption of a European long-distance truck with a GVW parameters offer much additional potential for CO2 of 40 tons has fallen over the past few decades from around 50 to about reduction and should thus also be taken into accountClimate change 32 liters/100 km. in the political decision-making process. Cost consid- 06 Since 2000, absolute CO2 emissions from passenger cars in Germany have erations* are also of interest here: CO2 reductions fallen – despite increased mileages and transport volumes. through modifications to vehicle technology alone account for 400 to 500 euros per ton of CO2. With an 07 The German automotive industry has reached its interim goal: a 25 percent integrated approach extending to all originators, the reduction in CO2 from 1995 to 2005. average costs would be much more favorable, at 180 08 Compared with 1990, new German cars now derive almost 60 percent more to 210 euros per ton of CO2. power from a liter of fuel while transporting about 40 percent more weight, for example in the form of safety features. *Source for costs: Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles (ACEA) 09 Without the fuel-saving measures introduced since the late 1970s, the entire German vehicle fleet would now consume around 21 billion liters more gasoline and diesel. 10 The fuel consumption of Mercedes-Benz passenger cars sold in Germany fell by 32 percent between 1990 and 2007. 11 The average fuel consumption of an S-Class automobile per 100 kilometers is now about 3 liters less than in 1990. 12 Around 29 percent of all cars produced by Mercedes-Benz are in the so-called “5-liter car” category. Sources: ACEA, VDA, Daimler AG
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 14 15 Today’s mobility Today’s mobility: Whether it be passenger cars, commercial vehicles or vans, Daimler already today offers a wide variety of economical, clean models. Today’s mobility. Daimler does not make cars Safety and comfort with optimal With the smart cdi, some 150,000 customers are already driving the currently most eco- that require self-denial on the part of their environmental compatibility nomical (3.3 liters/100 km) and climate-friendly (88 grams of CO2/km) car on the market. drivers. Our customers expect and receive The Mercedes-Benz E 320 BlueTEC, “World Green safety, comfort, and performance. We put our Car of the Year 2007,” has the world’s cleanest diesel engine. And with spray-guided direct skills and knowledge to use in ensuring that injection, the Mercedes-Benz CLS 350 CGI and E 350 CGI models represent milestones in fuel these values associated with our vehicles are savings for gasoline-engined automobiles. In all our passenger car series, we offer highly secured for the future, along with optimized fuel economical vehicles with a “BlueEFFICIENCY” technology package. These variants have consumption and environmental compatibility. additional optimization features that reduce fuel consumption by up to 12 percent. In North America, more than 1,100 hybrid-drive city buses of the Group’s American Orion brand can already be seen on the roads, and a further 1,500 have been ordered; we are thus world leaders in hybrid buses. More than 140,000 of our BlueTEC trucks are currently in operation on the roads of Europe – and the great majority of these already today comply with the EURO 5 exhaust standards to be introduced in 2009. And the Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid, in series production since 2006, is the world’s cleanest light-duty truck. On the following pages, you can find out what environment-friendly technologies and vehicles are already available today.
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 16 17 Today’s mobility Today’s mobility Daimler has been synonymous with pioneering achievements and progress in automotive engineering for over 100 years. The founders of our company invented the automobile and made it marketable; they built the first bus, the first truck and the first motor boat. We secure our leading technological position in interna- tional competition with some 1,600 patents annually; our groundbreaking inven- tions include ABS, the airbag, ESP, and Active Brake Assist for emergency braking. Today, we are deploying our comprehensive technological competence in the development of economical, low-emission vehicles and are putting our techno- logical potential to effect by offering our customers optimal fuel consumption with no compromise in safety, performance, or comfort. Passenger cars – Mercedes-Benz Cars Transporters – Mercedes-Benz Vans Commercial vehicles – Daimler Trucks / Daimler Buses smart fortwo cdi Mercedes-Benz E-Class E 300 BlueTEC Mercedes-Benz Vito 111 CDI Mercedes-Benz Actros Mercedes-Benz Axor Mercedes-Benz Atego Consumption: 3.3 l/100 km Consumption: 7.3 l/100 km Consumption: 8.2 l/100 km with BlueTEC system with BlueTEC system with BlueTEC system Mercedes-Benz A-Class A 160 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Mercedes-Benz M-Class ML 280 CDI Mercedes-Benz Viano CDI 2.0 Mercedes-Benz Citaro G Bus Mercedes-Benz Econic NGT Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid Consumption: 4.5 l/100 km Consumption: 9.4 l / 100 km Consumption: 8.2 l/100 km with BlueTEC HYBRID system with natural gas drive with HYBRID system Mercedes-Benz B-Class B 180 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Mercedes-Benz R-Class R 280 CDI Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 215 CDI Mercedes-Benz Unimog Setra Omnibus Orion Bus Consumption: 5.3 l/100 km Consumption: 8.2 l/100 km Consumption: 9.4 l/100 km with BlueTEC system with BlueTEC system with HYBRID system Mercedes-Benz C-Class C 200 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Mercedes-Benz S-Class S 320 CDI Mercedes-Benz Vario Freightliner M2 Freightliner Cascadia™ Thomas Built Buses Consumption: 5.1 l / 100 km Consumption: 8.3 l/100 km with BlueTEC system with HYBRID system aerodynamically optimized school bus with HYBRID system
Daimler – The road to sustainable mobility 18 19 Today’s mobilityMercedes-Benz S 320 CDI Engine test rig Ignition with spray-guided direct injectionOur ambition: Technological leadership Engine technology in cars: Series innovations S-Class: Consumption reduction Heavy automobiles consume more fuel than light We see no contradiction in the fact that despite the The considerable reductions in fuel consumption CDI: Common-rail direct injection, introduced in the Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI in 1997, in liters/100 km ones. Luxurious, safe touring sedans require more environmental debate we still build large and often par- that we have achieved over the past few years is a milestone of diesel technology. The fuel is directly injected into the diesel engine’s energy than compact city cars. Automotive produ- ticularly powerful vehicles, which are desired by cus- are the result of state-of-the-art engine technology. cylinders via a shared high-pressure fuel line (common rail). The high injection pressure cers who mainly offer small and mid-sized vehicles tomers throughout the world. The decisive factor is the Optimally contoured combustion chambers and and the variable control of the injection process result in considerably improved mixture 20 l thus automatically achieve a lower fleet consump- efficiency of these vehicles and thus of the entire fleet. immense injection pressures of up to 2,100 bar formation in the cylinders; this in turn reduces fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. 15 l tion than a manufacturer that is at home above all And we have been making immense progress here over allow extremely fine atomization of the fuel and For the first time, CDI has paved the way for the design of diesel engines that are com- in the premium segment. the past few years in passenger cars and commercial perfected combustion. Further advances are parable with their gasoline counterparts in terms of driving dynamics and in some cases in 10 l vehicles alike. Whereas in 1990, 14.5 liters of fuel were individual cylinder control, reduced friction in fact have superior torque. We have been the pioneers of common rail technology for more 5l But in the overall analysis, shouldn’t we take into burned per 100 kilometers in the engine of an S-Class, the engine, highly developed charging technology, than ten years, and our diesel vehicles produced since 2001 operate with CDI technology. account that larger cars can transport a whole large the consumption of a Mercedes-Benz S 320 CDI – resilient materials and fully electronic engine S-Class S-Class family with their luggage, while there is room for an automobile with comparable performance – now management; we already introduced these fea- CGI: So-called stratified charged gasoline injection, or spray-guided direct injection, is 1990 2007 perhaps one passenger in a compact car? And the fact amounts to 8.5 liters. Around 29 percent of all new tures in Mercedes-Benz passenger cars in 1996. a key technology for reducing fuel consumption in gasoline engines while at the same Source: Daimler AG that significant technological innovations – also for Mercedes-Benz cars sold today in Europe already time optimizing handling characteristics. It positions the precisely metered quantity of reduced fuel consumption – almost invariably find their consume less than 6.5 liters per 100 kilometers. fuel directly at the spark plug. During each power stroke, the combustion chambers are CDI | CGI way to the compact car segment via larger automo- The thirst for fuel of large commercial vehicles has repeatedly provided with fuel within a fraction of a second, so that mixture formation, biles? And that it is ultimately the customer who de- dropped by more than one-third since the mid-1980s – combustion, and fuel consumption are greatly improved. The result: markedly better cides on the vehicle category for his or her individual despite the marked increase in transport efficiency. performance and a reduction in consumption of around ten percent. The world’s first mobility? And our BlueTEC trucks perform excellently in vehicle with this innovative combustion system was the Mercedes-Benz CLS 350 CGI, consumption and emissions; this is the basis of their introduced in early 2006; and the Mercedes-Benz E 350 CGI has now been available asToday’s mobility market success, with over 140,000 vehicles sold. a sedan or station wagon since December 2007. It is our ambition to assume leadership with our tech- Downsizing: Thanks to increasingly intelligent injection technology, turbochargers, and nologies in the field of drive systems – for example in compressors, more engine power is now available from smaller engines. The share of the the development of economical diesel engines: These part-load sector increases, while consumption and emissions are reduced. Today’s engines not only perform admirably in direct comparison with derive a good 50 percent more power from the same amount of fuel as in 1990. Thanks premium competitors, but also have the edge over the to common-rail injection systems with piezo injectors, diesel engines in particular have Share of low-consumption Mercedes-Benz few hybrid models currently available. The hybrid has become more powerful and economical over the past few years. At the same time, the cars in the European sales region. advantages in urban traffic, but in driving operation downsizing of gasoline and diesel engines also reduces weight and space requirements. outside city areas modern diesel vehicles perform just (29 percent) sales of Mercedes-Benz cars as well and often even better in terms of consumption. with a consumption of under 6.0 l/100 km Nevertheless, hybrid drive is an important topic of the Source: Daimler AG future for Daimler AG. We already have the world’s lar- gest commercial vehicle fleet with hybrid drive and are world market leaders in hybrid buses. Our strategy is BlueEFFICIENCY to offer both in future to car customers as well: state- In March 2008, Mercedes-Benz introduced the first of its new BlueEFFICIENCY of-the-art gasoline and diesel vehicles with and without passenger cars; these models – initially numbering about 20 – unite strong points hybrid options. We are working towards this aim to- typical of the brand, such as safety and comfort, with exemplary efficiency and gether with General Motors, BMW, and Chrysler at our environment-friendliness. For the new BlueEFFICIENCY models, the Mercedes engineers Hybrid Development Center in the USA. The emphasis are benefiting from potential in all areas of development to further reduce vehicle weight here is on the so-called two-mode hybrid system, along with air and rolling resistance, and to make onboard energy management even more which unlike today’s hybrid solutions not only exhibits efficient. For this purpose, we have developed a whole package of measures for consump- favorable fuel consumption in the urban driving cycle, tion reduction, which we shall be offering in numerous models – from the A-Class to the but also achieves excellent consumption on long S-Class. This package, which will cut fuel consumption by up to twelve percent, includes journeys thanks to fixed transmission ratios. measures such as aerodynamic refinement, our new electric ECO steering system, intelli- gent lightweight design, low-resistance tires, and innovative generator management. A new shift and consumption display in the dashboard also helps the driver maintain an economical, energy-conscious driving style.
20 21 Today’s mobility BlueTEC Mercedes-Benz E 300 BlueTECBlueTEC: BlueTEC in the commercial vehicle:The world’s cleanest diesel Reduced emissions – and costsInternal combustion engines have become increas- The second BlueTEC version, used until now primarilyingly clean and economical over the past few in our commercial vehicles such as the Actros, Axor, Environmental protection is an integral part ofyears, and they will remain the most important Atego, Unimog, and Citaro and in our buses, will in all modern logistics, but investments must alsoautomotive drive principle until emission-free future also be used in our passenger cars and is even make economic sense for transportation compa-drive concepts are introduced on a large scale. more effective: Injection of an odorless carbamide nies and other fleet operators. BlueTEC tech-We shall therefore keep working intensively on solution known as AdBlue into the hot exhaust stream nology is an investment that pays off not merelythis technology and further optimize consumption causes the oxides of nitrogen to react in the catalytic for the environment, but also for operators:and emissions. We are now providing you with converter with the added ammonia to form harmless It cuts running costs and enhances resale value.an overview of our technology already available nitrogen and water vapor. Reduction of nitrogen oxides Thanks to their optimized combustion, BlueTECfor the world’s cleanest diesel: BlueTEC. with AdBlue and the SCR catalytic converter is as yet trucks use up to five percent less fuel than the only method for compliance with the EURO 6 other comparable vehicles. With an annualBlueTEC combines measures within the engine standard of the European Union and the American distance covered of around 160,000 kilometers,for emission reduction with treatment downstream BIN 5 regulations. In passenger cars, the BlueTEC the savings made with one truck alone alreadyof the engine – so-called selective catalytic reduction fleet is led by the Mercedes-Benz E 320 BlueTEC, amount to more than 3,000 euros. The reduced(SCR), which considerably reduces emission of the which is already available in the USA. With the intro- tolls for EURO 5 vehicles – two cents per kilome-noxious oxides of nitrogen. These are the only exhaust duction of this diesel vehicle in California, we are the ter in Germany, for example – make for furthercomponents for which the figures are inherently higher first carmaker to comply with the stringent emission savings in the order of 3,000 euros. If the costfor diesel engines than for their gasoline counterparts. limits of this U.S. state – and of the other relevant At Daimler Trucks, we have already been using BlueTEC since 2005, and more of the necessary AdBlue fluid is taken intoBlueTEC technology cuts emission of the oxides of countries – in compression-ignition engines. Our than 140,000 trucks with this clean technology are already on the roads. Having account, the somewhat more expensive bluenitrogen in two ways: In passenger cars, such as the BlueTEC SUV vehicles from the Mercedes-Benz ML-, started with trucks for heavy-duty long-distance operation, we have now compre- technology is already amortized after aboutMercedes-Benz E-Class, the oxidation catalytic R-, and GL-Class series, to be introduced in 2008, hensively extended our range of BlueTEC 5 vehicles to light trucks for short-radius 18 months. And BlueTEC makes for considerableconverter and particulate filter are combined with comply with the BIN 5 regulations and are thus genuine distribution. We have thus made extremely economical, environment-friendly added value even when a truck is resold.a further developed, particularly long-life NOx 50-state automobiles. The Mercedes-Benz E 300 vehicles available well in advance of the introduction of the binding European No wonder more than 140,000 BlueTEC trucksstorage catalytic converter and an additional SCR BlueTEC has been available in Germany since late emission standards EURO 4 and EURO 5. from Daimler are already to be seen on thecatalytic converter. 2007, and the Mercedes-Benz C 250 BlueTEC is set roads of the world. to be launched at 2009. With commercial vehicles, The future-oriented BlueTEC technology saves up to 2,000 liters of diesel fuel per vehicle BlueTEC has already been in the fast lane since 2005. and year as compared with other exhaust gas purification systems. When applied to the entire fleet of around 140,000 trucks with BlueTEC technology at the beginning of 2008, this means savings of some 200 million liters of fuel annually, corresponding to a load of approximately 7,500 truck/trailer combinations, or around 700,000 tons of CO2. And thanks to the optimized combustion process, emission of fine dust particles (PM10) is also significantly reduced. With BlueTEC, our engines burn their fuel so efficiently and BlueTEC – the technology for the world’s cleanest diesel with such low emission levels that our commercial vehicles already today fulfill the require- 01 Engine 02 CO + HC reduction 03 Particulate 04 NOX reduction ments of the EURO 5 exhaust standard that will only come into force in 2009 for new optimized carbon monoxide reduction Oxides of nitrogen vehicles in the EU. BlueTEC technology, which can look forward to a bright future, thus combustion and hydrocarbons soot NO and NO2 constitutes the basis for EURO 6, the next stage of emission legislation to come into force in about 2014 for all European commercial vehicles. It also allows our trucks and buses Filling AdBlue into a commercial vehicle of the Mercedes-Benz and Setra brands to comply with the stringent future exhaust gas standards EPA 10 in the NAFTA states and JP 09 in Japan.