Error! Main Document Only.The EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson,signed the following notice on 07/28/2011, and EPA is sub...
Page 2 of 604covered by the existing new source performance standards.In addition, this action proposes how the EPA will a...
Page 3 of 60410:00 a.m. local time. For additional information on thepublic hearings and requesting to speak, see theSUPPL...
Page 4 of 604          Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Attn: Desk          Officer for the EPA, 725 17th Street, NW...
Page 5 of 604identity or contact information unless you provide it inthe body of your comment. If you send an email commen...
Page 6 of 604statute. Certain other material, such as copyrightedmaterial, is not placed on the Internet and will bepublic...
Page 7 of 604B. Where can I get a copy of this document and other   related information?C. What should I consider as I pre...
Page 8 of 604I. What are the benefits?IX. Request for CommentsX. Submitting Data CorrectionsXI. Statutory and Executive Or...
Page 9 of 604BPD         Barrels Per DayBSER        Best System of Emission ReductionBTEX        Benzene, Ethylbenzene, To...
Page 10 of 604MIRR        Monitoring, Inspection, Recordkeeping and            ReportingMMtCO2e     Million Metric Tons of...
Page 11 of 604RTR          Residual Risk and Technology ReviewSAB          Science Advisory BoardSBREFA       Small Busine...
Page 12 of 604a Federal program. Thus, Federal, state, local and tribalgovernment entities are not affected by this propos...
Page 13 of 604B. Where can I get a copy of this document and otherrelated information?       In addition to being availabl...
Page 14 of 604addition to one complete version of the comment thatincludes information claimed as CBI, a copy of the comme...
Page 15 of 604public hearings will be provided in a separate notice andwe will specify the time and date of the public hea...
Page 16 of 604establishing performance standards. Whereas CAA section 112standards are issued for existing and new station...
Page 17 of 604such reduction and any nonair quality health andenvironmental impact and energy requirements) theAdministrat...
Page 18 of 604NSPS becomes a national standard to which all new, modifiedor reconstructed sources must comply.2. What is t...
Page 19 of 604emitting one or more of the HAP listed in section 112(b) ofthe CAA, section 112(d) of the CAA calls for us t...
Page 20 of 604MACT standard may take the form of a design, equipment,work practice or operational standard where the EPA f...
Page 21 of 604standards more stringent than the floor based on theconsideration of the cost of achieving the emissionsredu...
Page 22 of 604report, thereby triggering the EPA’s obligation under CAAsection 112(f)(2) to analyze and address residual r...
Page 23 of 604prevent an adverse environmental effect,1 but must considercost, energy, safety and other relevant factors i...
Page 24 of 604     The terms “individual most exposed,” “acceptablelevel,” and “ample margin of safety” are not specifical...
Page 25 of 604     pollutants by, (1) protecting the greatest number of     persons possible to an individual lifetime ris...
Page 26 of 604The determination of what represents an “acceptable” riskis based on a judgment of “what risks are acceptabl...
Page 27 of 604risk as a metric for determining acceptability, weacknowledged in the 1989 Benzene NESHAP that “consideratio...
Page 28 of 604due to co-location of facilities and co-emission ofpollutants.” Id.     In some cases, these health measures...
Page 29 of 6042. How do we consider the risk results in making decisions?      As discussed in the previous section of thi...
Page 30 of 604The MIR; the numbers of persons in various risk ranges;cancer incidence; the maximum noncancer hazard index ...
Page 31 of 604on the general public. These factors can then be weighed ineach individual case. This approach complies with...
Page 32 of 604presumptively acceptable level is unacceptable in the lightof other health risk factors.” Similarly, with re...
Page 33 of 604emissions from glycol dehydration process vents, storagevessels and natural gas processing plant equipment l...
Page 34 of 604requiring the EPA to sign by July 28, 2011,3 proposedstandards and/or determinations not to issue standardsp...
Page 35 of 604redundant requirements, resulting in added certainty andeasier implementation of control strategies for the ...
Page 36 of 604approach promotes a comprehensive control strategy thatmaximizes the co-control of multiple regulated pollut...
Page 37 of 604tree” piping, as well as pumps, compressors, heatertreaters, separators, storage vessels, pneumatic devicesa...
Page 38 of 604platform structure and floating production and offloadingequipment.     There are three basic types of wells...
Page 39 of 604fluids from the natural gas to produced “pipeline quality”dry natural gas. While some of the processing can ...
Page 40 of 604flowing through any pipeline remains pressurized,compression of the gas is required periodically along thepi...
Page 41 of 604the distribution segment is often called the “citygate.”Typically, utilities take ownership of the gas at th...
Page 42 of 604content of 0.25 gr/100 scf (4ppmv) along with the presenceof CO2.     In addition, there are significant emi...
Page 43 of 604natural gas industry. Based on our review, we believe thatthe requirements at 40 CFR part 60, subpart KKK, s...
Page 44 of 604believe that the currently listed Oil and Natural Gassource category covers all operations in this industry(...
Page 45 of 604DATE OF PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. Thesestandards, which include requirements for VOC, would beco...
Page 46 of 604gathering line), we proposed an operational standard thatwould require pit flaring. Well completions subject...
Page 47 of 604THE FEDERAL REGISTER] would be limited strictly to thewellhead, well bore, casing and tubing, and any convey...
Page 48 of 604exemptions for certain applications based on functionalconsiderations.     In addition, the proposed rule wo...
Page 49 of 604the duration (in hours) that the compressor is operated.When the hours of operation reaches 26,000 hours, th...
Page 50 of 604reflect procedures and leak thresholds established by 40CFR 60, subpart VVa. The existing NSPS requires 40 C...
Page 51 of 604part of the oil and natural gas industry and could minimizeduplication of notification, recordkeeping and re...
Page 52 of 604     The proposed MACT standards for the subcategory ofsmall dehydrators at oil and gas production facilitie...
Page 53 of 604definition of associated equipment to exclude all storagevessels, and not just those with the PFE, from bein...
Page 54 of 604the technology reviews of the existing NESHAP?     For both the Oil and Natural Gas Production and theNatura...
Page 55 of 604time for an enclosed combustion device; and addrecordkeeping and reporting requirements to document carbonre...
Page 56 of 60463.8(d)(3); 40 CFR 63.10(b)(2)(i),(ii), (iv) and (v); 40CFR 63.10(c)(10), (11) and (15); and 40 CFR 63.10(d)...
Page 57 of 604regarding PTE determination and the scope of a facilitysubject to subpart HH. Lastly, we are proposing sever...
Page 58 of 604methods of streamlining notification and reporting for wellcompletions covered by the proposed rule.     Own...
Page 59 of 604affected facility or 1 year after the date of publicationof the final rule in the Federal Register, whicheve...
Page 60 of 604use of high bleed controllers. For controllers installed atgas processing plants, the owner or operator woul...
Page 61 of 604recordkeeping and reporting requirements for the NESHAP?     We are proposing to revise certain recordkeepin...
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)
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EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)

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A full copy of the proposed new rule changes EPA is proposing to prevent air pollution from hydraulic fracturing used in the oil and gas industry. The new rule changes seek to reduce the level of volatile organic compounds the EPA says are escaping into the air around drilling operations--from well pads, compressor plants, pipelines and other industry-related activities.

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EPA Proposed Amendments to Air Regulations for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (Full Copy)

  1. 1. Error! Main Document Only.The EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson,signed the following notice on 07/28/2011, and EPA is submitting it forpublication in the Federal Register (FR). While we have taken steps toensure the accuracy of this Internet version of the rule, it is not theofficial version of the rule for purposes of compliance. Please referto the official version in a forthcoming FR publication, which willappear on the Government Printing Offices FDSys website(http://fdsys.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action) and on Regulations.gov(http://www.regulations.gov) in Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0505. Oncethe official version of this document is published in the FR, thisversion will be removed from the Internet and replaced with a link tothe official version. 6560-50-PENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY40 CFR Parts 60 and 63[EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0505; FRL- ]RIN 2060-AP76Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Oiland Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas Transmission andDistribution; National Emission Standards for Hazardous AirPollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities;and National Emission Standards for Hazardous AirPollutants From Natural Gas Transmission and StorageFacilitiesAGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).ACTION: Proposed rule.SUMMARY: This action announces how the EPA will address thereviews of the new source performance standards forvolatile organic compound and sulfur dioxide emissions fromnatural gas processing plants. We are adding to the sourcecategory list any oil and gas operation not covered by thecurrent listing. This action also includes proposedamendments to the existing new source performance standardsfor volatile organic compounds from natural gas processingplants and proposed standards for operations that are not
  2. 2. Page 2 of 604covered by the existing new source performance standards.In addition, this action proposes how the EPA will addressthe residual risk and technology review conducted for theoil and natural gas production and natural gas transmissionand storage national emission standards for hazardous airpollutants. This action further proposes standards foremission sources within these two source categories thatare not currently addressed, as well as amendments toimprove aspects of these national emission standards forhazardous air pollutants related to applicability andimplementation. Finally, this action addresses provisionsin these new source performance standards and nationalemission standards for hazardous air pollutants related toemissions during periods of startup, shutdown andmalfunction.DATES: Comments must be received on or before [INSERT DATE60 DAYS FROM DATE OF PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER].Public Hearing. Three public hearings will be held toprovide the public an opportunity to provide comments onthis proposed rulemaking. One will be held in the Dallas,Texas area, on [INSERT DATE], one in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, on [INSERT DATE], and one in Denver,Colorado, on [INSERT DATE]. Each hearing will convene at This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  3. 3. Page 3 of 60410:00 a.m. local time. For additional information on thepublic hearings and requesting to speak, see theSUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this preamble.ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket IDNumber EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0505, by one of the followingmethods: • Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov: Follow the instructions for submitting comments. • Agency Website: http://www.epa.gov/oar/docket.html. Follow the instructions for submitting comments on the Air and Radiation Docket website. • Email: a-and-r-docket@epa.gov. Include Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0505 in the subject line of the message. • Facsimile: (202) 566-9744. • Mail: Attention Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2010- 0505, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460. Please include a total of two copies. In addition, please mail a copy of your comments on the information collection provisions to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  4. 4. Page 4 of 604 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Attn: Desk Officer for the EPA, 725 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20503. • Hand Delivery: United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA West (Air Docket), Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20004, Attention Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR- 2010-0505. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket’s normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information.Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0505. The EPA’s policy is that all commentsreceived will be included in the public docket withoutchange and may be made available online athttp://www.regulations.gov, including any personalinformation provided, unless the comment includesinformation claimed to be confidential business information(CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restrictedby statute. Do not submit information that you consider tobe CBI or otherwise protected through www.regulations.govor email. The www.regulations.gov website is an “anonymousaccess” system, which means the EPA will not know your This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  5. 5. Page 5 of 604identity or contact information unless you provide it inthe body of your comment. If you send an email commentdirectly to the EPA without going throughwww.regulations.gov, your email address will beautomatically captured and included as part of the commentthat is placed in the public docket and made available onthe Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, the EPArecommends that you include your name and other contactinformation in the body of your comment and with any diskor CD-ROM you submit. If the EPA cannot read your commentdue to technical difficulties and cannot contact you forclarification, the EPA may not be able to consider yourcomment. Electronic files should avoid the use of specialcharacters, any form of encryption, and be free of anydefects or viruses. For additional information about theEPA’s public docket, visit the EPA Docket Center homepageat http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm. For additionalinstructions on submitting comments, go to section II.C ofthe SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this preamble.Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in thewww.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index,some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI orother information whose disclosure is restricted by This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  6. 6. Page 6 of 604statute. Certain other material, such as copyrightedmaterial, is not placed on the Internet and will bepublicly available only in hard copy. Publicly availabledocket materials are available either electronicallythrough www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, EPA West (Air Docket),Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC20004. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays.The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202)566-1744, and the telephone number for the Air Docket is(202) 566-1742.FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bruce Moore, SectorPolicies and Programs Division, Office of Air QualityPlanning and Standards (E143-01), Environmental ProtectionAgency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711,telephone number: (919) 541-5460; facsimile number: (919)685-3200; email address: moore.bruce@epa.gov.SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Organization of This Document. The following outline isprovided to aid in locating information in this preamble.I. Preamble Acronyms and AbbreviationsII. General InformationA. Does this action apply to me? This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  7. 7. Page 7 of 604B. Where can I get a copy of this document and other related information?C. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for the EPA?D. When will a public hearing occur?III. Background InformationA. What are standards of performance and NSPS?B. What are NESHAP?C. What litigation is related to this proposed action?D. What is a sector-based approach?IV. Oil and Natural Gas SectorV. Summary of Proposed Decisions and ActionsA. What are the proposed revisions to the NSPS?B. What are the proposed decisions and actions related to the NESHAP?C. What are the proposed notification, recordkeeping and reporting requirements for this proposed action?D. What are the innovative compliance approaches being considered?E. How does the NSPS relate to permitting of sources?VI. Rationale for Proposed Action for NSPSA. What did we evaluate relative to NSPS?B. What are the results of our evaluations and proposed actions relative to NSPS?VII. Rationale for Proposed Action for NESHAPA. What data were used for the NESHAP analyses?B. What are the proposed decisions regarding certain unregulated emissions sources?C. How did we perform the risk assessment and what are the results and proposed decisions?D. How did we perform the technology review and what are the results and proposed decisions?E. What other actions are we proposing?VIII. What are the cost, environmental, energy and economic impacts of the proposed 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO and amendments to subparts HH and HHH of 40 CFR part 63?A. What are the affected sources?B. How are the impacts for this proposal evaluated?C. What are the air quality impacts?D. What are the water quality and solid waste impacts?E. What are the secondary impacts?F. What are the energy impacts?G. What are the cost impacts?H. What are the economic impacts? This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  8. 8. Page 8 of 604I. What are the benefits?IX. Request for CommentsX. Submitting Data CorrectionsXI. Statutory and Executive Order ReviewsA. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review and Executive Order 13563: Improving Regulation and Regulatory ReviewB. Paperwork Reduction ActC. Regulatory Flexibility ActD. Unfunded Mandates Reform ActE. Executive Order 13132: FederalismF. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal GovernmentsG. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children from Environmental Health and Safety RisksH. Executive Order 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or UseI. National Technology Transfer and Advancement ActJ. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low- Income PopulationsI. Preamble Acronyms and Abbreviations Several acronyms and terms used to describe industrialprocesses, data inventories and risk modeling are includedin this preamble. While this may not be an exhaustive list,to ease the reading of this preamble and for referencepurposes, the following terms and acronyms are definedhere:ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial HygienistsADAF Age-Dependent Adjustment FactorsAEGL Acute Exposure Guideline LevelsAERMOD The air dispersion model used by the HEM-3 modelAPI American Petroleum InstituteBACT Best Available Control TechnologyBID Background Information Document This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  9. 9. Page 9 of 604BPD Barrels Per DayBSER Best System of Emission ReductionBTEX Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene and XyleneCAA Clean Air ActCalEPA California Environmental Protection AgencyCBI Confidential Business InformationCEM Continuous Emissions MonitoringCEMS Continuous Emissions Monitoring SystemCFR Code of Federal RegulationsCIIT Chemical Industry Institute of ToxicologyCO Carbon MonoxideCO2 Carbon DioxideCO2e Carbon Dioxide EquivalentDOE Department of EnergyECHO Enforcement and Compliance History Onlinee-GGRT Electronic Greenhouse Gas Reporting ToolEJ Environmental JusticeEPA Environmental Protection AgencyERPG Emergency Response Planning GuidelinesERT Electronic Reporting ToolGCG Gas Condensate GlycolGHG Greenhouse GasGOR Gas to Oil RatioGWP Global Warming PotentialHAP Hazardous Air PollutantsHEM-3 Human Exposure Model, version 3HI Hazard IndexHP HorsepowerHQ Hazard QuotientH2S Hydrogen SulfideICR Information Collection RequestIPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIRIS Integrated Risk Information Systemkm KilometerkW KilowattsLAER Lowest Achievable Emission Ratelb PoundsLDAR Leak Detection and RepairMACT Maximum Achievable Control TechnologyMACT Code Code within the NEI used to identify processes included in a source categoryMcf Thousand Cubic FeetMg/yr Megagrams per yearMIR Maximum Individual Risk This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  10. 10. Page 10 of 604MIRR Monitoring, Inspection, Recordkeeping and ReportingMMtCO2e Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide EquivalentsNAAQS National Ambient Air Quality StandardsNAC/AEGL National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous SubstancesNAICS North American Industry Classification SystemNAS National Academy of SciencesNATA National Air Toxics AssessmentNEI National Emissions InventoryNEMS National Energy Modeling SystemNESHAP National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air PollutantsNGL Natural Gas LiquidsNIOSH National Institutes for Occupational Safety and HealthNOx Oxides of NitrogenNRC National Research CouncilNSPS New Source Performance StandardsNSR New Source ReviewNTTAA National Technology Transfer and Advancement ActOAQPS Office of Air Quality Planning and StandardsOMB Office of Management and BudgetPB-HAP Hazardous air pollutants known to be persistent and bio-accumulative in the environmentPFE Potential for Flash EmissionsPM Particulate MatterPM2.5 Particulate Matter (2.5 microns and less)POM Polycyclic Organic MatterPPM Parts Per MillionPPMV Parts Per Million by VolumePSIG Pounds per square inch gaugePTE Potential to EmitQA Quality AssuranceRACT Reasonably Available Control TechnologyRBLC RACT/BACT/LAER ClearinghouseREC Reduced Emissions CompletionsREL CalEPA Reference Exposure LevelRFA Regulatory Flexibility ActRfC Reference ConcentrationRfD Reference DoseRIA Regulatory Impact AnalysisRICE Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  11. 11. Page 11 of 604RTR Residual Risk and Technology ReviewSAB Science Advisory BoardSBREFA Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness ActSCC Source Classification CodesSCFH Standard Cubic Feet Per HourSCFM Standard Cubic Feet Per MinuteSCM Standard Cubic MetersSCMD Standard Cubic Meters Per DaySCOT Shell Claus Offgas TreatmentSIP State Implementation PlanSISNOSE Significant Economic Impact on a Substantial Number of Small EntitiesS/L/T State and Local and Tribal AgenciesSO2 Sulfur DioxideSSM Startup, Shutdown and MalfunctionSTEL Short-term Exposure LimitTLV Threshold Limit ValueTOSHI Target Organ-Specific Hazard IndexTPY Tons per YearTRIM Total Risk Integrated Modeling SystemTRIM.FaTE A spatially explicit, compartmental mass balance model that describes the movement and transformation of pollutants over time, through a user-defined, bounded system that includes both biotic and abiotic compartmentsTSD Technical Support DocumentUF Uncertainty FactorUMRA Unfunded Mandates Reform ActURE Unit Risk EstimateVCS Voluntary Consensus StandardsVOC Volatile Organic CompoundsVRU Vapor Recovery UnitII. General InformationA. Does this action apply to me? The regulated industrial source categories that arethe subject of this proposal are listed in Table 1 of thispreamble. These standards and any changes considered inthis rulemaking would be directly applicable to sources as This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  12. 12. Page 12 of 604a Federal program. Thus, Federal, state, local and tribalgovernment entities are not affected by this proposedaction. TABLE 1. INDUSTRIAL SOURCE CATEGORIES AFFECTED BY THIS PROPOSED ACTION Category NAICS Examples of regulated code 1 entitiesIndustry . . . . Crude Petroleum and Natural 211111 Gas Extraction 211112 Natural Gas Liquid Extraction 221210 Natural Gas Distribution 486110 Pipeline Distribution of Crude Oil 486210 Pipeline Transportation of Natural GasFederal government . . . . Not affected.State/local/tribal . . . . Not affected.government1 North American Industry Classification System. This table is not intended to be exhaustive, butrather provides a guide for readers regarding entitieslikely to be affected by this action. To determine whetheryour facility would be regulated by this action, you shouldexamine the applicability criteria in the regulations. Ifyou have any questions regarding the applicability of thisaction to a particular entity, contact the person listed inthe preceding FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  13. 13. Page 13 of 604B. Where can I get a copy of this document and otherrelated information? In addition to being available in the docket, anelectronic copy of this proposal will also be available onthe EPA’s website. Following signature by the EPAAdministrator, a copy of this proposed action will beposted on the EPA’s website at the following address:http://www.epa.gov/airquality/oilandgas. Additional information is available on the EPA’sResidual Risk and Technology Review (RTR) website athttp://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/rrisk/oarpg.html. Thisinformation includes the most recent version of the rule,source category descriptions, detailed emissions and otherdata that were used as inputs to the risk assessments.C. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for theEPA?Submitting CBI. Do not submit information containing CBI tothe EPA through www.regulations.gov or email. Clearly markthe part or all of the information that you claim to beCBI. For CBI information on a disk or CD ROM that you mailto the EPA, mark the outside of the disk or CD ROM as CBIand then identify electronically within the disk or CD ROMthe specific information that is claimed as CBI. In This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  14. 14. Page 14 of 604addition to one complete version of the comment thatincludes information claimed as CBI, a copy of the commentthat does not contain the information claimed as CBI mustbe submitted for inclusion in the public docket. If yousubmit a CD ROM or disk that does not contain CBI, mark theoutside of the disk or CD ROM clearly that it does notcontain CBI. Information not marked as CBI will be includedin the public docket and the EPA’s electronic public docketwithout prior notice. Information marked as CBI will not bedisclosed except in accordance with procedures set forth in40 CFR part 2. Send or deliver information identified asCBI only to the following address: Roberto Morales, OAQPSDocument Control Officer (C404-02), EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning andStandards, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711,Attention Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0505.D. When will a public hearing occur? We will hold three public hearings, one in the Dallas,Texas area, one in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and one inDenver, Colorado. If you are interested in attending orspeaking at one of the public hearings, contact Ms. JoanRogers at (919) 541-4487 by [INSERT DATE 11 DAYS FROM DATEOF PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. Details on the This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  15. 15. Page 15 of 604public hearings will be provided in a separate notice andwe will specify the time and date of the public hearings onhttp://www.epa.gov/airquality/oilandgas. If no one requeststo speak at one of the public hearings [INSERT DATE 11 DAYSFROM DATE OF PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER], thenthat public hearing will be cancelled without furthernotice.III. Background InformationA. What are standards of performance and NSPS?1. What is the statutory authority for standards ofperformance and NSPS? Section 111 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires theEPA Administrator to list categories of stationary sources,if such sources cause or contribute significantly to airpollution, which may reasonably be anticipated to endangerpublic health or welfare. The EPA must then issueperformance standards for such source categories. Aperformance standard reflects the degree of emissionlimitation achievable through the application of the “bestsystem of emission reduction” (BSER) which the EPAdetermines has been adequately demonstrated. The EPA mayconsider certain costs and nonair quality health andenvironmental impact and energy requirements when This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  16. 16. Page 16 of 604establishing performance standards. Whereas CAA section 112standards are issued for existing and new stationarysources, standards of performance are issued for new andmodified stationary sources. These standards are referredto as new source performance standards (NSPS). The EPA hasthe authority to define the source categories, determinethe pollutants for which standards should be developed,identify the facilities within each source category to becovered and set the emission level of the standards. CAA section 111(b)(1)(B) requires the EPA to “at leastevery 8 years review and, if appropriate, revise”performance standards unless the “Administrator determinesthat such review is not appropriate in light of readilyavailable information on the efficacy” of the standard.When conducting a review of an existing performancestandard, the EPA has discretion to revise that standard toadd emission limits for pollutants or emission sources notcurrently regulated for that source category. In setting or revising a performance standard, CAAsection 111(a)(1) provides that performance standards areto “reflect the degree of emission limitation achievablethrough the application of the best system of emissionreduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  17. 17. Page 17 of 604such reduction and any nonair quality health andenvironmental impact and energy requirements) theAdministrator determines has been adequately demonstrated.”In this notice, we refer to this level of control as theBSER. In determining BSER, we typically conduct atechnology review that identifies what emission reductionsystems exist and how much they reduce air pollution inpractice. Next, for each control system identified, weevaluate its costs, secondary air benefits (or disbenefits)resulting from energy requirements and nonair qualityimpacts such as solid waste generation. Based on ourevaluation, we would determine BSER. The resultant standardis usually a numerical emissions limit, expressed as aperformance level (i.e., a rate-based standard or percentcontrol), that reflects the BSER. Although such standardsare based on the BSER, the EPA may not prescribe aparticular technology that must be used to comply with aperformance standard, except in instances where theAdministrator determines it is not feasible to prescribe orenforce a standard of performance. Typically, sourcesremain free to elect whatever control measures that theychoose to meet the emission limits. Upon promulgation, a This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  18. 18. Page 18 of 604NSPS becomes a national standard to which all new, modifiedor reconstructed sources must comply.2. What is the regulatory history regarding performancestandards for the oil and natural gas sector? In 1979, the EPA listed crude oil and natural gasproduction on its priority list of source categories forpromulgation of NSPS (44 FR 49222, August 21, 1979). OnJune 24, 1985 (50 FR 26122), the EPA promulgated a NSPS forthe source category that addressed volatile organiccompound (VOC) emissions from leaking components at onshorenatural gas processing plants (40 CFR part 60, subpartKKK). On October 1, 1985 (50 FR 40158), a second NSPS waspromulgated for the source category that regulates sulfurdioxide (SO2) emissions from natural gas processing plants(40 CFR part 60, subpart LLL). Other than natural gasprocessing plants, EPA has not previously set NSPS for avariety of oil and natural gas operations.B. What are NESHAP?1. What is the statutory authority for NESHAP? Section 112 of the CAA establishes a two-stageregulatory process to address emissions of hazardous airpollutants (HAP) from stationary sources. In the firststage, after the EPA has identified categories of sources This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  19. 19. Page 19 of 604emitting one or more of the HAP listed in section 112(b) ofthe CAA, section 112(d) of the CAA calls for us topromulgate national emission standards for hazardous airpollutants (NESHAP) for those sources. “Major sources” arethose that emit or have the potential to emit (PTE) 10 tonsper year (tpy) or more of a single HAP or 25 tpy or more ofany combination of HAP. For major sources, thesetechnology-based standards must reflect the maximum degreeof emission reductions of HAP achievable (after consideringcost, energy requirements and nonair quality health andenvironmental impacts) and are commonly referred to asmaximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. MACT standards are to reflect application of measures,processes, methods, systems or techniques, including, butnot limited to, measures which, (1) reduce the volume of oreliminate pollutants through process changes, substitutionof materials or other modifications, (2) enclose systems orprocesses to eliminate emissions, (3) capture or treatpollutants when released from a process, stack, storage orfugitive emissions point, (4) are design, equipment, workpractice or operational standards (including requirementsfor operator training or certification) or (5) are acombination of the above. CAA section 112(d)(2)(A)-(E). The This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  20. 20. Page 20 of 604MACT standard may take the form of a design, equipment,work practice or operational standard where the EPA firstdetermines either that, (1) a pollutant cannot be emittedthrough a conveyance designed and constructed to emit orcapture the pollutant or that any requirement for or use ofsuch a conveyance would be inconsistent with law or (2) theapplication of measurement methodology to a particularclass of sources is not practicable due to technologicaland economic limitations. CAA sections 112(h)(1)-(2). The MACT “floor” is the minimum control level allowedfor MACT standards promulgated under CAA section 112(d)(3),and may not be based on cost considerations. For newsources, the MACT floor cannot be less stringent than theemission control that is achieved in practice by the best-controlled similar source. The MACT floors for existingsources can be less stringent than floors for new sources,but they cannot be less stringent than the average emissionlimitation achieved by the best-performing 12 percent ofexisting sources in the category or subcategory (or thebest-performing five sources for categories orsubcategories with fewer than 30 sources). In developingMACT standards, we must also consider control options thatare more stringent than the floor. We may establish This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  21. 21. Page 21 of 604standards more stringent than the floor based on theconsideration of the cost of achieving the emissionsreductions, any nonair quality health and environmentalimpacts and energy requirements. The EPA is then required to review these technology-based standards and to revise them “as necessary (takinginto account developments in practices, processes, andcontrol technologies)” no less frequently than every 8years, under CAA section 112(d)(6). In conducting thisreview, the EPA is not obliged to completely recalculatethe prior MACT determination. NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d 1077,1084 (D.C. Cir. 2008). The second stage in standard-setting focuses onreducing any remaining “residual” risk according to CAAsection 112(f). This provision requires, first, that theEPA prepare a Report to Congress discussing (among otherthings) methods of calculating risk posed (or potentiallyposed) by sources after implementation of the MACTstandards, the public health significance of those risks,and the EPA’s recommendations as to legislation regardingsuch remaining risk. The EPA prepared and submitted thisreport (Residual Risk Report to Congress, EPA–453/R–99–001)in March 1999. Congress did not act in response to the This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  22. 22. Page 22 of 604report, thereby triggering the EPA’s obligation under CAAsection 112(f)(2) to analyze and address residual risk. CAA section 112(f)(2) requires us to determine forsource categories subject to MACT standards, whether theemissions standards provide an ample margin of safety toprotect public health. If the MACT standards for HAP“classified as a known, probable, or possible humancarcinogen do not reduce lifetime excess cancer risks tothe individual most exposed to emissions from a source inthe category or subcategory to less than 1-in-1 million,”the EPA must promulgate residual risk standards for thesource category (or subcategory), as necessary, to providean ample margin of safety to protect public health. Indoing so, the EPA may adopt standards equal to existingMACT standards if the EPA determines that the existingstandards are sufficiently protective. NRDC v. EPA, 529F.3d 1077, 1083 (D.C. Cir. 2008). (“If EPA determines thatthe existing technology-based standards provide an “amplemargin of safety,” then the Agency is free to readopt thosestandards during the residual risk rulemaking.”) The EPAmust also adopt more stringent standards, if necessary, to This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  23. 23. Page 23 of 604prevent an adverse environmental effect,1 but must considercost, energy, safety and other relevant factors in doingso. Section 112(f)(2) of the CAA expressly preserves ouruse of a two-step process for developing standards toaddress any residual risk and our interpretation of “amplemargin of safety” developed in the National EmissionStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Benzene Emissionsfrom Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants,Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and CokeBy-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP) (54 FR 38044,September 14, 1989). The first step in this process is thedetermination of acceptable risk. The second step providesfor an ample margin of safety to protect public health,which is the level at which the standards are set (unless amore stringent standard is required to prevent, taking intoconsideration costs, energy, safety, and other relevantfactors, an adverse environmental effect).1 “Adverse environmental effect” is defined in CAA section112(a)(7) as any significant and widespread adverse effect, whichmay be reasonably anticipated to wildlife, aquatic life ornatural resources, including adverse impacts on populations ofendangered or threatened species or significant degradation ofenvironmental qualities over broad areas. This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  24. 24. Page 24 of 604 The terms “individual most exposed,” “acceptablelevel,” and “ample margin of safety” are not specificallydefined in the CAA. However, CAA section 112(f)(2)(B)preserves the interpretation set out in the Benzene NESHAP,and the United States Court of Appeals for the District ofColumbia Circuit in NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d 1077, concludedthat the EPA’s interpretation of subsection 112(f)(2) is areasonable one. See NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d at 1083 (D.C.Cir., “[S]ubsection 112(f)(2)(B) expressly incorporatesEPA’s interpretation of the Clean Air Act from the Benzenestandard, complete with a citation to the FederalRegister”). (D.C. Cir. 2008). See also, A LegislativeHistory of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, volume 1,p. 877 (Senate debate on Conference Report). We notifiedCongress in the Residual Risk Report to Congress that weintended to use the Benzene NESHAP approach in making CAAsection 112(f) residual risk determinations (EPA–453/R–99–001, p. ES–11). In the Benzene NESHAP, we stated as an overallobjective: * * * in protecting public health with an ample margin of safety, we strive to provide maximum feasible protection against risks to health from hazardous air This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  25. 25. Page 25 of 604 pollutants by, (1) protecting the greatest number of persons possible to an individual lifetime risk level no higher than approximately 1-in-1 million; and (2) limiting to no higher than approximately 1-in-10 thousand [i.e., 100-in-1 million] the estimated risk that a person living near a facility would have if he or she were exposed to the maximum pollutant concentrations for 70 years. The Agency also stated that, “The EPA also considersincidence (the number of persons estimated to suffer canceror other serious health effects as a result of exposure toa pollutant) to be an important measure of the health riskto the exposed population. Incidence measures the extent ofhealth risk to the exposed population as a whole, byproviding an estimate of the occurrence of cancer or otherserious health effects in the exposed population.” TheAgency went on to conclude that “estimated incidence wouldbe weighed along with other health risk information injudging acceptability.” As explained more fully in ourResidual Risk Report to Congress, the EPA does not define“rigid line[s] of acceptability,” but considers ratherbroad objectives to be weighed with a series of otherhealth measures and factors (EPA–453/R–99–001, p. ES–11). This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  26. 26. Page 26 of 604The determination of what represents an “acceptable” riskis based on a judgment of “what risks are acceptable in theworld in which we live” (Residual Risk Report to Congress,p. 178, quoting the Vinyl Chloride decision at 824 F.2d1165) recognizing that our world is not risk-free. In the Benzene NESHAP, we stated that “EPA willgenerally presume that if the risk to [the maximum exposed]individual is no higher than approximately 1-in-10thousand, that risk level is considered acceptable.” 54 FR38045. We discussed the maximum individual lifetime cancerrisk (or maximum individual risk (MIR)) as being “theestimated risk that a person living near a plant would haveif he or she were exposed to the maximum pollutantconcentrations for 70 years.” Id. We explained that thismeasure of risk “is an estimate of the upper bound of riskbased on conservative assumptions, such as continuousexposure for 24 hours per day for 70 years.” Id. Weacknowledge that maximum individual lifetime cancer risk“does not necessarily reflect the true risk, but displays aconservative risk level which is an upper-bound that isunlikely to be exceeded.” Id. Understanding that there are both benefits andlimitations to using maximum individual lifetime cancer This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  27. 27. Page 27 of 604risk as a metric for determining acceptability, weacknowledged in the 1989 Benzene NESHAP that “considerationof maximum individual risk * * * must take into account thestrengths and weaknesses of this measure of risk.” Id.Consequently, the presumptive risk level of 100-in-1million (1-in-10 thousand) provides a benchmark for judgingthe acceptability of maximum individual lifetime cancerrisk, but does not constitute a rigid line for making thatdetermination. The Agency also explained in the 1989 Benzene NESHAPthe following: “In establishing a presumption for MIR,rather than a rigid line for acceptability, the Agencyintends to weigh it with a series of other health measuresand factors. These include the overall incidence of canceror other serious health effects within the exposedpopulation, the numbers of persons exposed within eachindividual lifetime risk range and associated incidencewithin, typically, a 50-kilometer (km) exposure radiusaround facilities, the science policy assumptions andestimation uncertainties associated with the risk measures,weight of the scientific evidence for human health effects,other quantified or unquantified health effects, effects This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  28. 28. Page 28 of 604due to co-location of facilities and co-emission ofpollutants.” Id. In some cases, these health measures and factors takentogether may provide a more realistic description of themagnitude of risk in the exposed population than thatprovided by maximum individual lifetime cancer risk alone.As explained in the Benzene NESHAP, “[e]ven though therisks judged “acceptable” by the EPA in the first step ofthe Vinyl Chloride inquiry are already low, the second stepof the inquiry, determining an “ample margin of safety,”again includes consideration of all of the health factors,and whether to reduce the risks even further.” In the amplemargin of safety decision process, the Agency againconsiders all of the health risks and other healthinformation considered in the first step. Beyond thatinformation, additional factors relating to the appropriatelevel of control will also be considered, including costsand economic impacts of controls, technologicalfeasibility, uncertainties and any other relevant factors.Considering all of these factors, the Agency will establishthe standard at a level that provides an ample margin ofsafety to protect the public health, as required by CAAsection 112(f). 54 FR 38046. This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  29. 29. Page 29 of 6042. How do we consider the risk results in making decisions? As discussed in the previous section of this preamble,we apply a two-step process for developing standards toaddress residual risk. In the first step, the EPAdetermines if risks are acceptable. This determination“considers all health information, including riskestimation uncertainty, and includes a presumptive limit onmaximum individual lifetime [cancer] risk (MIR)2 ofapproximately 1-in-10 thousand [i.e., 100-in-1 million].”54 FR 38045. In the second step of the process, the EPAsets the standard at a level that provides an ample marginof safety “in consideration of all health information,including the number of persons at risk levels higher thanapproximately 1-in-1 million, as well as other relevantfactors, including costs and economic impacts,technological feasibility, and other factors relevant toeach particular decision.” Id. In past residual risk determinations, the EPApresented a number of human health risk metrics associatedwith emissions from the category under review, including:2 Although defined as “maximum individual risk,” MIR refers onlyto cancer risk. MIR, one metric for assessing cancer risk, is theestimated risk were an individual exposed to the maximum level ofa pollutant for a lifetime. This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  30. 30. Page 30 of 604The MIR; the numbers of persons in various risk ranges;cancer incidence; the maximum noncancer hazard index (HI);and the maximum acute noncancer hazard. In estimatingrisks, the EPA considered source categories under reviewthat are located near each other and that affect the samepopulation. The EPA provided estimates of the expecteddifference in actual emissions from the source categoryunder review and emissions allowed pursuant to the sourcecategory MACT standard. The EPA also discussed andconsidered risk estimation uncertainties. The EPA isproviding this same type of information in support of theseactions. The Agency acknowledges that the Benzene NESHAPprovides flexibility regarding what factors the EPA mightconsider in making our determinations and how they might beweighed for each source category. In responding to commenton our policy under the Benzene NESHAP, the EPA explainedthat: “The policy chosen by the Administrator permitsconsideration of multiple measures of health risk. Not onlycan the MIR figure be considered, but also incidence, thepresence of noncancer health effects, and the uncertaintiesof the risk estimates. In this way, the effect on the mostexposed individuals can be reviewed as well as the impact This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  31. 31. Page 31 of 604on the general public. These factors can then be weighed ineach individual case. This approach complies with the VinylChloride mandate that the Administrator ascertain anacceptable level of risk to the public by employing [her]expertise to assess available data. It also complies withthe Congressional intent behind the CAA, which did notexclude the use of any particular measure of public healthrisk from the EPAs consideration with respect to CAAsection 112 regulations, and, thereby, implicitly permitsconsideration of any and all measures of health risk whichthe Administrator, in [her] judgment, believes areappropriate to determining what will ‘protect the publichealth.’” For example, the level of the MIR is only one factorto be weighed in determining acceptability of risks. TheBenzene NESHAP explains “an MIR of approximately 1-in-10thousand should ordinarily be the upper end of the range ofacceptability. As risks increase above this benchmark, theybecome presumptively less acceptable under CAA section 112,and would be weighed with the other health risk measuresand information in making an overall judgment onacceptability. Or, the Agency may find, in a particularcase, that a risk that includes MIR less than the This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  32. 32. Page 32 of 604presumptively acceptable level is unacceptable in the lightof other health risk factors.” Similarly, with regard tothe ample margin of safety analysis, the Benzene NESHAPstates that: “EPA believes the relative weight of the manyfactors that can be considered in selecting an ample marginof safety can only be determined for each specific sourcecategory. This occurs mainly because technological andeconomic factors (along with the health-related factors)vary from source category to source category.”3. What is the regulatory history regarding NESHAP for theoil and natural gas sector? On July 16, 1992 (57 FR 31576), the EPA published alist of major and area sources for which NESHAP are to bepublished (i.e., the source category list). Oil and naturalgas production facilities were listed as a category ofmajor sources. On February 12, 1998 (63 FR 7155), the EPAamended the source category list to add Natural GasTransmission and Storage as a major source category. On June 17, 1999 (64 FR 32610), the EPA promulgatedMACT standards for the Oil and Natural Gas Production andNatural Gas Transmission and Storage major sourcecategories. The Oil and Natural Gas Production NESHAP (40CFR part 63, subpart HH) contains standards for HAP This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  33. 33. Page 33 of 604emissions from glycol dehydration process vents, storagevessels and natural gas processing plant equipment leaks.The Natural Gas Transmission and Storage NESHAP (40 CFRpart 63, subpart HHH) contains standards for glycoldehydration process vents. In addition to these NESHAP for major sources, the EPAalso promulgated NESHAP for the Oil and Natural GasProduction area source category on January 3, 2007 (72 FR26). These area source standards, which are based ongenerally available control technology, are also containedin 40 CFR part 63, subpart HH. This proposed action doesnot impact these area source standards.C. What litigation is related to this proposed action? On January 14, 2009, pursuant to section 304(a)(2) ofthe CAA, WildEarth Guardians and the San Juan CitizensAlliance filed a Complaint alleging that the EPA failed tomeet its obligations under CAA sections 111(b)(1)(B),112(d)(6) and 112(f)(2) to take actions relative to thereview/revision of the NSPS and the NESHAP with respect tothe Oil and Natural Gas Production source category. OnFebruary 4, 2010, the Court entered a consent decree This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  34. 34. Page 34 of 604requiring the EPA to sign by July 28, 2011,3 proposedstandards and/or determinations not to issue standardspursuant to CAA sections 111(b)(1)(B), 112(d)(6) and112(f)(2) and to take final action by February 28, 2012.D. What is a sector-based approach? Sector-based approaches are based on integratedassessments that consider multiple pollutants in acomprehensive and coordinated manner to manage emissionsand CAA requirements. One of the many ways we can addresssector-based approaches is by reviewing multiple regulatoryprograms together whenever possible, consistent with allapplicable legal requirements. This approach essentiallyexpands the technical analyses on costs and benefits ofparticular technologies, to consider the interactions ofrules that regulate sources. The benefit of multi-pollutantand sector-based analyses and approaches includes theability to identify optimum strategies, consideringfeasibility, cost impacts and benefits across the differentpollutant types while streamlining administrative andcompliance complexities and reducing conflicting and3 On April 27, 2011, pursuant to paragraph 10(a) of the ConsentDecree, the parties filed with the Court a written stipulationthat changes the proposal date from January 31, 2011, to July 28,2011, and the final action date from November 30, 2011, toFebruary 28, 2012. This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  35. 35. Page 35 of 604redundant requirements, resulting in added certainty andeasier implementation of control strategies for the sectorunder consideration. In order to benefit from a sector-based approach for the oil and gas industry, the EPAanalyzed how the NSPS and NESHAP under consideration relateto each other and other regulatory requirements currentlyunder review for oil and gas facilities. In this analysis,we looked at how the different control requirements thatresult from these requirements interact, including thedifferent regulatory deadlines and control equipmentrequirements that result, the different reporting andrecordkeeping requirements and opportunities for states toaccount for reductions resulting from this rulemaking intheir State Implementation Plans (SIP). The requirementsanalyzed affect criteria pollutant, HAP and methaneemissions from oil and natural gas processes and cover theNSPS and NESHAP reviews. As a result of the sector-basedapproach, this rulemaking will reduce conflicting andredundant requirements. Also, the sector-based approachfacilitated the streamlining of monitoring, recordkeepingand reporting requirements, thus, reducing administrativeand compliance complexities associated with complying withmultiple regulations. In addition, the sector-based This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  36. 36. Page 36 of 604approach promotes a comprehensive control strategy thatmaximizes the co-control of multiple regulated pollutantswhile obtaining emission reductions as co-benefits.IV. Oil and Natural Gas Sector The oil and natural gas sector includes operationsinvolved in the extraction and production of oil andnatural gas, as well as the processing, transmission anddistribution of natural gas. Specifically for oil, thesector includes all operations from the well to the pointof custody transfer at a petroleum refinery. For naturalgas, the sector includes all operations from the well tothe customer. The oil and natural gas operations cangenerally be separated into four segments: (1) Oil andnatural gas production, (2) natural gas processing, (3)natural gas transmission and (4) natural gas distribution.Each of these segments is briefly discussed below. Oil and natural gas production includes both onshoreand offshore operations. Production operations include thewells and all related processes used in the extraction,production, recovery, lifting, stabilization, separation ortreating of oil and/or natural gas (including condensate).Production components may include, but are not limited to,wells and related casing head, tubing head and “Christmas This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  37. 37. Page 37 of 604tree” piping, as well as pumps, compressors, heatertreaters, separators, storage vessels, pneumatic devicesand dehydrators. Production operations also include thewell drilling, completion and workover processes andincludes all the portable non-self-propelled apparatusassociated with those operations. Production sites includenot only the “pads” where the wells are located, but alsoinclude stand-alone sites where oil, condensate, producedwater and gas from several wells may be separated, storedand treated. The production sector also includes the lowpressure, small diameter, gathering pipelines and relatedcomponents that collect and transport the oil, gas andother materials and wastes from the wells to the refineriesor natural gas processing plants. None of the operationsupstream of the natural gas processing plant are covered bythe existing NSPS. Offshore oil and natural gas productionoccurs on platform structures that house equipment toextract oil and gas from the ocean or lake floor and thatprocess and/or transfer the oil and gas to storage,transport vessels or onshore. Offshore production can alsoinclude secondary platform structures connected to theplatform structure, storage tanks associated with the This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  38. 38. Page 38 of 604platform structure and floating production and offloadingequipment. There are three basic types of wells: Oil wells, gaswells and associated gas wells. Oil wells can have“associated” natural gas that is separated and processed orthe crude oil can be the only product processed. Once thecrude oil is separated from the water and other impurities,it is essentially ready to be transported to the refineryvia truck, railcar or pipeline. We consider the oilrefinery sector separately from the oil and natural gassector. Therefore, at the point of custody transfer at therefinery, the oil leaves the oil and natural gas sector andenters the petroleum refining sector. Natural gas is primarily made up of methane. However,whether natural gas is associated gas from oil wells ornon-associated gas from gas or condensate wells, itcommonly exists in mixtures with other hydrocarbons. Thesehydrocarbons are often referred to as natural gas liquids(NGL). They are sold separately and have a variety ofdifferent uses. The raw natural gas often contains watervapor, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2),helium, nitrogen and other compounds. Natural gasprocessing consists of separating certain hydrocarbons and This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  39. 39. Page 39 of 604fluids from the natural gas to produced “pipeline quality”dry natural gas. While some of the processing can beaccomplished in the production segment, the completeprocessing of natural gas takes place in the natural gasprocessing segment. Natural gas processing operationsseparate and recover NGL or other non-methane gases andliquids from a stream of produced natural gas throughcomponents performing one or more of the followingprocesses: Oil and condensate separation, water removal,separation of NGL, sulfur and CO2 removal, fractionation ofnatural gas liquid and other processes, such as the captureof CO2 separated from natural gas streams for deliveryoutside the facility. Natural gas processing plants are theonly operations covered by the existing NSPS. The pipeline quality natural gas leaves the processingsegment and enters the transmission segment. Pipelines inthe natural gas transmission segment can be interstatepipelines that carry natural gas across state boundaries orintrastate pipelines, which transport the gas within asingle state. While interstate pipelines may be of a largerdiameter and operated at a higher pressure, the basiccomponents are the same. To ensure that the natural gas This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  40. 40. Page 40 of 604flowing through any pipeline remains pressurized,compression of the gas is required periodically along thepipeline. This is accomplished by compressor stationsusually placed between 40 and 100 mile intervals along thepipeline. At a compressor station, the natural gas entersthe station, where it is compressed by reciprocating orcentrifugal compressors. In addition to the pipelines and compressor stations,the natural gas transmission segment includes undergroundstorage facilities. Underground natural gas storageincludes subsurface storage, which typically consists ofdepleted gas or oil reservoirs and salt dome caverns usedfor storing natural gas. One purpose of this storage is forload balancing (equalizing the receipt and delivery ofnatural gas). At an underground storage site, there aretypically other processes, including compression,dehydration and flow measurement. The distribution segment is the final step indelivering natural gas to customers. The natural gas entersthe distribution segment from delivery points located oninterstate and intrastate transmission pipelines tobusiness and household customers. The delivery point wherethe natural gas leaves the transmission segment and enters This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  41. 41. Page 41 of 604the distribution segment is often called the “citygate.”Typically, utilities take ownership of the gas at thecitygate. Natural gas distribution systems consist ofthousands of miles of piping, including mains and servicepipelines to the customers. Distribution systems sometimeshave compressor stations, although they are considerablysmaller than transmission compressor stations. Distributionsystems include metering stations, which allow distributioncompanies to monitor the natural gas in the system.Essentially, these metering stations measure the flow ofgas and allow distribution companies to track natural gasas it flows through the system. Emissions can occur from a variety of processes andpoints throughout the oil and natural gas sector.Primarily, these emissions are organic compounds such asmethane, ethane, VOC and organic HAP. The most commonorganic HAP are n-hexane and BTEX compounds (benzene,toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from production andprocessing operations that handle and treat “sour gas.”Sour gas is defined as natural gas with a maximum H2S This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  42. 42. Page 42 of 604content of 0.25 gr/100 scf (4ppmv) along with the presenceof CO2. In addition, there are significant emissionsassociated with the reciprocating internal combustionengines and combustion turbines that power compressorsthroughout the oil and natural gas sector. However,emissions from internal combustion engines and combustionturbines are covered by regulations specific to engines andturbines and, thus, are not addressed in this action.V. Summary of Proposed Decisions and Actions Pursuant to CAA sections 111(b), 112(d)(2), 112(d)(6)and 112(f), we are proposing to revise the NSPS and NESHAPrelative to oil and gas to include the standards andrequirements summarized in this section. More details ofthe rationale for these proposed standards and requirementsare provided in sections VI and VII of this preamble. Inaddition, as part of these rationale discussions, wesolicit public comment and data relevant to several issues.The comments we receive during the public comment periodwill help inform the rule development process as we worktoward promulgating a final action.A. What are the proposed revisions to the NSPS? We reviewed the two NSPS that apply to the oil and This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  43. 43. Page 43 of 604natural gas industry. Based on our review, we believe thatthe requirements at 40 CFR part 60, subpart KKK, should beupdated to reflect requirements in 40 CFR part 60, subpartVVa for controlling VOC equipment leaks at processingplants. We also believe that the requirements at 40 CFRpart 60, subpart LLL, for controlling SO2 emissions fromnatural gas processing plants should be strengthened forfacilities with the highest sulfur feed rates and thehighest H2S concentrations. For a more detailed discussion,please see section VI.B.1 of this preamble. In addition, there are significant VOC emissions fromoil and natural gas operations that are not covered by thetwo existing NSPS, including other emissions at processingplants and emissions from upstream production, as well astransmission and storage facilities. In the 1984 noticethat listed source categories (including Oil and NaturalGas) for promulgation of NSPS, we noted that there werediscrepancies between the source category names on the listand those in the background document, and we clarified ourintent to address all sources under an industry heading atthe same time. See 44 FR 49222, 49224-49225.4 We, therefore,4 The Notice further states that “The Administrator may alsoconcurrently develop standards for sources which are not on the This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  44. 44. Page 44 of 604believe that the currently listed Oil and Natural Gassource category covers all operations in this industry(i.e., production, processing, transmission, storage anddistribution). To the extent there are oil and gasoperations not covered by the currently listed Oil andNatural Gas source category, pursuant to CAA section111(b), we hereby modify the category list to include alloperations in the oil and natural gas sector. Section111(b) of the CAA gives the EPA broad authority anddiscretion to list and establish NSPS for a category that,in the Administrator’s judgment, causes or contributessignificantly to air pollution which may reasonably beanticipated to endanger public health or welfare. Pursuantto CAA section 111(b), we are modifying the source categorylist to include any oil and gas operation not covered bythe current listing and evaluating emissions from all oiland gas operations at the same time. We are also proposing standards for several new oiland natural gas affected facilities. The proposed standardswould apply to affected facilities that commenceconstruction, reconstruction or modification after [INSERTpriority list.” 44 FR at 49225. This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  45. 45. Page 45 of 604DATE OF PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. Thesestandards, which include requirements for VOC, would becontained in a new subpart, 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO.Subpart OOOO would incorporate 40 CFR part 60, subpart KKKand 40 CFR part 60, subpart LLL, thereby having in this onesubpart, all standards that are applicable to the new andmodified affected facilities described above. We alsopropose to amend the title of subparts KKK and LLL,accordingly, to apply only to affected facilities alreadysubject to those subparts. Those operations would notbecome subject to subpart OOOO unless they triggeredapplicability based on new or modified affected facilitiesunder subpart OOOO. We are proposing operational standards for completionsof hydraulically fractured gas wells. Based on our review,we identified two subcategories of fractured gas wells forwhich well completions are conducted. For non-exploratoryand non-delineation wells, the proposed operationalstandards would require reduced emission completion (REC),commonly referred to as “green completion,” in combinationwith pit-flaring of gas not suitable for entering thegathering line. For exploratory and delineation wells(these wells generally are not in close proximity to a This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  46. 46. Page 46 of 604gathering line), we proposed an operational standard thatwould require pit flaring. Well completions subject to thestandards would be limited to gas well completionsfollowing hydraulic fracturing operations. Thesecompletions include those conducted at newly drilled andfractured wells, as well as completions conducted followingrefracturing operations at various times over the life ofthe well. We have determined that a completion associatedwith refracturing performed at an existing well (i.e., awell existing prior to (INSERT DATE OF PUBLICATION IN THEFEDERAL REGISTER)) is considered a modification under CAAsection 111(a), because physical change occurs to theexisting well resulting in emissions increase during therefracturing and completion operation. A detaileddiscussion of this determination is presented in theTechnical Support Document (TSD) in the docket. Therefore,the proposed standards would apply to completions at newgas wells that are fractured or refractured along withcompletions associated with fracturing or refracturing ofexisting gas wells. The modification determination andresultant applicability of NSPS to the completion operationfollowing fracturing or refracturing of existing gas wells(i.e., wells existing before [INSERT DATE OF PUBLICATION IN This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  47. 47. Page 47 of 604THE FEDERAL REGISTER] would be limited strictly to thewellhead, well bore, casing and tubing, and any conveyancethrough which gas is vented to the atmosphere and not beextended beyond the wellhead to other ancillary componentsthat may be at the well site such as existing storagevessels, process vessels, separators, dehydrators or anyother components or apparatus. We are also proposing VOC standards to reduceemissions from gas-driven pneumatic devices. We areproposing that each pneumatic device is an affectedfacility. Accordingly, the proposed standards would applyto each newly installed pneumatic device (includingreplacement of an existing device). At gas processingplants, we are proposing a zero emission limit for eachindividual pneumatic controller. The proposed emissionstandards would reflect the emission level achievable fromthe use of non-gas-driven pneumatic controllers. At otherlocations, we are proposing a bleed limit of 6 standardcubic feet of gas per hour for an individual pneumaticcontroller, which would reflect the emission levelachievable from the use of low bleed gas-driven pneumaticcontrollers. In both cases, the standards provide This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  48. 48. Page 48 of 604exemptions for certain applications based on functionalconsiderations. In addition, the proposed rule would require measuresto reduce VOC emissions from centrifugal and reciprocatingcompressors. As explained in more detail below in sectionVI.B.4, we are proposing equipment standards forcentrifugal compressors. The proposed standards wouldrequire the use of dry seal systems. However, we are awarethat some owners and operators may need to use centrifugalcompressors with wet seals, and we are soliciting commenton the suitability of a compliance option allowing the useof wet seals combined with routing of emissions from theseal liquid through a closed vent system to a controldevice as an acceptable alternative to installing dryseals. Our review of reciprocating compressors found thatpiston rod packing wear produces fugitive emissions thatcannot be captured and conveyed to a control device. As aresult, we are proposing operational standards forreciprocating compressors, such that the proposed rulewould require replacement of the rod packing based on hoursof usage. The owner or operator of a reciprocatingcompressor affected facility would be required to monitor This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  49. 49. Page 49 of 604the duration (in hours) that the compressor is operated.When the hours of operation reaches 26,000 hours, the owneror operator would be required to change the rod packingimmediately. However, to avoid unscheduled shutdowns when26,000 hours is reached, owners and operators could trackhours of operation such that packing replacement could becoordinated with planned maintenance shutdowns before hoursof operation reached 26,000. Some operators may prefer toreplace the rod packing on a fixed schedule to ensure thatthe hours of operation would not reach 26,000 hours. Wesolicit comment on the appropriateness of a fixedreplacement frequency and other considerations that wouldbe associated with regular replacement. We are also proposing VOC standards for new ormodified storage vessels. The proposed rule, which wouldapply to individual vessels, would require that vesselsmeeting certain specifications achieve at least 95-percentreduction in VOC emissions. Requirements would apply tovessels with a throughput of 1 barrel of condensate per dayor 20 barrels of crude oil per day. These thresholds areequivalent to VOC emissions of about 6 tpy. For gas processing plants, we are updating therequirements for leak detection and repair (LDAR) to This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  50. 50. Page 50 of 604reflect procedures and leak thresholds established by 40CFR 60, subpart VVa. The existing NSPS requires 40 CFR part60, subpart VV procedures and thresholds. For 40 CFR part 60, subpart LLL, which regulates SO2emissions from natural gas processing plants, we determinedthat affected facilities with sulfur feed rate of at least5 long tons per day or H2S concentration in the acid gasstream of at least 50 percent can achieve up to 99.9-percent SO2 control, which is greater than the existingstandard. Therefore, we are proposing revision to theperformance standards in subpart LLL as a result of thisreview. For a more detailed discussion of this proposeddetermination, please see section VI.B.1 of this preamble. We are proposing to address compliance requirementsfor periods of startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) for40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO. The SSM changes are discussedin detail in section VI.B.5 below. In addition, we areproposing to incorporate the requirements in 40 CFR part60, subpart KKK and 40 CFR part 60, subpart LLL into thenew subpart OOOO so that all requirements applicable to thenew and modified facilities would be in one subpart. Thiswould simplify and streamline compliance efforts on the This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  51. 51. Page 51 of 604part of the oil and natural gas industry and could minimizeduplication of notification, recordkeeping and reporting.B. What are the proposed decisions and actions related tothe NESHAP? This section summarizes the results of our RTR for theOil and Natural Gas Production and the Natural GasTransmission and Storage source categories and our proposeddecisions concerning these two 1999 NESHAP.1. Addressing Unregulated Emissions Sources Pursuant to CAA sections 112(d)(2) and (3), we areproposing MACT standards for subcategories of glycoldehydrators for which standards were not previouslydeveloped (hereinafter referred to as the “smalldehydrators”). In the Oil and Natural Gas Production sourcecategory, the subcategory consists of glycol dehydratorswith an actual annual average natural gas flowrate lessthan 85,000 standard cubic meters per day (scmd) or actualaverage benzene emissions less than 0.9 megagrams per year(Mg/yr). In the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage sourcecategory, the subcategory consists of glycol dehydratorswith an actual annual average natural gas flowrate lessthan 283,000 scmd or actual average benzene emissions lessthan 0.9 Mg/yr. This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  52. 52. Page 52 of 604 The proposed MACT standards for the subcategory ofsmall dehydrators at oil and gas production facilitieswould require that existing affected sources meet a unit-specific BTEX limit of 1.10x10-4 grams BTEX/standard cubicmeters (scm)-parts per million by volume (ppmv) and thatnew affected sources meet a BTEX limit of 4.66 x10-6 gramsBTEX/scm-ppmv. At natural gas transmission and storageaffected sources, the proposed MACT standard for thesubcategory of small dehydrators would require thatexisting affected sources meet a unit-specific BTEXemission limit of 6.42x10-5 grams BTEX/scm-ppmv and that newaffected sources meet a BTEX limit of 1.10 x10-5 gramsBTEX/scm-ppmv. We are also proposing MACT standards for storagevessels that are currently not regulated under the Oil andNatural Gas Production NESHAP. The current MACT standardsapply only to storage vessels with the potential for flashemissions (PFE). As explained in section VII, the originalMACT analysis accounted for all storage vessels. We are,therefore, proposing to apply the current MACT standards of95-percent emission reduction to every storage vessel atmajor source oil and natural gas production facilities. Inconjunction with this change, we are proposing to amend the This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  53. 53. Page 53 of 604definition of associated equipment to exclude all storagevessels, and not just those with the PFE, from beingconsidered “associated equipment.” This means thatemissions from all storage vessels, and not just those fromstorage vessels with the PFE, are to be included in themajor source determination.2. What are the proposed decisions and actions related tothe risk review? For both the Oil and Natural Gas Production and theNatural Gas Transmission and Storage source categories, wefind that the current levels of emissions allowed by theMACT reflect acceptable levels of risk; however, the levelof emissions allowed by the alternative compliance optionfor glycol dehydrator MACT (i.e., the option of reducingbenzene emissions to less than 0.9 Mg/yr in lieu of theMACT standard of 95-percent control) reflects anunacceptable level of risk. We are, therefore, proposing toeliminate the 0.9 Mg/yr alternative compliance option. In addition, we are proposing that the MACT for thesetwo oil and gas source categories, as revised per above,provide an ample margin of safety to protect public healthand prevent adverse environmental effects.3. What are the proposed decisions and actions related to This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  54. 54. Page 54 of 604the technology reviews of the existing NESHAP? For both the Oil and Natural Gas Production and theNatural Gas Transmission and Storage source categories, weare proposing no revisions to the existing NESHAP pursuantto section 112(d)(6) of the CAA.4. What other actions are we proposing? We are proposing an alternative performance test fornon-flare, combustion control devices. This test is to beconducted by the combustion control device manufacturer todemonstrate the destruction efficiency achieved by aspecific model of combustion control device. This wouldallow a source to purchase a performance tested device forinstallation at their site without being required toconduct a site-specific performance test. A definition for“flare” is being proposed in the NESHAP to clarify whichcombustion control devices fall under the manufacturers’performance testing alternative, and to clarify whichdevices must be performance tested. We are also proposing to: Revise the parametricmonitoring calibration provisions; require periodicperformance testing where applicable; remove the allowanceof a design analysis for all control devices other thancondensers; remove the requirement for a minimum residence This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  55. 55. Page 55 of 604time for an enclosed combustion device; and addrecordkeeping and reporting requirements to document carbonreplacement intervals. These changes are being proposed tobring the NESHAP up-to-date based on what we have learnedregarding control devices and compliance since the originalpromulgation date.  In addition, we are proposing the elimination of theSSM exemption in the Oil and Natural Gas Production and theNatural Gas Transmission and Storage NESHAP. As discussedin more detail below in section VII, consistent with SierraClub v. EPA, 551 F.3d 1019 (D.C. Cir. 2010), the EPA isproposing that the established standards in these twoNESHAP apply at all times. We are proposing to revise Table2 to both 40 CFR part 63, subpart HH and 40 CFR part 63,subpart HHH to indicate that certain 40 CFR part 63 generalprovisions relative to SSM do not apply, including: 40 CFR63.6 (e)(1)(i)5 and (ii), 40 CFR 63.6(e)(3) (SSM planrequirement), 40 CFR 63.6(f)(1); 40 CFR 63.7(e)(1), 40 CFR63.8(c)(1)(i) and (iii), and the last sentence of 40 CFR5 40 CFR 63.6(e)(1)(i) requires owners or operators to actaccording to the general duty to “operate and maintain anyaffected source, including associated air pollution controlequipment and monitoring equipment, in a manner consistent withsafety and good air pollution control practices for minimizingemissions.” This general duty to minimize is included in ourproposed standard at 40 CFR 63.783(b)(1). This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  56. 56. Page 56 of 60463.8(d)(3); 40 CFR 63.10(b)(2)(i),(ii), (iv) and (v); 40CFR 63.10(c)(10), (11) and (15); and 40 CFR 63.10(d)(5). Weare also proposing to: (1) Revise 40 CFR 63.771(d)(4)(i)and 40 CFR 63.1281(d)(4)(i) regarding operation of thecontrol device to be consistent with the SSM compliancerequirements; and (2) revise the SSM-associated reportingand recordkeeping requirements in 40 CFR 63.774, 40 CFR63.775, 40 CFR 63.1284 and 40 CFR 63.1285 to requirereporting and recordkeeping for periods of malfunction. Inaddition, as explained below, we are proposing to add anaffirmative defense to civil penalties for exceedances ofemission limits caused by malfunctions, as well as criteriafor establishing the affirmative defense. The EPA has attempted to ensure that we have neitheroverlooked nor failed to propose to remove from theexisting text any provisions that are inappropriate,unnecessary or redundant in the absence of the SSMexemption, nor included any such provisions in the proposednew regulatory language. We are specifically seekingcomment on whether there are any such provisions that wehave inadvertently overlooked or incorporated. We are also revising the applicability provisions of40 CFR part 63, subpart HH to clarify requirements This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  57. 57. Page 57 of 604regarding PTE determination and the scope of a facilitysubject to subpart HH. Lastly, we are proposing severaleditorial corrections and plain language revisions toimprove these rules.C. What are the proposed notification, recordkeeping andreporting requirements for this proposed action?1. What are the proposed notification, recordkeeping andreporting requirements for the proposed NSPS? The proposed 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO includes newrequirements for several operations for which there are noexisting Federal standards. Most notably, as discussed insections V.A and VI.B of this preamble, the proposed NSPSwill cover completions and recompletions of hydraulicallyfractured gas wells. We estimate that over 20,000completions and recompletions annually will be subject tothe proposed requirements. Given the number of theseoperations, we believe that notification and reporting mustbe streamlined to the extent possible to minimize undueburden on owners and operators, as well as state, local andtribal agencies. In section V.D of this preamble, wediscuss some innovative implementation approaches beingconsidered and seek comment on these and other potential This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  58. 58. Page 58 of 604methods of streamlining notification and reporting for wellcompletions covered by the proposed rule. Owners or operators are required to submit initialnotifications and annual reports, and to retain records toassist in documenting that they are complying with theprovisions of the NSPS. These notification, recordkeepingand reporting activities include both requirements of the40 CFR part 60 General Provisions, as well as requirementsspecific to 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO. Owners or operators of affected facilities (except forpneumatic controller and gas wellhead affected sources)must submit an initial notification within 1 year afterbecoming subject to 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO or by 1year after the publication of the final rule in the FederalRegister, whichever is later. For pneumatic controllers,owners and operators are not required to submit an initialnotification, but instead are required to report theinstallation of these affected facilities in theirfacility’s annual report. Owners or operators of wellheadaffected facilities (well completions) would also berequired to submit a 30-day advance notification of eachwell completion subject to the NSPS. In addition, annualreports are due 1 year after initial startup date for your This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  59. 59. Page 59 of 604affected facility or 1 year after the date of publicationof the final rule in the Federal Register, whichever islater. The notification and annual reports must includeinformation on all affected facilities owned or operatedthat were new, modified or reconstructed sources during thereporting period. A single report may be submitted coveringmultiple affected facilities, provided that the reportcontains all the information required by 40 CFR 60.5420(b).This information includes general information on thefacility (i.e., company name and address, etc.), as well asinformation specific to individual affected facilities. For wellhead affected facilities, this informationincludes details of each well completion during the period,including duration of periods of gas recovery, flaring andventing. For centrifugal compressor affected facilities,information includes documentation that the compressor isfitted with dry seals. For reciprocating compressors,information includes the cumulative hours of operation ofeach compressor and records of rod packing replacement. Information for pneumatic device affected facilitiesincludes location and manufacturer specifications of eachpneumatic controller installed during the period anddocumentation that supports any exemption claimed allowing This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  60. 60. Page 60 of 604use of high bleed controllers. For controllers installed atgas processing plants, the owner or operator would documentthe use of non-gas driven devices. For controllersinstalled in locations other than at gas processing plants,owners or operators would provide manufacturer’sspecifications that document bleed rate not exceeding 6cubic feet per hour. For storage vessel affected facilities, requiredreport information includes information that documentscontrol device compliance, if applicable. For vessels withthroughputs below 1 barrel of condensate per day and 21barrels of crude oil per day, required information alsoincludes calculations or other documentation of thethroughput. For onshore gas processing plants, semi-annualreports are required, and include information on number ofpressure relief devices, number of pressure relief devicesfor which leaks were detected and pressure relief devicesfor which leaks were not repaired, as required in 40 CFR60.5396 of subpart OOOO. Records must be retained for 5 years and generallyconsist of the same information required in the initialnotification and annual and semiannual reports.2. What are the proposed amendments to notification, This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.
  61. 61. Page 61 of 604recordkeeping and reporting requirements for the NESHAP? We are proposing to revise certain recordkeepingrequirements of 40 CFR part 63, subpart HH and 40 CFR part63, subpart HHH. Specifically, we are proposing thatfacilities using carbon adsorbers as a control device keeprecords of their carbon replacement schedule and recordsfor each carbon replacement. In addition, owners andoperators are required to keep records of the occurrenceand duration of each malfunction or operation of the airpollution control equipment and monitoring equipment. In addition, in conjunction with the proposed MACTstandards for small glycol dehydration units and storagevessels that do not have the PFE in the proposed amendmentto 40 CFR part 63, subpart HH, we are proposing that ownersand operators of affected small glycol dehydration unitsand storage vessels submit an initial notification within 1year after becoming subject to subpart HH or by 1 yearafter the publication of the final rule in the FederalRegister, whichever is later. Similarly, in conjunction with the proposed MACTstandards for small glycol dehydration units in theproposed 40 CFR part 63, subpart HHH amendments, we areproposing that owners and operators of small glycol This document is a prepublication version, signed by EPA Administrator, Lisa P. Jackson on 07/28/2011. We have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this version, but it is not the official version.

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