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RIWC_PARA_A178 Epistemic displacement


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A178 Epistemic displacement

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RIWC_PARA_A178 Epistemic displacement

  1. 1. 23rd RI WORLD CONGRESS, EDINBURGH, 25TH TO 27TH OCTOBER, 2016 Epistemic Displacement: a particular wrong Dr Jim Elder-Woodward, OBE Independent Chair Scottish Independent Living Coalition
  2. 2. Miranda Fricker – “Epistemic injustice”; a wrong done to someone in their capacity as a knower  The disadvantaged speaker’s knowledge and experience has been overlooked or rejected, due to the hearer’s prejudice;  The knowledge base of both the disadvantaged speaker and the prejudiced hearer has been lessened, because the speaker’s information has been denied, or not interpreted in such a manner that it may be understood;  The disadvantaged speaker’s experiences have been denied or not facilitated in such a way as both the prejudiced hearer and the oppressed speaker could take advantage of them. Fricker M (2007) Epistemic Injustice; power and ethics of knowing, Oxford University Press, Oxford
  3. 3. Kidd and Carel (2016, forthcoming) Detail reports from chronically sick and disabled people that: their own knowledge being overlooked; not being given enough information or being given information which they don’t understand; and the negative impact this has not just on their care, but their life experience as a whole. Kidd, I J and Carel, H (2016) ‘Epistemic injustice and illness’, Journal of Applied Philosophy, doi: 10.1111/japp.12172
  4. 4. Begum (1996) “Even though he knew I was going to university he still treated me like a child. Once when I was undressing prior to an examination I shouted answers over the screen to questions directed at my mother, which should have been directed at me. I was accused of being cheeky” (1996, np). Begum, N (1996) “General Practitioners’ role in shaping disabled women’s lives” in “Exploring the Divide” by Barnes C and Mercer, G, The Disability Press
  5. 5. Epistemic Displacement As well as degrading and dismissing the knowledge base of the disadvantaged speaker, the prejudiced hearer’s elitist presumptions over the position of the disadvantaged speaker leads them to think they know ‘what is best’ for the speaker; and they voice that presumption on the speaker’s behalf.
  6. 6. Linda Martin Alcoff – The problem of speaking for others The speaker’s location affects both the meaning and truth of what they say; and thus one cannot assume an ability to transcend location. Social location, therefore, can serve either to authorize or dis- authorize one's speech. Not only is location epistemically important, but certain privileged locations are discursively dangerous. Alcoff, L M (1995) The problem with speaking for others, in Racism and Sexism: Differences and Connections eds. David Blumenfeld and Linda Bell, Rowman and Littlefield
  7. 7. Linda Martin Alcoff – The problem of speaking for others Rather than speaking “for” or “about” others; we should strive to create the conditions for dialogue and the practice of speaking with and to others Alcoff, L M (1995) The problem with speaking for others, in Racism and Sexism: Differences and Connections eds. David Blumenfeld and Linda Bell, Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.
  8. 8. Scottish Independent Living Movement Comprises: Over 100 local and national disabled people’s organisations, which either provide services to and by disabled people; or organise community development groups.
  9. 9. PAMS or PACs ‘Professionals allied to medicine’ (now called Allied Health Professions) Should become ‘professionals allied to the community’; and that such roles should be taken up by disabled people Finklestein, V (1999) “Professionals allied to medicine” pacall.pdf
  10. 10. How to counteract epistemic displacement ‘Speaking to and with’, rather than ‘for and about’ is as applicable to the disabled people’s independent living movement, as it is even to those others who legitimately feel they have a duty to ‘campaign’ against some oppression. Alcoff adopts the term ‘Messengers’, to describe such campaigners. They merely transport the discursive content of the originating speaker to the hearer.
  11. 11. Elder-Woodward, 2010 Co-production is not the same as consultation Co-production is: • A method of working together, from the very outset, to achieve an agreed outcome; • Valuing everyone involved as equal • Where the ‘trading’ of each others skills, experience and knowledge is respected and employed to its maximum • Where the perception and aspirations of the end user is the main driver Elder-Woodward, J (2010) “Co-production in Challenging and Dangerous Times” COSLA Annual Conference Fairmont, St Andrews (March)
  12. 12. Elder-Woodward, 2010 Co-production means: • Bringing the lived knowledge and experience of the individual, family and community into setting strategies, plans and the delivery of services • Allowing individuals, families and communities to take a lead role in the shaping of policy formation and resource utilisation; and most importantly • Public service commitment to support and develop the capacity to self direct outcomes Elder-Woodward, J (2010) “Co-production in Challenging and Dangerous Times” COSLA Annual Conference, Fairmont, St Andrews (March)
  13. 13. Co-production: a method of speaking to and with others Co-production What it is and how it can help disabled people This is an EasyRead version of: The IliS Do-It-Yourself Guide to Co-production: A way of working together for better solutions