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M&cce conference pluijm final 13 oct 2016 reduced


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Resilient by Nature Approach as presented at the M&CCE Conference October 13th, London, Excel

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M&cce conference pluijm final 13 oct 2016 reduced

  1. 1. Resilient  by  Nature     Innova&ve  Approach  Towards  Climate  Change  Impact  Solu&ons   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  2. 2. Climate  Change  Impact   Extreme Weather Impact in the Media Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  3. 3. Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  4. 4. Ra#onale  :   Climate  Change  Impacts  come  much  faster  and  are  more  intense   than  originally  an#cipated  for Tradi#onal  plan  and  design  of  coastal  infrastructure  is  no  longer   adequate Urgent  need  for  another,  more  effec#ve,  holis#c  approach Much  Faster,  More  Intense   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  5. 5. Design  Data  Under  Pressure     •  Design  Data  are  based  on  trend  analyses  and  scenarios   •  All  trends  show  considerable  varia#on   •  Actual   changes   in   trends   are   only   included   aDer   considerable  #me   •  Trend  Breaches  are  by  defini#on  not  included •  Data   are   therefore   basically   outdated   when   it   comes   to  accelerated  climate  change Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  6. 6. Ra#onale  : When  extreme  weather  and  hurricanes  hit  an  area,  most  aIen#on   goes  to  the  damage Hardly  or  no  aIen#on  is  given  to  those  areas  who  have  been  hit  too,   but  with  hardly  any  damage  and  the  natural  ability  to  recover  quickly Resilient  by  Nature  is  about  what  can  be  learned  from  those  systems   and  how  to  translate  their  characteris#cs  to  other  areas  which  are   less  resilient  by  themselves Resilient  by  Nature   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  7. 7. The  Example  of  Dauphin  Island,  USA   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  8. 8. •  “Unlike  typical  storm  surge  effects  on  a  mainland  coastline  and  affected  waterways,  on  an  island  the   surge  moves  around  and  over  the  land  mass  without  the  mounding  up  of  water  experienced  on  the   mainland.“ •  “Storm  surge  and  waves  were  not  high  enough  to  destroy  many  of  the  elevated  homes  on  the  less-­‐ protected  western  end  of  the  populated  part  of  the  island” The  Example  of  Dauphin  Island,  USA   Effec<veness  /  Post  Katrina  Impact  Assessment     Ref.  NOAA  and,_Alabama#Hurricanes   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  9. 9. Resiliency  Quality  Features  :   •  Relevant  processes  and  data  have  been  analyzed  and  assessed •  Characteris#cs   which   can   be   translated   into   hurricane   resistant   breakwaters  in  other  regions  and  climates •  Supported  with  similar  cases  known  within  the  area  itself  and  from   elsewhere •  The  rela#ve  small  footprint  also  limits  direct  storm  impact Ref. USGS Hurricane  Shaped  Barrier     Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  10. 10. Other  Systems  with  Proven  Natural  Resiliency       Eco-Shields / Mangroves Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  11. 11. Eco-­‐shields  /  Mangroves   Effec<veness­‐for-­‐coastal-­‐defence.pdf       Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  12. 12. Resiliency  Quality  Features  :   •  Effec#ve   with   regard   to   Wave   Impact   Reduc#on   (physical   distance   and  mangrove  type  dependent) •  Not  effec#ve  with  regard  to  Accelerated  Sea  Level  Rise •  Suitable  for  similar  marine  habitat  condi#ons  elsewhere •  Vulnerable   for   changes   in   ambient   condi#ons,   such   as   temperature   and  silta#on •  Not  suitable  for  other  climate  zones USGS Eco-­‐shields  /  Mangroves   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  13. 13. Eco-­‐Polder   •  Polder  type,  diked  area  as  extreme  impact  relief  instrument  (buffer) •  Designed   to   get   flooded   under   extreme   condi#ons   by   means   of   spilling  levees  or  weirs •  Allowing  the  water  to  come  in  controlled,  thus  reducing  and  slowing   down  the  direct  impact  on  the  mainland •  Vegeta#on  in  the  polder  can  slow  down  the  process  even  further •  Poten#al  addi#onal  use  as  storm  water  run  off  reservoir Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  14. 14. Eco-­‐Polder   Resiliency  Quality  Features  :   •  Well  tested,  global  concept  with  basically  very  few  restric#ons   •  Extensive  research  has  been  done  such  as  in  Northern  Germany              [Ref.  H.D.  Niemeyer,  2001] •  Extremely  effec#ve  in  terms  of  wave  and  water  level  set  up  reduc#on   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  15. 15. More  Systems  with  Similar  Impact  Resiliency  Quali<es     Other  systems  with  natural  built  in  resiliency  with  regard     extreme  weather  impacts  are  : •  Coral  Reefs  /  Ar#ficial  Reefs In  analogy  with  hurricane  shaped  barriers •  Sequen#al  Breakwaters    in  analogy  with  mega-­‐ripples •  Salt  Marshes In  analogy  with  mangroves In  principle  within  the  same  window  of  opportunity  as  the   the  systems  just  presented     Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  16. 16. The  “Resilient  by  Nature”  Approach   •  Learn  from  systems  with  proven  built  in  natural  resilience  in  terms   of  dimensions,  behaviour,  relevant  processes,  etc. •  Translate   their   characteris#cs   to   other   places   which   are   equally   exposed  but  less  resilient •  On  the  basis  of  an  holis#c  approach,  Implement  as  systems  instead   of  individual  engineered  solu#ons •  Toolbox,   providing   maximum   flexibility   and   internal   back-­‐up   and     redundancy •  As   solu#on   provider   and   overarching   framework   for   engineered   components,  such  as  structures •  Resilient  by  Nature  is  a  Game  Changer Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  17. 17. New  York  City  as  Example     USGS •  Hurricane  Sandy  (2012)    has  had  a  major  impact  on  NYC  (U$  32  billion,   direct  damage  costs) •  NYC  Resiliency  Program  “Rebuild  by  Design” •  Tradi#onal  sta#c  (river)  waterfront  approach,  without  aIen#on  for   flexibility  nor  internal  redundancy •  With  what  is  called  the  “Dry  Contour”  as  binding  factor  for  ManhaIan   •  No  Adapta#on  zones  included  so  no  space  for  yet  unknown  condi#ons •  First  projects  to  go  into  execu#on  this  year. Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  18. 18. Source : Daily News Source : Daily News New  York  City  as  Example     •  Fixed  boundaries  of  the  exis#ng  quay-­‐walls  and  other   waterfront  infrastructure •  Tradi#onal  engineered  (river  bank)  solu#ons •  Some  landscaping  planned  on  the  dry  features,  but  no   changes  in  the  wet  contour •  Many  interfaces,  hard  to  manage,    performance  risk Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  19. 19.­‐content/uploads/2013/05/nyc-­‐aerial.jpg New  York  City  as  Example     Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  20. 20. Source : Daily News Source : Daily News New  York  City  as  Example     •  New  York  City  has  the  need  and  all  condi#ons  for  implementa#on  of   a  flexible,  holis#c  approach •  Big  unknowns  are  the  way  the  whole  estuary  will  behave  when  the   next  hurricane  and  related  flood  waves  will  hit  the  area •  It’s  all  about  understanding  and  implemen#ng  of  relevant  systems,   not  engineered  fixed  structures  with  some  occasional  landscaping •  With  the  “Blue  Dunes”  ini#a#ve  as  a  nice,  first  example  of  the   Resilient  by  Nature  approach Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  21. 21. Economy   •  The   economics   behind   what’s   feasible   or   not   will   mainly   be   determined   on   the   basis   of   what’s   already   there,   how   much   modifica#on  is  required  and  what  natural  resiliency  component(s)  to   add,  including  related  planning  and  #me  scales •  Balanced  against  the  immense  costs  of  the  material  and  immaterial   damage  each  major  event  causes •  Offers  the  poten#al  of  substan<al  addi<onal  social  and  economic   benefits  from  mul#-­‐usage  of  the  implemented  systems,  such  as  the   eco-­‐polder,  hurricane  breakwater,  eco-­‐shield,  etc. •  The  Resilient  by  Nature  approach  is  flexible,  fully  scalable  to  local   needs,  means  and  possibili#es,  thanks  to  its  unique  natural  system     based  characteris#cs Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons  
  22. 22. Source : Daily News Source : Daily News   •  Given  the  rapid  changes  and  related  uncertain#es  and  unknowns  in   design  data,  there  is  definitely  a  need  for  an  Holis#c  Approach   •  Resilient  by  Nature  offers  the  tools  and  experience  to  follow  and   implement  such  an  approach •  This  will  not  happen  overnight.  More  research  is  needed,  other   systems  added  and  confidence  must  grow •  Un#l  full  acceptance,  it’s  probably  worth  to  compare  and  check   what  has  been  planned  and  designed  conven#onally  with  the   Resilient  by  Nature  iden#fied  systems  and  check  if  it  makes  sense   what  has  been  engineered  as  individual  components •  Reference  Document  is  available  for  poten#al  partners   Resilient  by  Nature,  the  Way  Forward       Email  :   Marco  Pluijm   Senior  Specialist   Port  &  Marine  ⏐  Experience  Based  Solu<ons