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Urban Freight consolidation centres-Trends, challenges, solutions

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Milena Janjevic
Conference ECLF- Donóstia San Sebastian 2015

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Urban Freight consolidation centres-Trends, challenges, solutions

  1. 1. URBAN  FREIGHT  CONSOLIDATION  CENTRES  – TRENDS,  CHALLENGES,  SOLUTIONS Milena  Janjevic,  Qalinca Labs,  Université Libre de  Bruxelles European  Cycle  Logistics  Conference,  San  Sebastian,  15th October  2015
  2. 2. 2 Urban  freight  transport  is  essential  for  the  city’s  economy  and  liveability  but  is   also  a  source  of  important  externalities…. PEOPLE (Social  Sustainability) PROFIT (Economic  Sustainability) PLANET (Environmental  Sustainability) • Safety • Noise  (add  5dB  to  the   passenger  traffic) • Congestion  contribution   (double  parking) • Congestion  contribution  (10-­ 15%  of  travelled  miles) • Critical  to  support  consuming   market:  last  mile  accounts  for   40%  of  the  total  transportation   costs • 1/3  of  transport  Nox emissions • ½  of  particulate  matter   emissions  from  transport • 21%  of  CO2  emissions Sources:  Janjevic,  Lebeau,  2013.  Strategyfor  the  implementation of  sustainable logistic concepts  for  the  Brussels  Capital  Region (  No.  Activity report  of  18  month of  research).  ULB,  VUB,  Innoviris,  Brussels.
  3. 3. 3 Illustration:  the  urban  link  accounts  for  1%  of  distance  and  25%  of  logistical   costs 1  -­ Champs  de  coton 2  -­ Stockage  de  la  matière  première 3  -­ Filature  et  tissage 4  -­ Confection  et  lavage 5  -­ Entreposage 6  -­ Port  d’expédition 7  -­ Port  de  transbordement 8  -­ Port  de  réception 9  -­ Plateforme  logistique 10  -­ Distributeurs, détaillants,  clients Example:  textile  industry  supply  chain  China-­Europe Source:  CERTU,  2013.  Transport  de  marchandises  en  ville  :  quels  enjeux  pour  les  collectivités  ?
  4. 4. 4 Urban  consolidation  centres  aim  in  rationalizing  the  last  mile  deliveries  and   decreasing  the  total  vehicles*km  relevant  to  urban  freight  transport Transport  flows  before  and  after the  implementation  of  the  UCC Source:  Bruxelles  Mobilité,  2012,  ADEME,  2010 Number  of  deliveries  and  trips  for  Brussels 45% 10% 10% 10% 45% 80% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Deliveries Trips Occasional Branches   procurement Consolidatio n
  5. 5. 5 Urban  consolidation  centres  are  also  an  opportunity  to  adopt  the  vehicles  used   for  the  last  leg  of  distribution  to  the  urban  environment ELCIDIS,  La  Rochelle Binnestadservice,  Nijmengen
  6. 6. 6 There  is  a  large  number  of  implementation  cases  of  urban  consolidation  centres   (mostly  in  Europe) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1970-­1975 1976-­1990 1991-­1995 1996-­2000 2001-­2005 2006-­2010 Start  date  of  the  UCCs Source:  Allen,  J.,  Browne,  M.,  Woodburn,  A.,  Leonardi,  J.,  2012.  The  Role of  Urban Consolidation  Centres  in  Sustainable Freight Transport.  Transport   Reviews 32,  473–490.  doi:10.1080/01441647.2012.688074
  7. 7. 7 There  are  many  variations  of  the  UCC  concepts…  (1/2) Examples:  Construction  material   UCCs  in  Heathrow  and  Stockholm   Construction  project  UCCs Examples:  La  Rochelle,  Nijmegen,   Bristol   UCCs  serving  a  town/city Examples:  Meadowhall (Yorkshire),   Heathrow  retail  UCC UCCs  on  single  site Source:  Allen,  J.,  Browne,  M.,  Woodburn,  A.,  Leonardi,  J.,  2012.  The  Role of  Urban Consolidation  Centres  in  Sustainable Freight Transport.  Transport   Reviews 32,  473–490.  doi:10.1080/01441647.2012.688074
  8. 8. 8 There  are  many  variations  of  the  UCC  concepts…  (2/2) UCC Surface  of  the  UCC  (m2) Micro-­Consolidation  centre  London 160 Motomachi  UCC,  Yokohama 330 Ecologis  Brescia 400 Broadmead  UCC,  Bristom 465 The  Green  Link 750 La  Rochelle  UCC 800 Lucca 810 City  Depot  Brussels 1000 Padova  UCC 1000 Monaco 1300 Leiden 1500 Beaugrenelle urban Logistics Space 2900 Source:  own elaboration based on  litterature review
  9. 9. 9 However,  despite  the  significant  interest  from  both  the  public  and  the  private   sector,  their  long-­term  viability  is  difficult  to  reach Source:  Lebeau  et.  al,  2015,  Investigating support  for  Urban Consolidation  Center  in  Brussels  
  10. 10. 10 Challenge  1:  Commercial  feasibility  (i.e.  sufficient  market  for  UCC) Example:  urban  consolidation  centre  in  Leiden Some  figures • Leiden:  117  000  inhabitants • UCC  surface:  1300  m2 • Expected  impact:  a  daily  reduction  of   the  number  of  commercial  vehicles   from  24,000  to  5,000  (-­80%  !) • Break-­even:  600  shipments/day • Maximum  throughput  reached:  90   shipments/day Source:  BESTUFS
  11. 11. 11 Challenge  2:  Additional  cost  of  transhipment Source – urban  distribution  service Price UCC1* • 2,5-­5  euros/parcel • 10-­20 euros/pallet Boudouin, 2006 • 3  euros/parcel UCC  La  Rochelle • 3,80  euros/parcel UCC  Monaco • 4,90  euros/100kg La Petite  Reine • 2,50-­5  euros/delivery Source:  Own elaboration based on  litterature review;;  Browne,  M.,  Woodburn,  A.,  Allen,  J.,  2007.  Evaluating the  potentialfor  urban consolidation  centres.
  12. 12. 12 Challenge  3:  Allocation  of  costs  and  benefits +/-­ Change  in  cost  of  deliveries -­ Loss  of  customer  contact +/-­ Change  in  cost  of  deliveries -­ Monopolistic  situation +  Receiver-­oriented  services
  13. 13. 13 Challenge  4:  Lack  of  stakeholder  support  (1/2) Brussels  International  Logistics  Centre:  the  project…
  14. 14. 14 Challenge  4:  Lack  of  stakeholder  support  (2/2) Brussels  International  Logistics  Centre:  the  reaction…
  15. 15. 15 Recently,  there  has  been  a  regain  of  interest  in  the  UCC  concept  and  some  new   concepts  have  emerged… Ecologic,  Brescia Citydepot,  Brussels Cityporto,  Padova Binnenstadservice,  Netherlands
  16. 16. 16 Concept  1:  Downscaling  the  scope  of  the  consolidation Micro-­consolidation  centre,  London La  Petite  Reine,  Paris Source:  Browne,  M.,  Allen,  J.,  Leonardi,  J.,  2011.  Evaluating the  use  of  an  urban consolidation  centre  and  electric vehiclesin  central   London.  IATSS  Research 35,  1–6.  doi:10.1016/j.iatssr.2011.06.002
  17. 17. 17 Concept  2:  Reducing  the  necessary  infrastructure Example:  Mobile  depot  by  TNT  Express  in  Brussels Source:  STRAIGHTSOL  project,  2015
  18. 18. 18 Concept  3:  Receiver-­based  consolidation  centres Binnenstadservice,  Netherlands Citydepot,  Hasselt,  Belgium Some  advantages  for  retailers  participating  in  the  UCC  scheme • Remote  storage  (potential  to  increase  the  sales  surface  in  the  shop) • Single  delivery  for  several  suppliers  (reduction  of  the  time  necessary  to  receiver  the  goods) • Possibility  to  choose  the  delivery  hours  (potential  to  move  them  to  off-­peak  shopping  periods) • Public  recognition  (“green  logistics”) • Other  services  (e.g.  home  delivery) • Management  of  the  return  logistics
  19. 19. 19 Concept  4:  Better  supply  chain  integration • Labelling,  packaging,  pre-­retailing,   tracking  and  tracing,  quality   control,  etc. Value-­added  services • Consolidation  of  goods • Transhipment  towards  more   adapted  vehicles • Fast  turnover  of  goods  in  the   consolidation  centre Transhipment  point • Remote  stock  of  goods  available   at  request • Increase  in  the  sales  area • Better  reactivity  of  the  supply   chain Remote  storage SUPPLY  CHAIN  INTEGRATION
  20. 20. 20 Concept  5:  Night  and  off-­hour  deliveries  to  the  UCC • Decreased  travel  time • Decreased  service  time Carriers Receivers • Increased  reliability  of  the  deliveries • No  need  to  extend  the  reception  hours  as  in  the   case  of  regular  off-­hour  deliveries
  21. 21. 21 Conclusion Reduction  of   time  per  journey Improved   loading  factor Off-­hour   deliveries Improved   delivery   reliability Decreased   congestion Improved   service  quality Decreased  cost   of  operations Decreased  CO2   and  pollutant   emissions Competitive   local  economy CITY   PERSPECTIVE SUPPLY  CHAIN PERSPECTIVE Value  added-­ services

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