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Dr. Marciano B. Melchor
  University of Ha’il, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
                                      May 2013
A Table of Specifications is a two-way
chart which describes the topics to be
covered by a test and the number of
items or points which will be associated
with each topic.
  Kubiszyn & Borich, (2003) emphasized
   the following significance and
   components of TOS:
1. A Table of Specifications consists of a two-
   way chart or grid relating instructional
   objectives to the instructional content.
   The column of the chart lists the objectives
   or "levels of skills" (Gredlcr, 1999) to be
   addressed;
   The rows list the key concepts or content the
   test is to measure.
According to Bloom, et al. (1971),
 "We have found it useful to represent the
relation of content and behaviors in the
form of a two dimensional table with the
objectives on one axis, the content on the
other”.
2. A Table of Specifications identifies not
  only the content areas covered in class, it
  identifies the performance objectives at
  each level of the cognitive domain of
  Bloom's Taxonomy.

Teachers can be assured that they are measuring students'
  learning across a wide range of content and readings as
  well as cognitive processes requiring higher order thinking.
3. A Table of Specifications is developed before the
  test is written. In fact it should be constructed
  before the actual teaching begins.
4. The purpose of a Table of Specifications
  is to identify the achievement domains
  being measured and to ensure that a fair
  and representative sample of questions
  appear on the test.
Carey (1988) pointed out that the time
available for testing depended not only
on the length of the class period but also
      on students' attention spans.
1.   A true-false test item takes 15 seconds to
     answer unless the student is asked to
     provide the correct answer for false
     questions. Then the time increases to
     30-45 seconds.

2.   A seven item matching exercise takes
     60-90 seconds.
3. A four response multiple choice test
  item that asks for an answer regarding a
  term, fact, definition, rule or principle
  (knowledge level item) takes 30 seconds.
  The same type of test item that is at the
  application level may take 60 seconds.
4. Any test item format that requires
  solving a problem, analyzing,
  synthesizing information or evaluating
  examples adds 30-60 seconds to a question.
5. Short-answer test items take 30-45 seconds.

6. An essay test takes 60 seconds for each
  point to be compared and contrasted.
If an individual can perform the most
difficult aspects of the objective, the
instructor can "assume" the lower levels
can be done.
    However, if testing the lower levels,
the instructor cannot "assume" the
individual can perform the higher levels.
The    cornerstone     of   classroom
assessment practices is the validity of the
judgments about students’ learning and
knowledge.
     A TOS is one tool that teachers can
use to support their professional
judgment when creating or selecting test
for use with their students.
In order to understand how to best
modify a TOS to meet your needs, it is
important to understand the goal of this
strategy: improving validity of a teacher’s
evaluations based on a given assessment.
Validity is the degree to which the
evaluations or judgments we make as
teachers about our students can be trusted
based on the quality of evidence we
gathered (Wolming
 & Wilkstrom, 2010).
From the literatures we have known that
standardized tests are valid.
     The question needs to he asked if GPAs
are a valid measures of student
achievement?
     GPAs are based in large measure on
teacher made tests. If teacher made tests
are not valid, how can a students GPA be
valid?
    The use of a Table of Specifications
can provide teacher made tests validity
(Notar, Charles, 2004).
Lei, Bassiri and Schultz,(2001) found
that a college GPA was an unreliable
predictor of student achievement. Since
we assume that norm referenced tests are
valid measures, the tendency is to put
more weight on those results concerning
student achievement.
According to Ooster (2003) the
faculty made tests will likely have
poor content validity, "cause for
concern because each assessment
instrument depends on its validity
more than on any other factor."
A Table of Specifications benefits students in two
                        ways.
     First, it improves the validity of
teacher-made tests.
    Second, it can improve student
learning as well.
A Table of Specifications helps to
ensure that there is a match between
what is taught and what is tested.
Classroom assessment should be driven
by classroom teaching which itself is
driven by course goals and objectives.

    Tables of Specifications provide the
link between teaching and testing.
(University of Kansas, 2013)
Teachers can collaborate with students ,
 teachers or colleagues on the construction
 of the Table of Specifications:
 what are the main ideas and topics,
 what emphasis should be placed on each topic,
 what should be on the test?


     Open discussion and negotiation of
 these issues can encourage higher levels of
 understanding while also modeling good
 learning and study skills.
THANK YOU …..
Table of specifications 2013   copy

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Table of specifications 2013 copy

  • 1. Dr. Marciano B. Melchor University of Ha’il, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA May 2013
  • 2. A Table of Specifications is a two-way chart which describes the topics to be covered by a test and the number of items or points which will be associated with each topic.
  • 3.  Kubiszyn & Borich, (2003) emphasized the following significance and components of TOS: 1. A Table of Specifications consists of a two- way chart or grid relating instructional objectives to the instructional content. The column of the chart lists the objectives or "levels of skills" (Gredlcr, 1999) to be addressed; The rows list the key concepts or content the test is to measure.
  • 4. According to Bloom, et al. (1971), "We have found it useful to represent the relation of content and behaviors in the form of a two dimensional table with the objectives on one axis, the content on the other”.
  • 5. 2. A Table of Specifications identifies not only the content areas covered in class, it identifies the performance objectives at each level of the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy. Teachers can be assured that they are measuring students' learning across a wide range of content and readings as well as cognitive processes requiring higher order thinking.
  • 6. 3. A Table of Specifications is developed before the test is written. In fact it should be constructed before the actual teaching begins.
  • 7. 4. The purpose of a Table of Specifications is to identify the achievement domains being measured and to ensure that a fair and representative sample of questions appear on the test.
  • 8. Carey (1988) pointed out that the time available for testing depended not only on the length of the class period but also on students' attention spans.
  • 9. 1. A true-false test item takes 15 seconds to answer unless the student is asked to provide the correct answer for false questions. Then the time increases to 30-45 seconds. 2. A seven item matching exercise takes 60-90 seconds.
  • 10. 3. A four response multiple choice test item that asks for an answer regarding a term, fact, definition, rule or principle (knowledge level item) takes 30 seconds. The same type of test item that is at the application level may take 60 seconds.
  • 11. 4. Any test item format that requires solving a problem, analyzing, synthesizing information or evaluating examples adds 30-60 seconds to a question.
  • 12. 5. Short-answer test items take 30-45 seconds. 6. An essay test takes 60 seconds for each point to be compared and contrasted.
  • 13. If an individual can perform the most difficult aspects of the objective, the instructor can "assume" the lower levels can be done. However, if testing the lower levels, the instructor cannot "assume" the individual can perform the higher levels.
  • 14. The cornerstone of classroom assessment practices is the validity of the judgments about students’ learning and knowledge. A TOS is one tool that teachers can use to support their professional judgment when creating or selecting test for use with their students.
  • 15. In order to understand how to best modify a TOS to meet your needs, it is important to understand the goal of this strategy: improving validity of a teacher’s evaluations based on a given assessment. Validity is the degree to which the evaluations or judgments we make as teachers about our students can be trusted based on the quality of evidence we gathered (Wolming & Wilkstrom, 2010).
  • 16. From the literatures we have known that standardized tests are valid. The question needs to he asked if GPAs are a valid measures of student achievement? GPAs are based in large measure on teacher made tests. If teacher made tests are not valid, how can a students GPA be valid? The use of a Table of Specifications can provide teacher made tests validity (Notar, Charles, 2004).
  • 17. Lei, Bassiri and Schultz,(2001) found that a college GPA was an unreliable predictor of student achievement. Since we assume that norm referenced tests are valid measures, the tendency is to put more weight on those results concerning student achievement.
  • 18. According to Ooster (2003) the faculty made tests will likely have poor content validity, "cause for concern because each assessment instrument depends on its validity more than on any other factor."
  • 19. A Table of Specifications benefits students in two ways. First, it improves the validity of teacher-made tests. Second, it can improve student learning as well.
  • 20. A Table of Specifications helps to ensure that there is a match between what is taught and what is tested. Classroom assessment should be driven by classroom teaching which itself is driven by course goals and objectives. Tables of Specifications provide the link between teaching and testing. (University of Kansas, 2013)
  • 21. Teachers can collaborate with students , teachers or colleagues on the construction of the Table of Specifications:  what are the main ideas and topics,  what emphasis should be placed on each topic,  what should be on the test? Open discussion and negotiation of these issues can encourage higher levels of understanding while also modeling good learning and study skills.