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User Experience
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
South African Government Web Forum
Dr Marco Pretorius
...
e-Government Websites
Straub and Gerrol, 2008
Putting government online is one thing;
making government websites
functiona...
e-Government Websites
• Poorly designed websites can drive a wedge between
government and citizens (Bailey, 2002)
• Access...
e-Government Websites - Africa
• African e-Government websites - higher rate of failure than success
(Chango, 2007)
• Afri...
UX?
Why are websites in South Africa mostly like this?
And not like this?
What can make the difference?
User Experience!
Time for the UX Video!
Usability
“Usability really just means making sure that something works well:
• that a person of average (or even below av...
User Experience
Morville, 2004
User Experience: Important Questions to Ask
• E-Skills
– Can the specified users use the product?
– Is it easy to use?
– A...
Importance of UX
• Create websites that are:
= a positive user experience for citizens
• Conduct user research
– Not to de...
SA e-Government Websites
What are we doing right?
What are we doing wrong?
A few examples…
Error Messages
• Will non-technical people (most people) understand it?
• Do we provide solutions?
SA e-Government Websites: Speed
SA e-Government Websites: Good use of images
SA e-Government Websites: Bad use of images
• Stretched images
• No optimised images
SA e-Government Websites: Very text heavy
SA e-Government Websites: SEO
SA e-Government Websites: URLs
• Good, clear URLs:
– Limpopo.gov.za
– Mpumalanga.gov.za
– Westerncape.gov.za
• Confusing U...
SA e-Government Websites: Terminology
UX Guidelines
• Become familiar with UX guidelines and best practice
– A list of resources available at:
• http://uxstrate...
UX Guidelines for SA Governments
Western Cape Government UX Guidelines
to be made available soon
Future: template
website
So, there are Guidelines…
UX Guidelines are available –
why don’t we implement
them?
We need to institutionalise UX!
SA e-Government Websites
• Guidelines and principles exist for e-Gov website design
– Limited indications of application b...
A Need to Institutionalise UX in SA Government
• Poor usability of gov websites
– major obstacle in several countries
(Wan...
Usability and UX Maturity Models
Results and Findings 2011-2012
Results and Findings 2011-2012
Questions Yes No
Do you have usability and UX employees in your organisation? 4 5
Is usabil...
Results and Findings 2011-2012
• PGs did not achieve high levels in the usability maturity models
• Results validated and ...
A need to Institutionalise UX
• A need to institutionalise UX in our environments
– How to institutionalise UX?
• Methodol...
Read more at: uxstrategy.co.za
UX Activities and User-centred Design
Achievements – Improvements to the Government
website
Before
After
The Usability Lab
Mobile and Responsive Design
Conclusions
• A strong need to institutionalise UX in SA Government
– Make SA Government websites:
• Useful - Does the web...
Thank you
Tel: Fax:
www.westerncape.gov.za
Contact Us
Dr Marco Pretorius
Usability Team Leader: e-Government for Citizens
+27 (0)21 ...
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
The Need for Improved User Experience in Government
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The Need for Improved User Experience in Government

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The Need for Improved User Experience in Government

  1. 1. User Experience The Need for Improved User Experience in Government South African Government Web Forum Dr Marco Pretorius @PretoriusMarco 21 August 2013
  2. 2. e-Government Websites Straub and Gerrol, 2008 Putting government online is one thing; making government websites functional and easy to use is quite another
  3. 3. e-Government Websites • Poorly designed websites can drive a wedge between government and citizens (Bailey, 2002) • Accessing South African government websites can be a frustrating experience (Vermeulen, 2010) • Usability is an important factor in designing e-Gov websites (Berman et al., 2010) • United States – Importance of usability in government has grown – Considered a best practice (Usability.gov, 2011) – Also UK, Aus, Europe, Canada
  4. 4. e-Government Websites - Africa • African e-Government websites - higher rate of failure than success (Chango, 2007) • Africa continues to perform below the world average in the United Nations e-Government Survey (UN, 2010) Top 5 countries in e-Gov development in Africa (2010) Rank Country World e-Government ranking 1. Tunisia 66 2. Mauritius 77 3. Egypt 86 4. South Africa 97 5. Seychelles 104 Top 5 countries in e-Gov development in Africa (2012) Rank Country World e-Government ranking 1. Seychelles 84 2. Mauritius 93 3. South Africa 101 4. Tunisia 103 5. Egypt 107
  5. 5. UX? Why are websites in South Africa mostly like this? And not like this?
  6. 6. What can make the difference? User Experience!
  7. 7. Time for the UX Video!
  8. 8. Usability “Usability really just means making sure that something works well: • that a person of average (or even below average) ability and experience • can use the thing • – whether it’s a website, a fighter jet, or a revolving door – • for its intended purpose without getting hopelessly frustrated.” -Steve Krug (2000)
  9. 9. User Experience Morville, 2004
  10. 10. User Experience: Important Questions to Ask • E-Skills – Can the specified users use the product? – Is it easy to use? – Are we providing e-skills training? – Are we providing alternative methods? – Can’t only rely on e-Government • Language – Can they understand the language used on the product? Is simple language used? • Accessibility – Can disabled users use our product? • Government – Are we providing e-services to our citizens? • Don’t have to drive to town to submit a tender • Avoid queues • Improved communication between government and citizens • Allow access to information • Making their life easier • Technology – Do the specified users have access to the technology?
  11. 11. Importance of UX • Create websites that are: = a positive user experience for citizens • Conduct user research – Not to develop only out of the manager’s/programmer’s point of view • But what do the users (citizens) need?? • Involve citizens • Save costs – Development costs - by using templates, saving rework – Reduce the need for training
  12. 12. SA e-Government Websites What are we doing right? What are we doing wrong? A few examples…
  13. 13. Error Messages • Will non-technical people (most people) understand it? • Do we provide solutions?
  14. 14. SA e-Government Websites: Speed
  15. 15. SA e-Government Websites: Good use of images
  16. 16. SA e-Government Websites: Bad use of images • Stretched images • No optimised images
  17. 17. SA e-Government Websites: Very text heavy
  18. 18. SA e-Government Websites: SEO
  19. 19. SA e-Government Websites: URLs • Good, clear URLs: – Limpopo.gov.za – Mpumalanga.gov.za – Westerncape.gov.za • Confusing URLs: – capegateway.gov.za (before westerncape.gov.za) • Citizens thought it was a: – Shopping centre – Tourist site – nwpg.gov.za • Do citizens know what nwpg acronym means? – Northern-cape.gov.za • Would be easier without the “dash” • Register northerncape.gov.za too and redirect – Gautengonline.gov.za; kznonline.gov.za; freestateonline.fs.gov.za • Easier to remember without the “online”
  20. 20. SA e-Government Websites: Terminology
  21. 21. UX Guidelines • Become familiar with UX guidelines and best practice – A list of resources available at: • http://uxstrategy.co.za/ux-resources/ – Usability.gov – Jakob Nielsen – User Interface Engineering – Human Factors International – Howto.gov – Guidelines from around the world from other governments
  22. 22. UX Guidelines for SA Governments Western Cape Government UX Guidelines to be made available soon Future: template website
  23. 23. So, there are Guidelines… UX Guidelines are available – why don’t we implement them? We need to institutionalise UX!
  24. 24. SA e-Government Websites • Guidelines and principles exist for e-Gov website design – Limited indications of application by South African Provincial Government • Guidelines can not be implemented if there is – No executive support – No adequately trained staff – No budget – No use of usability methodologies and user-centered design processes
  25. 25. A Need to Institutionalise UX in SA Government • Poor usability of gov websites – major obstacle in several countries (Wangpipatwong, Chutimaskul and Papasratorn, 2008) • Many users in SA with low levels of e-skills/IT literacy – Usability and ease of use becomes especially important • Mobile and responsive design – most of our citizens on mobile • Survey conducted amongst stakeholders in the 9 Provinces in SA – Goal: determine usability and UX maturity of Provinces – Results: a lack of usability and UX processes • limited use of a standardised user-centered design methodology • Usability and UX are not an established best practice or standard
  26. 26. Usability and UX Maturity Models
  27. 27. Results and Findings 2011-2012
  28. 28. Results and Findings 2011-2012 Questions Yes No Do you have usability and UX employees in your organisation? 4 5 Is usability and UX Design recognised as a unique and valued skill? 3 6 Do you have executive support? 4 5 Do you have a usability/UX strategy? 0 9 Is usability and UX a part of your development lifecycle (website)? 1 8 Is usability and UX exposure / training available to UX employees? 2 7 Is usability and UX exposure / training available to other employees? 1 8
  29. 29. Results and Findings 2011-2012 • PGs did not achieve high levels in the usability maturity models • Results validated and supported by UX generic questions – 6 PGs - usability and UX are not recognised as a valued skill – Only 4 PGs have UX employees – 0 PGs have usability or UX strategy in place • In 2013 – Western Cape Government has official UX Policy, Strategy and Guidelines – Only 1 PG has UX in development lifecycle Model Lowest rating Highest rating Nielsen (Stage 1 - 8) 2 5 Schaffer (Level 0 - 5) 0 2 Feijo (Level 1 - 6) 2 3
  30. 30. A need to Institutionalise UX • A need to institutionalise UX in our environments – How to institutionalise UX? • Methodology available at: – http://uxstrategy.co.za/ » based on PhD research » Western Cape Government used as case study
  31. 31. Read more at: uxstrategy.co.za
  32. 32. UX Activities and User-centred Design
  33. 33. Achievements – Improvements to the Government website Before After
  34. 34. The Usability Lab
  35. 35. Mobile and Responsive Design
  36. 36. Conclusions • A strong need to institutionalise UX in SA Government – Make SA Government websites: • Useful - Does the website actually assist citizens? • Usable - Can citizens with low e-skills use it? • Desirable - Do citizens like using it? • Valuable – Does the site deliver value to stakeholders/citizens? • Accessible - Mobile vs Desktop? Can disable citizens use it? • Findable - Can citizens find our websites? Can they find what they need on our sites? • Credible - Do citizens trust our websites?
  37. 37. Thank you
  38. 38. Tel: Fax: www.westerncape.gov.za Contact Us Dr Marco Pretorius Usability Team Leader: e-Government for Citizens +27 (0)21 483 5064 +27 (0)21 483 8998 Marco.pretorius@westerncape.gov.za Twitter: @PretoriusMarco

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