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RI World Congress:
Implementing the Sendai Framework for
Disaster Risk Reduction
Structure
 Background: climate change, disasters,
DRR and differential impact
 Barriers and facilitators
 Guidelines an...
Climate change and disasters
 Role of climate change linked with extreme
events (EPA, 2016)
 Extreme events are more lik...
Disasters
UNISDR, 2016
Disasters
Annual reported economic damages and time trend from disasters: 1980-2015
Human impact by disaster types (2015 v...
Disaster Risk Reduction
ALD 2011
Disasters and exposure to risk:
UNISDR, 2016
Disasters and exposure to risk:
 Classical geophysical view failing to explain
the differential impacts of disasters (CSI...
Vulnerability:
 “The characteristics and circumstances of a
community, system or asset that make it
susceptible to the da...
Debate topic:
 Vulnerability VS « at-risk » groups VS
« differentially impacted » (UN sessions, Roth 2014)
 Evolution of...
Disability:
“disability is an evolving concept and
(…) disability results from the
interaction between persons with
impair...
Differential impact
 Reports of differential impact of disasters on PWDs and
other at-risk groups
(Osaki and Minowa 2001;...
Differentially impacted groups
 Risk factors (Twigg 2004, Wisner 2004)
 Discrimination and power relationships
 Age
 G...
Barriers… and facilitators
 Physical and communicational
 Structural (institutional)
 Attitudinal (social and cultural)...
The missing link…
 Field reports but limited research on :
 Differential impacts
 DiDRRR “good/ best practices”
 Effec...
Monitoring and evaluation
 Indicators for tracking progress
 Core and supplementary indicators
 Actual challenges: shor...
The road towards
DiDRR
implementation
http://relationshipsmatternow.blogspot.ca/
DRR GUIDELINES
 Historically:
 Most mainstream guidelines not inclusive of PWD
(UNISDR 2009)
 Few inclusive guidelines ...
Guidelines
 Sphere Guidelines (2011)
 Technical manuals (HI; 2012, 2015)
 Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Management...
Policy level
 Convention on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities
 Incheon Strategy (Goal 7)
 Sendai Framework for Ac...
Globally…
 DISABILITY INCLUSION… Slowly becoming the standard, at
least on paper.
www.zmag.org
What’s next?
 Implementation of the Sendai Framework and SDG’s
 Program evaluation and monitoring
 Applied research and...
Contact information
Mathieu Simard
Rehabilitation International's Task Force on Disability, Armed Conflict, and Natural Di...
Main references
 All in Diary (ALD) (2011) Managing Disasters: The Disasters Cycle http://www.allindiary.org/page/disaste...
Main references
 Lang R (2009) The United Nations Convention on the right and dignities for persons with disability: A pa...
Main references
 Murray JS (2011) Disaster preparedness for children with special healthcare needs and disabilities. Jour...
Main references
 Simpson J (2009) Everyone Belongs A Toolkit for Applying Intersectionality. Ottawa, CRIAW-ICREF. http://...
Main references
 Venton P and Collymore J (2009), Introduction to Technical Paper: Integrating practices, tools
and syste...
RIWC_PARA_A118 implementing the sendai framework for disaster risk reduction disability inclusion as a continuum within di...
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RIWC_PARA_A118 implementing the sendai framework for disaster risk reduction disability inclusion as a continuum within disaster risk mgmt

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RIWC_PARA_A118 implementing the sendai framework for disaster risk reduction disability inclusion as a continuum within disaster risk mgmt

  1. 1. RI World Congress: Implementing the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
  2. 2. Structure  Background: climate change, disasters, DRR and differential impact  Barriers and facilitators  Guidelines and frameworks  Action towards implementation of Sendai framework
  3. 3. Climate change and disasters  Role of climate change linked with extreme events (EPA, 2016)  Extreme events are more likely to cause disasters  Hence, likelihood of climate change causing disasters is enhanced
  4. 4. Disasters UNISDR, 2016
  5. 5. Disasters Annual reported economic damages and time trend from disasters: 1980-2015 Human impact by disaster types (2015 versus average 2005-2014) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Numberofdisasters Economicdamagein2015US$value(billion) - Earthquake Nepal ($5 billion) 205 278 259 413 432 414 389 421 346 ($60 Earthquake Naples Province, Italy billion) Earthquake Northridge, USA ($48 billion) Earthquake Kobé, Japan ($155 billion) Hurricane Sandy, USA ($52 billion) Hurricane Katrina, Rita and Wilma, USA ($219 billion) Earthquake Sichuan, China P.Rep ($94billion) Earthquake/Tsunami Tohoku, Japan ($223 billion) Flood, ($42billion) Thailand Flood China ($43 billion) 450 2015 2005-2014 Deaths Affected Comparing present to past Storm Andrew, USA ($45 billion) Economic damage Time trend of reported disasters 2015 disaster with largest economic impact Selected disasters with largest economic impact Occurrence UNISDR, 2016
  6. 6. Disaster Risk Reduction ALD 2011
  7. 7. Disasters and exposure to risk: UNISDR, 2016
  8. 8. Disasters and exposure to risk:  Classical geophysical view failing to explain the differential impacts of disasters (CSID 2002)  Pressure and Release Model: Disaster risk = hazard X vulnerabilities (Blaikie et al 1994, Wisner et al 2004)
  9. 9. Vulnerability:  “The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard” (UNISDR 2007)  Focus on capacities and resilience (Twigg 2009)
  10. 10. Debate topic:  Vulnerability VS « at-risk » groups VS « differentially impacted » (UN sessions, Roth 2014)  Evolution of the concept: at-risk situations  Persons with Disabilities included within at-risk groups (WHO 2001, UN 2006, HI 2009)
  11. 11. Disability: “disability is an evolving concept and (…) disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” (UN 2006)
  12. 12. Differential impact  Reports of differential impact of disasters on PWDs and other at-risk groups (Osaki and Minowa 2001; Chou et al 2004; IDRM 2005; Rooney and White 2007; Kett and Twigg 2007, Alexander 2011, Katsunori Fujii 2014)  Asia-Pacific Tsunami of 2004: estimation of double mortality rate for PWDs (Chou et al 2004)  Hurricane Katrina: older persons constituting 15% of the population and 74 % of the victims (Weston and Tokesky 2006)  Double to quadruple the mortality rate of general population for persons with disability (Fujii 2014)
  13. 13. Differentially impacted groups  Risk factors (Twigg 2004, Wisner 2004)  Discrimination and power relationships  Age  Gender  Poverty  Disability:  Physical impairment  Sensory impairment  Intellectual and mental impairment
  14. 14. Barriers… and facilitators  Physical and communicational  Structural (institutional)  Attitudinal (social and cultural) Quote: “You are (…) vulnerable to certain type of risk at a given situation and time”. (T11)
  15. 15. The missing link…  Field reports but limited research on :  Differential impacts  DiDRRR “good/ best practices”  Effectiveness/ efficiency  Monitoring and evaluation (Indicators)  Policies and programming  Good and best practices 8/4/2016 broken-chain.jpg (2560×1920) Labourlist.org
  16. 16. Monitoring and evaluation  Indicators for tracking progress  Core and supplementary indicators  Actual challenges: short timeline, limited reporting to date, varied sets of indicators and limited resources to support or monitor reporting  “Count to be counted”  Informed research to inform policy… to shape programming
  17. 17. The road towards DiDRR implementation http://relationshipsmatternow.blogspot.ca/
  18. 18. DRR GUIDELINES  Historically:  Most mainstream guidelines not inclusive of PWD (UNISDR 2009)  Few inclusive guidelines from disability-focussed NGOs (HI 2005/ 2009, SMRC 2005/2009, HI 2012 )  Now: rapidly changing situation (at NGO level…)
  19. 19. Guidelines  Sphere Guidelines (2011)  Technical manuals (HI; 2012, 2015)  Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Management (CBM, 2014)  No guidelines for reporting… next two years will exposing gaps and challenges at all levels
  20. 20. Policy level  Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities  Incheon Strategy (Goal 7)  Sendai Framework for Action (2015)  Sustainable Development Goals (2015)  Paris agreement (UNFCCC, 2015) disability disaggregated data 11 6 “Persons with disabilities” or “disability” are sp mentioned in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Persons in vulnerable situations are specificall mentioned in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development PARTNERSHIP Implement the agenda through a solid global partnership PEACE Foster peaceful, just and inclusive societies PROSPERITY Ensure prosperous and fulfilling lives in harmony with nature x 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development PLANET Protect our planet’s natural resources and climate for future generations PEOPLE End poverty and hunger in all forms and ensure dignity and equality Disability - Inclusive www.un.org/disabilities x
  21. 21. Globally…  DISABILITY INCLUSION… Slowly becoming the standard, at least on paper. www.zmag.org
  22. 22. What’s next?  Implementation of the Sendai Framework and SDG’s  Program evaluation and monitoring  Applied research and policy development  World Humanitarian Summit VS follow-up actions  Sustainable and inclusive urban environments  Financing
  23. 23. Contact information Mathieu Simard Rehabilitation International's Task Force on Disability, Armed Conflict, and Natural Disasters Deputy Vice-President, Rehabilitation International North America Vice-chair International Commission on Accessibility, Technology and Accessibility Faculty Lecturer Department of Health Sciences Université du Québec à Chicoutimi Email 1: simardmat@hotmail.com Email 2: mathieu1.simard@uqac.ca Phone: (418) 376-8453 Skype: mathieu.simard_pro
  24. 24. Main references  All in Diary (ALD) (2011) Managing Disasters: The Disasters Cycle http://www.allindiary.org/page/disastercycle Accessed 2011-08-05  Alexander D (2011) Disability and disaster; Wisner B (ed.) Chapter in Handbook of Hazards, Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, London, Routledge (in press).  Bartlett S (2008) Climate change and urban children: Impacts and implications for adaptation in low- and middle-income countries, Environment and Urbanization, 20 (2): 501-519.  Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I, Wisner B (1994) At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. Routledge, London. 471p.  Bricout JC, Baker PMA (2010) Leveraging online social networks for people with disabilities in emergency communications and recovery. Int J Emergency Management; 7(1): 59-74.  Centre for Services and Information on Disability CSID (2002) Unveiling Darkness: The Situation Analysis on Disaster and Disability Issues In the Coastal Belt of Bangladesh, Khathamuddran, Dhaka. http://www.csid-bd.org/research/research01.pdf Accessed 2011-08-04  Chou Y-J, Huang N, Cheng-Hua L, Shu-Ling T Long-Shen C, Hong-Jen C (2004) Who Is at Risk of Death in an Earthquake? Am. J. Epidemiol. 160:688-695  Clive A, Davis EA, Hansen R, Mincin J (2010) Disability; Chapter in Philips BD, Thomas DSK, Fothergill A, Blinn-Pyke L (eds.) Social Vulnerability to Disasters. New York, Taylor and Francis Group: 75-99.  Davis E, Mincin J (2005) Incorporating Special Needs Populations into Emergency Planning and Exercises http://www.nobodyleftbehind2.org/findings/pdfs/JMFinal072105.pdf Accessed 2011-07-12
  25. 25. Main references  Lang R (2009) The United Nations Convention on the right and dignities for persons with disability: A panacea for ending disability discrimination?, Asia Pacific Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 17, No 1, p.3-11.  Kett M and Twigg J (2007) Disability and Disasters: Towards an Inclusive Approach; Chapter for World Disasters Report: Focus on Discrimination. Satigny/ Vernier, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  Kett M, Stubbs S, Yeo R, Deshpande S, Cordeiro V (2005) Disability in Conflict and Emergency Situations: Focus on Tsunami- affected Areas. IDDC Research Report. http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/IDCC_2005_Disability_conflict.pdf Accessed 2011-07-16  IDRM (International Disability Right Monitor) (2005) Disability and Early Tsunami Relief Efforts in India, Indonesia and Thailand. http://www.ideanet.org/cir/uploads/File/TsunamiReport.pdf Accessed 2010-02-18  Handicap International (HI) (2005) How to include Disability Issues in Disaster Management Following Floods 2004 in Bangladesh. Bangladesh, Handicap International Bangladesh. http://www.handicap- international.org.uk/Resources/Handicap%20International/PDF%20Documents/HI%20Associations/DisabilityDisasterManagement_ 2005.pdf Accessed 2010-11-14  Handicap International (HI) (2009) Mainstreaming Disability into Disaster Risk Reduction: A training Manual. Kathmandu, Handicap International Nepal. http://www.handicap-international.fr/fileadmin/documents/publications/DisasterRiskReduc.pdf Accessed 2010-11-14
  26. 26. Main references  Murray JS (2011) Disaster preparedness for children with special healthcare needs and disabilities. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 16:226-232.  National Council on Disability. (2005). Saving Lives: Including People with Disabilities in Emergency Planning. Washington. http://enla.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/saving-lives.pdf Accessed 2010-08-20  Osaki Y and Minowa M (2001) Factors Associated with Earthquake Deaths in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, 1995, Am. J. Epidemiol. 153:153-156  Peek L and Stough L (2010) Children with Disabilities in the Context of Disaster: A Social Vulnerability Perspective. Child Development; 81(4):1260-1270.  Plan International (2010) Child-Centered DRR Toolkit. London, Plan International.  Rooney C and White GW (2007) Consumer Perspective: Narrative Analysis of a Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Survey from Persons with Mobility Impairments, Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 17: 206-215  Shanta Memorial Rehabilitation Centre (SMRC) (2005) Training Manual for Inclusion of Disability in Disaster Response. Bhubaneswar, Orissa. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/9707_trainingmanual.pdf Accessed 2011-11-15  Shanta Memorial Rehabilitation Centre (SMRC) (2009) Mainstraiming Disability in Disaster Management – A Tool Kit- http://data.undp.org.in/dmweb/pub/DisabilityToolkit.pdf Accessed
  27. 27. Main references  Simpson J (2009) Everyone Belongs A Toolkit for Applying Intersectionality. Ottawa, CRIAW-ICREF. http://criaw- icref.ca/sites/criaw/files/Everyone_Belongs_e.pdf Accessed 2011-08-01  Sobsey D (1994) Violence and Abuse in the Lives of People with Disabilities: The End of Silent Acceptance. Baltimore, Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co, Inc.  Sullivan HT , Häkkinen MT (2011) Preparedness and Warning Systems for Populations with Special Needs: Ensuring Everyone Gets the Message (and Knows What To Do) (2011) Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 29 (3), pp. 225-236.  Tataryn, M. (2011). AIDS, Power and Politics: Examining their dimensions within the disability movement globally. Keynote address, ‘Disability and the Majority World: Towards a Global Disability Studies’ First International Conference. Manchester Metropolitan University, Gaskell Campus, Hathersage Road, Manchester, 7th – 8th July, 2011. http://vimeo.com/26584134  Twigg J (2004), Disaster risk reduction: Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming, London, Overseas Development institute. 365p.  Twigg J (2009) Characteristics of a Disaster-Resilient Community, a Guidance Note http://www.abuhrc.org/Publications/CDRC%20v2%20final.pdf Accessed 2011-07-12  UN (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/disabilities-convention.htm Accessed 2010-10-22  UN Enable (2006) Disability Fact Sheet http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/facts.shtml Accessed 2011-05-15  UNISDR (2007) Hyogo Framework for Action http://www.unisdr.org/we/coordinate/hfa Accessed 2011-06-18  UN/ISDR (2009) Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive: Policy and Practical Guidelines http://www.unisdr.org/files/9922_MakingDisasterRiskReductionGenderSe.pdf Accessed 2011-08-03
  28. 28. Main references  Venton P and Collymore J (2009), Introduction to Technical Paper: Integrating practices, tools and systems for climate risk assessment and management and disaster risk reduction strategies into national policies and programmes http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/application/pdf/nwp_app_cuba2009_venton_and_collymore.p df Accessed 2010-11-08  World Health Organisation (WHO) (2001) International Classification of Functioinning, Disability and Health (ICF) http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/ Accessed 2011-07-27  Wisner B (2002) Disability and Disaster: Victimhood and Agency in Earthquake Risk Reduction, Chapter for Rodrigue C and Rovai E (eds.) Earthquakes, London, Routledge: 1-28.  Wisner B, Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I (2004a) At Risk: Second Edition: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters, London, Routledge. 471p.  World Bank/ GPDD (2009) The impact of Climate Change on People with Disabilities http://www.ucl.ac.uk/lc- ccr/centrepublications/staffpublications/Impact_of_Climate_Change_on_Disability-Report- 2010.pdf Accessed 2011-07-15

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