Example of Haiti heartquake in 2010 (7.0) and Chile in 2010 (8.8)
Can be measured as « differential impact » Concept valid in both low, middle and high income countries Practical example in this room : no light (advantage vision impaired) VS fire (mobility – but also hearing if no measure put in place). Put visual alert sign – and the are not at risk anymore.
“those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” (UN 2006)
Story: World Trade Building in 2001 and the group of highly-trained, individual with visual impairment.
Older persons: 60 and over
According to own research, litterature reviews, case stories and NGOs case studies and guidelines
Example of warning systems ; even at most universities, in Canada, in new buildings: no flashing emergency warning system.
Exemple from DRR in terms of losses prevention: Red River Floodway in Canada (and 1997 floods)
Diversity of sets of indicators, frameworks, Reports from NGO / gvts / agencies / etc.
Easier, open access; generating more interest. Anecdote of my initial research in 2011. Mainly anecdotal at this stage, but can only improve.
Including the question of Situations of armed conflicts, AMCDRR, gvt an NGO level reporting, etc
Capacities and resilience Hokusai, the Great Wave Off Kanagawa
RIWC_PARA_A118 implementing the sendai framework for disaster risk reduction disability inclusion as a continuum within disaster risk mgmt
RI World Congress:
Implementing the Sendai Framework for
Disaster Risk Reduction
Background: climate change, disasters,
DRR and differential impact
Barriers and facilitators
Guidelines and frameworks
Action towards implementation of Sendai
Climate change and disasters
Role of climate change linked with extreme
events (EPA, 2016)
Extreme events are more likely to cause
Hence, likelihood of climate change causing
disasters is enhanced
Disasters and exposure to risk:
Classical geophysical view failing to explain
the differential impacts of disasters (CSID 2002)
Pressure and Release Model:
Disaster risk = hazard X vulnerabilities
(Blaikie et al 1994, Wisner et al 2004)
“The characteristics and circumstances of a
community, system or asset that make it
susceptible to the damaging effects of a
hazard” (UNISDR 2007)
Focus on capacities and resilience (Twigg 2009)
Vulnerability VS « at-risk » groups VS
« differentially impacted » (UN sessions, Roth 2014)
Evolution of the concept: at-risk situations
Persons with Disabilities included within
at-risk groups (WHO 2001, UN 2006, HI 2009)
“disability is an evolving concept and
(…) disability results from the
interaction between persons with
impairments and attitudinal and
environmental barriers that hinder their
full and effective participation in society
on an equal basis with others.” (UN 2006)
Reports of differential impact of disasters on PWDs and
other at-risk groups
(Osaki and Minowa 2001; Chou et al 2004; IDRM 2005; Rooney and White 2007; Kett and Twigg 2007, Alexander 2011,
Katsunori Fujii 2014)
Asia-Pacific Tsunami of 2004: estimation of double mortality
rate for PWDs (Chou et al 2004)
Hurricane Katrina: older persons constituting 15% of the
population and 74 % of the victims (Weston and Tokesky 2006)
Double to quadruple the mortality rate of general
population for persons with disability (Fujii 2014)
Differentially impacted groups
Risk factors (Twigg 2004, Wisner 2004)
Discrimination and power relationships
Intellectual and mental impairment
Barriers… and facilitators
Physical and communicational
Attitudinal (social and cultural)
Quote: “You are (…) vulnerable to certain type of risk at a given
situation and time”. (T11)
The missing link…
Field reports but limited research on :
DiDRRR “good/ best practices”
Monitoring and evaluation (Indicators)
Policies and programming
Good and best practices
8/4/2016 broken-chain.jpg (2560×1920)
Monitoring and evaluation
Indicators for tracking progress
Core and supplementary indicators
Actual challenges: short timeline, limited reporting to date,
varied sets of indicators and limited resources to support or
“Count to be counted”
Informed research to inform policy… to shape programming
The road towards
Most mainstream guidelines not inclusive of PWD
Few inclusive guidelines from disability-focussed
NGOs (HI 2005/ 2009, SMRC 2005/2009, HI 2012 )
Now: rapidly changing situation (at NGO level…)
Sphere Guidelines (2011)
Technical manuals (HI; 2012, 2015)
Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Management (CBM, 2014)
No guidelines for reporting… next two years will exposing
gaps and challenges at all levels
Convention on the Rights of Persons with
Incheon Strategy (Goal 7)
Sendai Framework for Action (2015)
Sustainable Development Goals (2015)
Paris agreement (UNFCCC, 2015)
“Persons with disabilities” or “disability” are sp
mentioned in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Persons in vulnerable situations are specificall
mentioned in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
a solid global
Foster peaceful, just
and inclusive societies
fulfilling lives in
2030 Agenda for
climate for future
End poverty and hunger in all
forms and ensure dignity and
Disability - Inclusive
DISABILITY INCLUSION… Slowly becoming the standard, at
least on paper.
Implementation of the Sendai Framework and SDG’s
Program evaluation and monitoring
Applied research and policy development
World Humanitarian Summit VS follow-up actions
Sustainable and inclusive urban environments
Rehabilitation International's Task Force on Disability, Armed Conflict, and Natural Disasters
Deputy Vice-President, Rehabilitation International North America
Vice-chair International Commission on Accessibility, Technology and Accessibility
Department of Health Sciences
Université du Québec à Chicoutimi
Email 1: firstname.lastname@example.org
Email 2: email@example.com
Phone: (418) 376-8453
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