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  1. 1. Leadership maryam hassanzadeh 1092300135
  2. 2. Leadership  As a process, the use of non coercive influence to shape the group or organisation’s goal, motivate behavior towards the achievement of those goals and help define the culture  As a property, the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be non coercive leaders
  3. 3. Power and Leadership Legitimate power  Power granted through the organisational hierarchy; it is the power or authority, defined by the organisation that is to be accorded people occupying particular position
  4. 4. Power and Leadership Reward power  The power to give or withhold rewards, such as bonuses, promotions, praise, recognition and interesting job assignments
  5. 5. Power and Leadership Coercive power  The power to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional or physical threat
  6. 6. Power and Leadership Referent power  The personal power that accrues to someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty or charisma
  7. 7. Power and Leadership Expert power  The personal power that accrues to someone based on his or her information or expertise
  8. 8. Leadership Styles I want both of you to. . .  Leaders tell their followers what they want done.  How they want it accomplished.  Without getting advice of their followers. When to use it?  When you have all the information to solve the problem.  You are short on time.  Your followers are well motivated. Authoritarian (autocratic)
  9. 9. Leadership Styles Let's work together to solve this. . .  This style involves the leader including one or more followers in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it).  Leader maintains the final decision making authority. When to use it?  When you have part of the information, and your followers have other parts. Participative (democratic)
  10. 10. Leadership Styles You two take care of the problem while I go. . .  The leader allows the followers to make the decisions.  The leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made.  Also known as “lais sez faire”-noninterference in the affairs of others. (let it be- French) When to use it?  This is used when followers are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. Delegative (free reign)
  11. 11. 8 Leadership Characteristics  Interpersonal Skills  Communication Skills  Values  Organizational Consciousness  Confidence  Flexibility  Creativity Skills  Achieving Results
  12. 12. Leadership Characteristics #1  Interpersonal Skills  Leaders that have earned the trust and respect of their followers can use this trust to move the organization towards the achievements of its goal.  Use their interpersonal skills to work through difficult relationships and keep the peace in their departments.  Good at listening and providing constructive feedback
  13. 13. Leadership Characteristics #2  Communication Skills  Good speakers and listeners.  They can help keep the workforce motivated and committed.  They also listen to their followers and ask questions when they want to make sure they have a good understanding of what is being expressed.
  14. 14. Leadership Characteristics #3  Values  Leaders must also value the diversity of a workforce. (diverse group of employees will bring a larger perspective to the organization)  They need to treat followers with the respect they deserve and do not display favoritism.  They operate with a high level of ethics that sets an example for others to follow.
  15. 15. Leadership Characteristics #4  Organizational Consciousness  Really understand what the organization wants to achieve.  know how it can be accomplished.  They create networks within the organization to help their groups get things done and are just as adept at breaking down organizational barriers to progress
  16. 16. Leadership Characteristics #5  Confidence  not afraid to take ownership for both popular and unpopular decisions.  Able to learn from criticisms.  Maintain a calm manner even during emergencies.
  17. 17. Leadership Characteristics #6  Flexibility  Ability to remain flexible (adapt their leadership style to meet the demands of the current work environment).  Able to work with others to meet organizational goals and shift focus as necessary.
  18. 18. Leadership Characteristics #7  Creativity Skills  Able to develop innovative solutions to all problems.  The diversity they build in their organizations helps them to develop more comprehensive answers to routine questions.  Creative leaders are able to translate technical information into solutions that are understood by everyone.
  19. 19. Leadership Characteristics #8  Achieving Results  Leaders just don't set the example for others to follow; they also play a big role in achieving the goals of the organization.  Able to help keep their workforce motivated even when faced with a seemingly impossible situation.
  20. 20. Perspectives of Leadership  Substitutes for leadership  Charismatic leadership  Transformational leadership
  21. 21. Political behaviour in organisations  Common political behaviour  inducement  persuasion  creation of an obligation  coercion
  22. 22. Reflections on leadership  Breakthrough leadership  The leader as a hero  When heroic leadership becomes narcissistic leadership  The organisational leader as an androgynous facilitator  Leadership and organisational advantage
  23. 23. Knowledge Leadership  Leaders serve as role models for learning and knowledge sharing  They must constantly hold the integrity of beliefs and values around knowledge. According to Robert Buckman of Buckman Labarotories, one of the core values in knowledge leadership is trust
  24. 24. Aspects of Leadership for Knowledge Leaders  Mapping knowledge and information resources  Serving as knowledge “champions” to develop strategies and obtain funding  Training and guiding users in tools, techniques and technology  Building knowledge networks or knowledge infrastructures  Monitoring outside news and information
  25. 25. Leading the Learning Organization  Leaders as designers, stewards and teachers  To build an organization where people can expand their capabilities to:  Understand complexity  Clarify vision  Improve shared mental models
  26. 26. Leader as Designer  Key areas of an organization – policies, strategies and ‘systems’  Essentially designing the learning process of an organization
  27. 27. Leader as Steward  Stewards of vision  Committed and responsible for the vision of an organization  To manage it for the benefit of others  To listen to others – story telling
  28. 28. Leader as Teacher  To define reality  Conceptualize insights  Open to challenges and further improvements