Before introducing the project CBResearch to you, I would like to have a look at the title of this conference and discuss how the project CBResearch is linked to it.
The title of this year‘s Rehabilitation International World Congress is: Create a more inclusive world – on this slide you can see the conference hash tag #inclusiveworld. When looking at this aim to create a more inclusive world, two main agendas, which guide global development at the moment, come to my mind: The UNCRPD and the new Sustainable Development Agenda.
I think that I do not have to elaborate on the UNCRPD in this setting: We are all aware of the importance of the Convention, which was adopted by the UN in 2006 and which „reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms” (www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html). The UNCRPD is directly linked to the idea of creating a more inclusive world.
The new Sustainable Development framework was adopted in 2015 and aims to guide global development until 2030. Whilst the Millennium Development Goals had a specific focus on the ‘Global South’ and did not explicitly mention the importance of including persons with disabilities in the development agenda, the United Nations’ new agenda highlights the universal and inclusive character of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.
Many of the rights enshrined in the UNCRPD directly relate to global goals mentioned in the Sustainable Development framework. Therefore, the UNCRPD can easily be linked to the idea of sustainable and inclusive development
To ensure that persons with disabilities are adequately and sustainably considered in the process of implementation, it is necessary to apply different strategies. Not only is it crucial to convince politicians and development planners currently in office to include persons with disabilities in development processes, it is also timely to mainstream the topic of inclusive development into different study programmes to ensure that future professionals are able to think inclusively. And THIS is the main objective of the project CBResearch.
The main objective of the project “CBResearch” is to insert the topic of disability and inclusion into different study programmes in order to raise awareness and build knowledge amongst today’s students since they will be tomorrow’s leaders and change-makers, researchers and developers.
On this slide there are different photos representing a whole range of different professions and disciplines. Starting on the very left you can see an architect – who should know about aspects of accessibility when designing new buildings and infrastructure. You can see people participating in a sports event – of course, people in the context of sports and leisure management should make sure the activities they offer are inclusive. Lawyers and people working in administration should be aware of the rights of persons with disabilities Journalists should know that they should deliver information in a way that it can be accessed and understood by all people. They should also reflect how they promote a certain understanding of disability in society through the way they report. Of course, medical professionals should be aware of the specific needs of people with disability when providing medical services, but they should also attempt to reduce the barriers to accessing medical care. It should be a given that teachers are able to adequately support children with diverse needs.
On the right side you can see a teacher using a wheelchair. With this we want to highlight that people with disabilities themselves should also be among today’s students and tomorrow’s leaders and change-makers, although this is not a specific focus of this project.
The CBResearch project wants to contribute to the process of mainstreaming the topic of (dis)ability into different study programmes and disciplines.
CBResearch is being carried out within a subject-related partnership between Pwani University (Kenyan) and Technical University of Munich (Germany). In the course of 4 years colleagues from Kenya and Germany have been developing study modules in the area of (dis)ability, participation and inclusive development.
We started the project, which is supported by the German Academic Exchange Service and financed by the German Federal Minstry of Economic Cooperation and Development, in April 2013 and will have to close it at the end of this year.
The main aims of the project are... building capacity and strengthening cooperation in teaching and research in the field of (dis)ability, participation and inclusive development building (local) human resources and scientific knowledge providing access to knowledge exchanging ideas, but also developing local solutions and approaches to making development inclusive
The partnership between a Kenyan and a German university as such is linked to the UNCRPD, especially to article 32, which highlights the importance of „cooperation in research and access to scientific and technical knowledge“ is an important step towards the inclusion of persons with disabilities.
To develop the study modules, the project CBResearch uses Community-Based Rehabilitation, a strategy developed by the WHO in cooperation with other stakeholders, as an anchor point.
Since I do not know if all of us are acquainted with CBR, I want to briefly introduce it to you:
CBR was initiated in the mid-1980s following the Declaration of Alma-Ata in 1978 in an effort to enhance the quality of life for people with disabilities and their families, meet their basic needs and ensure their inclusion and participation. Back then, CBR had quite a strong medical focus.
Today CBR is conceptualized as „a multisectoral approach working to improve the equalization of opportunities and social inclusion of people with disabilities while combating the perpetual cycle of poverty and disability” (WHO 2016).
Based on this general conceptualization, CBR pursues two main objectives: “To ensure that people with disabilities are able to maximise their physical and mental abilities, to access regular services and opportunities, and to become active contributors to the community and society at large” “To activate communities to promote and protect the human rights of people with disabilities through changes within the community, for example, by removing barriers to participation” (WHO 2004)
As CBR pursues these two objectives, the strategy follows a twin-track approach, since it aims at providing individual and specialized services to persons with disabilities as well as mainstreaming disability into general community development.
Today, CBR as such is promoted as a strategy for implementing the UNCRPD and to make development inclusive. This also summed up by David Werner‘s statement that over the years, CBR has evolved from a strategy for „Rehabilitation for Some“ to a strategy aiming at „Development for All“ (Werner 2011).
The fact that CBR today is a multisectoral strategy is also represented in the CBR matrix, which highlights the different CBR components: health, education, livelihood, social participation and empowerment.
Since the CBResearch project had to cope with a limited time frame, we focused on 3 CBR components when developing the study modules: education, livelihood and empowerment. This is also displayed on the next slide.
Looking at the project structure, we can see that we developed a basic module on „(dis)ability, participation and community“ at the beginning of our project in 2013. Following the development of the basic module we focused on in-depth modules: The module on „education and (dis)ability“ was developed in 2014, the module on „livelihood and (dis)ability“ was developed in 2015 and currently we are working on the module „empowerment and (dis)ability“. Students from Kenya and Germany have tested the modules in common workshops and the project team uses an online learning and exchange platform to develop, review and update the contents.
CLICK. From our perspective it would make sense to complement the existing CBResearch modules and also to develop academic study modules on the topics health, social participation and of course accessibility, which is one of the cross-cutting principles in CBR and inclusive development. Currently we are trying to identify sources of funding which would allow us to work on these additional topics.
CLICK. We look at CBR from a multidisciplinary academic perspective. Our longterm goal is to generate knowledge and to strengthen research cooperation on topics related to disability and inclusive development.
No matter whether we are able to continue working on the study modules or not, we have to say that we are glad that we have had the chance to develop 4 study modules and test those modules with Kenyan and German students. One of the lessons we have learned during the 4 project years is that is possible to raise awareness for disability and inclusion amongst students of different disciplines. Many of the students, even those who do not have a medical or social science background, can relate to the topic and see how their future professional work, for example in the area of computer science or economy, can also be linked to (dis)ability and inclusion. To mainstream disability and inclusion in other study programmes will also require some lobby work with university administration and academia.
As all of the colleagues involved in the project worked on the development of the study modules in addition to their regular tasks as researchers, lecturers and professors, time was always a challenge for us. This is also one of the reasons, why we are still finalizing the study modules. Without the conitinuos support and cooperation of these colleagues, however, we would never have come so far.
With regard to strengthening research cooperation, we can also say that we have already completed one research project on the social impact of livelihood promotion for people with disability in Coastal Kenya. Other research proposals are underway.
All these joint efforts will be celebrated in the closing conference of the project, and I would like to take this chance to also invite those of you who are interested in research in the context of disability and inclusive development to attend this conference.
The CBResearch project closing conference is entitled: (Dis)ability and Global 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development- Can CBR Serve as a Guideline for Inclusive Development? It will take place at Pwani University campus in Kilifi, Kenya, from November 28th through 30th, 2016. If you have any questions on the conference please contact the organizing team via email or approach me after this session.
For now, I want to thank you for your attention!
RIWC_PARA_A059 the project “cb research” – developing a modularized academic curriculum based on the cbr matrix
Rehabilitation International World Congress,
25-27 October 2016, in Edinburgh, Scotland
Technische Universität München (Germany)
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences
Sociology of Diversity Chair
The project “CBResearch”
– developing a modularized academic
curriculum based on the CBR matrix
2Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
„CBResearch“ in the context of this conference
United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Sustainable Development Agenda
3Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
4Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
„CBResearch“ – project outline
- Subject-related partnership between Pwani University (Kenya) and
Technical University Munich (Germany)
- Main goal: development of study modules in the area of (dis)ability,
participation and inclusive development
- project duration: April 2013 - December 2016
- supported by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD),
financed by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation
and Development (BMZ)
Main aims of “CBResearch”:
building capacity and strengthening cooperation in teaching and
research in the field of (dis)ability, participation and inclusive development
building (local) human resources and scientific knowledge
providing access to knowledge
exchanging ideas, but also developing local solutions and approaches to
making development inclusive
UNCRPD, Article 32: “cooperation in research and access to scientific and
technical knowledge” is an important step towards the inclusion of persons with
5Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
„CBResearch“ – project aims
- Today’s understanding of Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR): “a
multisectoral approach working to improve the equalization of opportunities and
social inclusion of people with disabilities while combating the perpetual cycle of
poverty and disability” (WHO 2016)
- Major objectives of CBR following the twin-track approach:
“To ensure that people with disabilities are able to maximise their physical
and mental abilities, to access regular services and opportunities, and to
become active contributors to the community and society at large”
“To activate communities to promote and protect the human rights of people
with disabilities through changes within the community, for example, by
removing barriers to participation” (WHO 2004)
Strategy for implementing the UNCRPD and making development inclusive
6Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
„CBResearch“ – Community-Based Rehabilitation
7Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
„CBResearch“ – Community-Based Rehabilitation
8Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
„CBResearch“ – project structure
Year Main topics Output
2013 (dis)ability, participation and community basic module
2014 Education and (dis)ability in-depth module
2015 Livelihood and (dis)ability in-depth module
2016 Empowerment and (dis)ability in-depth module
Health and (dis)ability in-depth module
Social participation and (dis)ability in-depth module
Accessibility in-depth module
9Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
International Conference: (Dis)ability and the Global 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development – Can Community-Based
Rehabilitation Serve as a Guideline for Inclusive
Venue: Pwani University – Kilifi (Kenya)
Dates: November 28th-30th, 2016
Further information: email@example.com
10Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
„CBResearch“ – project closing conference
11Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016
Thank you for your attention!
Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt
Sociology of Diversity Chair
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences
Technische Universität München
80992 Munich, Germany
Telephone: +49 (0)89-289-24465
Prof. Halimu Shauri, PhD
Associate Professor and
Chairman of the Department of
P.O. Box 195
80108 Kilifi, Kenya
Telephone: +254 (41) 7525102/3/4/6
• Helander, Einar (2010): 25 Years of Community-Based Rahabilitation. In: Asia Pacific
Disability Rehabilitation Journal 11 (1). Online:
http://www.dinf.ne.jp/doc/english/asia/resource/apdrj/z13jo0500/z13jo0503.html [2 June
• Helander, Einar (2013): The Origins of Community Based Rehabilitation. Online:
http://www.zbdw.de/projekt01/media/pdf/2013_1_BiE.pdf [12 June 2014].
• WHO; ILO; UNESCO (2004): CBR. A Strategy for Rehabilitation, Equalization of
Opportunities, Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities. Joint
Position Paper 2004. Online: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241592389.pdf
[10. März 2014].
• WHO (2010): Community-based rehabilitation: CBR guidelines. Online:
http://www.who.int/disabilities/cbr/guidelines/en/ [12 June 2014].
• WHO (2016): Community-based rehabilitation (CBR). Online:
http://www.who.int/disabilities/cbr/en/ [12 October 2016]
12Dipl. Reha. Päd. Kathrin Schmidt (TUM) | The project „CBResearch“ | October 2016