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BruJUG Brussels GraphQL when RESR API is to less - lessons learned

We all know the REST architectural style to define a good API for your applications. However, REST has its disadvantages and constraints. That’s why Facebook developed GraphQL as an alternative. In my talk, I will present you some REST constraints and how GraphQL solves them. I will talk about how we implemented GraphQL in our application and why. Get to know our successes… and failures from the first row.

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BruJUG Brussels GraphQL when RESR API is to less - lessons learned
Marcin Stachniuk
stachniuk.com
/mstachniuk/graphql-java-example
@MarcinStachniuk
wroclaw.jug.pl
shipkit.org
Who is using REST?
@MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
REST - REpresentational State Transfer
https://api.example.com/customers/123
DELETE
PUT
POST
GET
PATCH
@MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
REST fixed response
GET /customers/111
{
"customer": {
"id": "111",
"name": "John Doe",
"email": "john@doe.com",
"company": {
"id": "222"
},
"orders": [
{
"id": "333"
},
{
"id": "444"
}
]
}
}
{
"customer": {
"id": "111",
"name": "John Doe",
"email": "john@doe.com",
"company": {
"href": "https://api.example.com/companies/222"
},
"orders": [
{
"href": "https://api.example.com/orders/333"
},
{
"href": "https://api.example.com/orders/444"
}
]
}
}
RE
ST
@MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
REST consequences: several roundtrips
@MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
U
nderFetching

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BruJUG Brussels GraphQL when RESR API is to less - lessons learned

  • 3. Who is using REST? @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 4. REST - REpresentational State Transfer https://api.example.com/customers/123 DELETE PUT POST GET PATCH @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 5. REST fixed response GET /customers/111 { "customer": { "id": "111", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com", "company": { "id": "222" }, "orders": [ { "id": "333" }, { "id": "444" } ] } } { "customer": { "id": "111", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com", "company": { "href": "https://api.example.com/companies/222" }, "orders": [ { "href": "https://api.example.com/orders/333" }, { "href": "https://api.example.com/orders/444" } ] } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 6. REST consequences: several roundtrips @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned U nderFetching
  • 7. REST response with nested data GET /customers/111 { "customer": { "id": "111", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com", "company": { "id": "222", "name": "My Awesome Corporation", "website": "MyAwesomeCorporation.com" }, "orders": [ { "id": "333", "status": "delivered", "items": [ { "id": "555", "name": "Silver Bullet", "amount": "42", "price": "10000000", "currency": "USD", "producer": { "id": "777", "name": "Lorem Ipsum", "website": "LoremIpsum.com" } } ] }, { "id": "444", "name": "Golden Hammer", "amount": "5", "price": "10000", "currency": "USD", "producer": { ... } } ] } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned O verFetching
  • 8. REST response with nested data and limit fields GET /customers/111?fields=name,company/*,orders.status,orders.items(name,producer/name) { "customer": { "id": "111", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com", "company": { "id": "222", "name": "My Awesome Corporation", "website": "MyAwesomeCorporation.com" }, "orders": [ { "id": "333", "status": "delivered", "items": [ { "id": "555", "name": "Silver Bullet", "amount": "42", "price": "10000000", "currency": "USD", "producer": { "id": "777", "name": "Lorem Ipsum", "website": "LoremIpsum.com" } } ] }, { "id": "444", "name": "Golden Hammer", "amount": "5", "price": "10000", "currency": "USD", "producer": { ... } } ] } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 9. REST response with projection GET /customers/111?projection=customerPreview { "customer": { "id": "111", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com", "company": { "id": "222", "name": "My Awesome Corporation", "website": "MyAwesomeCorporation.com" }, "orders": [ { "id": "333", "status": "delivered", "items": [ { "id": "555", "name": "Silver Bullet", "amount": "42", "price": "10000000", "currency": "USD", "producer": { "id": "777", "name": "Lorem Ipsum", "website": "LoremIpsum.com" } } ] }, { "id": "444", "name": "Golden Hammer", "amount": "5", "price": "10000", "currency": "USD", "producer": { ... } } ] } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 10. Different clients - different needs /web /iphone /android /tv Application Web iPhone Android TV RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 11. Different clients - different needs /web /iphone /android /tv Application Web iPhone Android TV Content-Type: application/vnd.myawesomecorporation.com+v1+web+json iphone android tv RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 12. Different clients - different needs /web /iphone /android /tv Application Web iPhone Android TV Content-Type: application/vnd.myawesomecorporation.com+v1+web+json iphone android tv RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 13. REST API Versioning GET /v2/customers/111RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned GET /customers/111?v=v2RE ST GET /customers/111 Accept header: application/vnd.myapp.2+jsonRE ST GET /customers/111 Custom header: x-ms-version:2RE ST ● How to migrate? ● How to document? ● Is versionless API possible? ● What about continuous evolution of API?
  • 14. Platform Architecture - How to define a good API? Platform App 1 App 2 Customer App X... @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 15. Modularisation at UI @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 16. New Frontend Framework ReactJS Relay GraphQL TypeScript @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 17. GraphQL ● Graph Query Language ● Published by Facebook in 2015 ● Growth from Facebook Graph API ● Reference implementation in JavaScript ● First version of Java Library: 18 Jul 2015 https://github.com/graphql-java/graphql-java ● First usage: 21 Sep 2015 @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 18. GraphQL main concepts ● One endpoint for all operations ● Always define in request what you need ● Queries, Mutations and Subscriptions ● Defined by schema @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 19. Data is a graph @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 20. GraphQL time for demo ● Fragments ● Aliases ● Directives ● Interfaces ● Unions @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned ● Query ● Syntax Error ● Mutation ● Operation name ● Variables
  • 21. GraphQL Simple API GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email type Customer { #fields with ! are not null id: ID! name: String! email: String! } type Query { customer(id: String!): Customer! } { "data": { "customer": { "id": "2", "name": "name", "email": "a@b.com" } } } { customer(id: "2") { id name email } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 22. GraphQL Bad Request GET /custo!@#$ -> 404 { "data": null, "errors": [ { "message": "Invalid Syntax", "locations": [ { "line": 2, "column": 8 } ], "errorType": "InvalidSyntax", "path": null, "extensions": null } ] } { custo!@#$ } RE ST http.cat/200 @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 23. Go back to the roots @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 24. GraphQL Simple API GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email,company(id,name) type Customer { id: ID! name: String! email: String! company: Company } type Company { id: ID! name: String! website: String! } type Query { customer(id: String!): Customer! } { "data": { "customer": { "id": "2", "name": "name", "email": "a@b.com", "company": { "id": "211", "name": "Company Corp." } } } } { customer(id: "2") { id name email company { id name } } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 25. GraphQL Simple API GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email,orders(id,status) type Customer { id: ID! name: String! email: String! company: Company orders: [Order] } type Order { id: ID! status: Status } enum Status { NEW, CANCELED, DONE } { "data": { "customer": { "id": "2", "name": "name", "orders": [ { "id": "55", "status": "NEW" }, { "id": "66", "status": "DONE" } ] } } } { customer(id: "2") { id name orders { id status } } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 26. GraphQL Aliases GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email + { "data": { "cust1": { "id": "2", "name": "name", "email": "a@b.com" }, "cust2": { "id": "3", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com" } } } query get2Cust { cust1: customer(id: "2") { id name email } cust2: customer(id: "3") { id name email } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned GET /customers/3?fields=id,name,emailRE ST
  • 27. GraphQL Fragment GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email + { "data": { "cust1": { "id": "2", "name": "name", "email": "a@b.com" }, "cust2": { "id": "3", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com" } } } query get2Cust { cust1: customer(id: "2") { ... frag1 } cust2: customer(id: "3") { ... frag1 } } fragment frag1 on Customer { id name email } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned GET /customers/3?fields=id,name,emailRE ST
  • 28. GraphQL Arguments TODO GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email + { "data": { "cust1": { "id": "2", "name": "name", "email": "a@b.com" }, "cust2": { "id": "3", "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@doe.com" } } } query get2Cust($arg1:String!, $arg2: String!) { cust2: customer(id: $arg1) { ... frag1 } cust3: customer(id: $arg2) { ... frag1 } } fragment frag1 on Customer { id name email } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned GET /customers/3?fields=id,name,emailRE ST
  • 29. GraphQL Directive GET /customers/2?fields=id,name { "data": { "customer": { "id": "2", "name": "name" } } } query getCust ($showEmail: Boolean!) { customer(id: "2") { id name email @include(if: $showEmail) } } { "showEmail": false } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 30. GraphQL Interface GET /users?fields=id,name,superAdmin,permissions type Query { users: [User] } interface User { id: ID! name: String! email: String! } type Admin implements User { superAdmin: Boolean! // + id... } type Moderator implements User { permissions: [String] // + id... } { "data": { "users": [ { "id": "777", "name": "Admin a", "superAdmin": true }, { "id": "888", "name": "Moderator", "permissions": [ "Delete Customer", "Delete comment" ]}]}} query getUsers { users { ... on Admin { id name superAdmin } ... on Moderator { id name permissions } } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 31. GraphQL Union GET /search?input=a?fields=typename,name type Query { search(input: String): [SearchResult] } union SearchResult = Customer | Admin | Moderator { "data": { "search": [ { "__typename": "Customer", "name": "name" }, { "__typename": "Admin", "name": "Admin a" }, { "__typename": "Moderator", "name": "Moderator" }]}} query searchSmth { search(input: "a") { __typename ... on Customer { name } ... on Admin { name } ... on Moderator { name } } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 32. GraphQL mutations input CreateCustomerInput { name: String email: String clientMutationId: String! } type CreateCustomerPayload { customer: Customer clientMutationId: String! } type Mutation { createCustomer(input: CreateCustomerInput): CreateCustomerPayload! } { "data": { "createCustomer": { "customer": { "id": "40", }, "clientMutationId": "123" } } } POST /customers PUT /customers/123 DELETE /customers/123 PATCH /customers/123 mutation { createCustomer(input: { name: "MyName" email: "me@me.com" clientMutationId: "123" }) { customer { id } clientMutationId } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 33. GraphQL mutations + operation name mutation crCust { createCustomer(input: { name: "MyName" email: "me@me.com" clientMutationId: "123" }) { customer { id } clientMutationId } } { "data": { "createCustomer": { "customer": { "id": "40", }, "clientMutationId": "123" } } } POST /customers PUT /customers/123 DELETE /customers/123 PATCH /customers/123RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned mutation { createCustomer(input: { name: "MyName" email: "me@me.com" clientMutationId: "123" }) { customer { id } clientMutationId } }
  • 34. GraphQL Variables { "data": { "createCustomer": { "customer": { "id": "40", }, "clientMutationId": "123" } } } POST /customers PUT /customers/123 DELETE /customers/123 PATCH /customers/123 mutation crCust { createCustomer(input: { name: "MyName" email: "me@me.com" clientMutationId: "123" }) { customer { id } clientMutationId } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned mutation crCust ($input: CreateCustInput) { createCustomer(input: $input) { customer { id } clientMutationId } } { "input": { "name": "MyName 2", "email": "me2@me.com", "clientMutationId": "123" } }
  • 35. Lessons Learned #1 Never add a library to your project few days after init release @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned ● No community ● A lot of bugs ● Bad documentation ● Strict following reference implementation and specification DO NOT TRY THIS AT WORK
  • 36. GraphQL Java implementations How to implement GraphQL in Java? @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned /graphql-java/graphql-java /leangen/graphql-spqr Senātus Populusque Rōmānus The Roman Senate and People pronounced like speaker
  • 37. GraphQL Simple API GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email,orders(id,status) type Customer { id: ID! name: String! email: String! company: Company orders: [Order] } type Order { id: ID! status: Status } enum Status { NEW, CANCELED, DONE } { "data": { "customer": { "id": "2", "name": "name", "orders": [ { "id": "55", "status": "NEW" }, { "id": "66", "status": "DONE" } ] } } } { customer(id: "2") { id name orders { id status } } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 38. How to implement DataFetcher for queries GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email,orders(id,status) @Component public class CustomerFetcher extends PropertyDataFetcher<Customer> { @Autowired private CustomerService customerService; @Override public Customer get(DataFetchingEnvironment environment) { String id = environment.getArgument("id"); return customerService.getCustomerById(id); } } RE ST { customer(id: "2") { id name orders { id status } } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 39. How to implement DataFetcher for queries GET /customers/2?fields=id,name,email,orders(id,status) public class Customer { private String id; private String name; private String email; // getters are not required } RE ST { customer(id: "2") { id name orders { id status } } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned public class OrderDataFetcher extends PropertyDataFetcher<List<Order>> { @Override public List<Order> get(DataFetchingEnvironment environment) { Customer source = environment.getSource(); String customerId = source.getId(); return orderService.getOrdersByCustomerId(customerId); } }
  • 40. GraphQL mutations input CreateCustomerInput { name: String email: String clientMutationId: String! } type CreateCustomerPayload { customer: Customer clientMutationId: String! } type Mutation { createCustomer(input: CreateCustomerInput): CreateCustomerPayload! } { "data": { "createCustomer": { "customer": { "id": "40", }, "clientMutationId": "123" } } } POST /customers PUT /customers/123 DELETE /customers/123 PATCH /customers/123 mutation { createCustomer(input: { name: "MyName" email: "me@me.com" clientMutationId: "123" }) { customer { id } clientMutationId } } RE ST @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 41. How to implement DataFetcher for mutations POST /customers PUT /customers/123 DELETE /customers/123 PATCH /customers/123 @Component public class CreateCustomersFetcher extends PropertyDataFetcher<CreateCustomersPayload> { @Override public CreateCustomerPayload get(DataFetchingEnvironment env) { Map<String, Object> input = env.getArgument("input"); String name = (String) input.get("name"); String email = (String) input.get("email"); String clientMutationId = (String) input.get("clientMutationId"); Customer customer = customerService.create(name, email); return new CreateCustomerPayload(customer, clientMutationId); } RE ST mutation { createCustomer(input: { name: "MyName" email: "me@me.com" clientMutationId: "123" }) { customer { id } clientMutationId } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 42. In case Interfaces and Unions - Type Resolver is needed public class UserTypeResolver implements TypeResolver { @Override public GraphQLObjectType getType(TypeResolutionEnvironment env) { Object javaObject = env.getObject(); if (javaObject instanceof Admin) { return env.getSchema().getObjectType("Admin"); } else if (javaObject instanceof Moderator) { return env.getSchema().getObjectType("Moderator"); } else { throw new RuntimeException("Unknown type " + javaObject.getClass().getName()); } } } public interface User {...} public class Admin implements User {...} public class Moderator implements User {...} @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 43. Glue everything together RuntimeWiring runtimeWiring = RuntimeWiring.newRuntimeWiring() .type("Query", builder -> builder.dataFetcher("customer", customerFetcher)) .type("Mutation", builder -> builder.dataFetcher("createCustomer", createCustomerFetcher)) .type(newTypeWiring("User") .typeResolver(new UserTypeResolver()) .build()) ... .build(); @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 44. GraphQL type system How to define your schema? @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 45. Code First approach private GraphQLFieldDefinition customerDefinition() { return GraphQLFieldDefinition.newFieldDefinition() .name("customer") .argument(GraphQLArgument.newArgument() .name("id") .type(new GraphQLNonNull(GraphQLString))) .type(new GraphQLNonNull(GraphQLObjectType.newObject() .name("Customer") .field(GraphQLFieldDefinition.newFieldDefinition() .name("id") .description("fields with ! are not null") .type(new GraphQLNonNull(GraphQLID)) .build()) …. .build())) .dataFetcher(customerFetcher) .build(); } Schema First approach type Query { customer(id: String!): Customer! } type Customer { #fields with ! are not null id: ID! name: String! email: String! company: Company orders: [Order] } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 46. Code First approach - How to build Introspection query Introspection response Replace Relay definitions @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned Typescript relay plugin
  • 47. Schema First approach type Customer { # fields with ! are required id: ID! name: String! email: String! company: Company orders: [Order] } *.graphqls SchemaParser schemaParser = new SchemaParser(); File file = // ... TypeDefinitionRegistry registry = schemaParser.parse(file); SchemaGenerator schemaGenerator = new SchemaGenerator(); RuntimeWiring runtimeWiring = RuntimeWiring.newRuntimeWiring() .type("Query", builder -> builder.dataFetcher("customer", customerFetcher)) // ... .build(); return schemaGenerator.makeExecutableSchema(registry, runtimeWiring); @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 48. Schema First approach - project building diagram model.graphqls @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 49. GraphQL SPQR @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 50. SPQR approach public class UserService { @GraphQLQuery(name = "user") public User getById(@GraphQLArgument(name = "id") Integer id) { //... } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned public class User { //... @GraphQLQuery(name = "name", description = "A person's name") public String getName() { return name; } } By default argument names will be arg0, arg1,... You can use @GraphQLArgument or Compile code with -parameters option
  • 51. SPQR approach - Smart conventions @GraphQLType(name = "Item") public class SpqrItem { private String id; private int amount; // ... @GraphQLId @GraphQLNonNull @GraphQLQuery(name = "id", description = "Item id") public String getId() { return id; } public int getAmount() { return amount; } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned // 'ID' type in schema, add 'implements Node' // add ! (non null) in schema // optional // add ! (non null) because it’s int
  • 52. Classic Code First Approach Pros: ● Sable library ● Some Javadoc and documentation ● It was the only way at the beginning to define a schema @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned Cons: ● Hard to maintain ● Missing big picture ● Backend part needs to be implemented first ● One DataFetcher for one operation ● No possibility to mix with Schema First ● No easy way to migrate to Schema First or SPQR
  • 53. Schema First Approach Pros: ● Easy to maintain ● Sable library ● Some Javadoc and documentation ● Easy DSL to understand and maintain ● Reduce boilerplate to write ● A possibility to split schema into more files ● Parallel development (frontend & backend) @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned Cons: ● Possible mismatch between types in schema file and Java code ● Binding between operations defined in schema and DataFetcher's is needed ● One DataFetcher for one operation
  • 54. SPQR Approach Pros: ● The author reply to Github issues quickly ● Reduce boilerplate to write ● No mismatch between Schema and Java code ● No binding between schema and DataFetchers is needed ● Smart conventions @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned Cons: ● Production ready? ● Zero Javadoc or other documentation ● Missing big picture ● Backend part needs to be implemented first ● Ugly names for generics: MutationPayload<User> => MutationPayload_User ● Hard to change smart conventions
  • 55. Lessons Learned #2 Classic Code First Approach is the worst @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned ● Big project ● High risk project ● Old project ● Small project ● Low risk project ● New Project ?
  • 56. From Code First to Schema First migration https://github.com/mstachniuk/graphql-schema-from-introspection-generator @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 57. From Code First to Schema First migration alternatives ● In graphql-java - see: IntrospectionResultToSchema ● In graphql-js: const graphql = require("graphql"); const schema = require("path/to/schema.json"); const clientSchema = graphql.buildClientSchema(schema.data); const schemaString = graphql.printSchema(clientSchema); console.log(schemaString) @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 58. GraphQL - How to define pagination, filtering, sorting? Pagination: ● before, after ● offset, limit Filtering: ● filter(name: “Bob” email: “%@gmail.com”) ● filter: { OR: [{ email: “%@gmail.com” }] }, name: “Bob” } Sorting: ● orderBy: ASC, DESC ● sort: NEWEST, IMPORTANCE @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 59. Lessons Learned #3 GraphQL is not full query language @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned ● Flexibility ● Less common conventions ● Dgraph.io created GraphQL+-
  • 60. GraphQL downsides @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 61. GraphQL downsides: N+1 problem { customers { 1 call id name orders { n calls id status } } } java-dataloader ● Add async BatchLoader ● Add caching @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned graphQL = GraphQL.newGraphQL(schema) .queryExecutionStrategy( new BatchedExecutionStrategy()) .build(); + @Batched in DataFetcher#get()
  • 62. Lessons Learned #4 If you have N + 1 problem use java-dataloader @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 63. Complex Queries fragment Friends on Friend { id name friends { id name friends { id name ... } } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned graphQL = GraphQL.newGraphQL(schema) .instrumentation( new ChainedInstrumentation(asList( new MaxQueryComplexityInstrumentation(20), new MaxQueryDepthInstrumentation(2) ))) .build();
  • 64. Lessons Learned #5 Performance killer? Define instrumentation! @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 65. GraphQL downsides: Bad GraphQL API definition - examples { customer(id: "2") { … } customerFull(id: "2") { … } customerFull2(id: "2") { … } customerWithDetails(id: "2") { … } ... } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned { customer(id: "2") { id name orders { id status } } }
  • 66. GraphQL downsides: Bad GraphQL API definition - examples query getUser { user(id: "123") { ... on Admin { id superAdmin } ... on Moderator { id permissions } } } { admin(id: "123") { id superAdmin } moderator(id: "123") { id permissions } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 67. GraphQL downsides: Bad GraphQL API definition - examples { orders (input: { status: "NEW" first: "2" offset: "3" }, first: "1", offset: "3") { Items { … } } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 68. GraphQL downsides: Bad GraphQL API definition - examples Relay Cursor Connections Specification section 5 (PageInfo) type PageInfo { hasNextPage: Boolean } type PageInfo { hasNextPage: Boolean! hasPreviousPage: Boolean! } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 69. Lessons Learned #6 Thinking shift is a key @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned ● Let’s think in graphs and NOT in endpoints / resources / entities / DTOs ● Bad design of our API
  • 70. GraphQL Testing @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 71. Testing GraphQL @SpringBootTest @ContextConfiguration(classes = Main) class CustomerFetcherSpec extends Specification { @Autowired GraphQLSchema graphQLSchema GraphQL graphQL def setup() { graphQL = GraphQL.newGraphQL(graphQLSchema).build() } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 72. Testing GraphQL def "should get customer by id"() { given: def query = """{ customer(id: "2") { … } }""" def expected = [ "customer": [ … ] ] when: def result = graphQL.execute(query) then: result.data == expected } @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 73. Lessons Learned #7 Testing is easy @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned Trap Adventure 2 - "The Hardest Retro Game"
  • 74. Versioning @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned GraphQL takes a strong opinion on avoiding versioning by providing the tools for the continuous evolution of a GraphQL schema. Src: https://graphql.org/learn/best-practices/#versioning
  • 75. Versioning type Query { customer(id: String!): Customer! @deprecated(reason: "not used ...") @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 76. Lessons Learned #8 Versioning is not a problem @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned GET /v2/customers/111RE ST GET /customers/111?v=v2RE ST GET /customers/111 Accept header: application/vnd.myapp.2+jsonRE ST GET /customers/111 Custom header: x-ms-version:2RE ST Versioning problem is different
  • 77. Tools @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 78. Tools GraphiQL @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 79. Tools Relay @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned user(...) { photo(width: "120", height: "120") } user(...) { name } user(...) { email } user(...) { name email photo(width: "120", height: "120") }
  • 80. GraphQL schema validation https://github.com/cjoudrey/graphql-schema-linter Validate GraphQL schema definitions against a set of rules @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 81. GraphQL Java Tools https://github.com/graphql-java/graphql-java-tools Map GraphQL schema to POJOs @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 82. More libraries and projects related to graphql-java https://github.com/graphql-java/awesome-graphql-java @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned ● JPA Implementation of GraphQL (builds on graphql-java) ● And more examples
  • 83. Apollo @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned Build a universal GraphQL API on top of your existing REST APIs, so you can ship new application features fast without waiting on backend changes.
  • 84. Prisma.io @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned Building a GraphQL server with Prisma ● Solves N+1 Problem with built-in dataloader ● No boilerplate for CRUD, filters, pagination & more ● Easily implement GraphQL subscriptions
  • 85. Lessons Learned #9 Tooling is nice @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned now
  • 86. Good practices ● Always generate GraphQL Schema and commit into your repository ● Validate your schema ● Do not use classic code first approach to define schema @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 87. Summary GraphQL Pros: ● Nice alternative to REST ● It can be used together with REST ● Good integration with Relay / ReactJS ● You get exactly what you want to get ● Good for API with different clients ● Good to use on top of existing API ● Self documented ● Easy testing ● Nice tooling ● Thin layer GraphQL Cons: ● High entry barrier ● Hard to return simple Map ● Not well know (yet) ● Performance overhead ● A lot of similar code to write ● No Operation Idempotency ● No Cache & Security ● No Authorisation ● Always HTTP 200 - unsupported tools @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 88. Nothing is a silver bullet @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned
  • 89. Q&A @MarcinStachniukGraphQL - when REST API is not enough - lessons learned