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Learning by feeling


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Learning by feeling

  1. 1. LEARNING BY FEELING: HOW AFFECTIVE FACTORS CAN CONDITION THE L2/LE LEARNING PROCESS THE 35TH SECOND LANGUAGE RESEARCH FORUM (SLRF 2016) NEW YORK, 22-25, SEPTEMBER, 2016 María del Carmen Méndez Santos Aichi Prefectural University (Japan) @mariaparrula
  2. 2. Index •Introduction to neuroeducation •Neurodidactical basics •A new approach: learning by feeling •Some guidelines of practical use •Preliminary results •Conclusions and limitations of the study •Future aims
  3. 3. WHAT IS “NEUROEDUCATION”? · Also known as NEURODIDACTICS (Sabitzer, 2011) · Or Mind, Brain and Education (MBE) (Tokuhama & Espinosa, 2011) · Transdisciplinary field · Neuroscience + Didactics + Psychology “As this term implies, neurodidactics concentrates on integrating findings of neuroscience and brain research in didactics. It tries to work out principles and proposals for effective teaching and learning, called brain-based learning” (Sabitzer, 2011: 167)
  4. 4. CAN WE USE THE NEUROEDUCATION TO CHANGE THE WAY WE TEACH? • There are numerous books to divulge the technical knowledge • General purposes NOT for SL/FL
  5. 5. CAN WE USE THE NEUROEDUCATION TO CHANGE OUR WAY TO TEACH? • NLA: Neurolinguistic Approach (NLA) to second/foreign language by Netten & Germain, 2012 • School System • FSL: French as a second language • Canada • It is a new pedagogical approach in the context of influence of neuroscience on education
  6. 6. NEURODIDACTICAL BASICS • The learning process is very complex (Ortiz, 2009:37) • Learning is change, because it is change in the brain (Jensen, 2010:29) • The brain records data by neuronal connections, or pathways, therefore, more synaptic activity is an indication of learning (Jensen, 2010:30-31) • The brain connects new information to old (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2011:34) • The brain is changed by experience (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2011:32) • We can create conditions to lead the change in a learner’s brain (Zull, 2002:5) • The same concept should be taught in several different ways, depending on the type of information and why different methods of teaching for different types of information produce storage in different memory neural pathways (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2011:162)
  7. 7. NEURODIDACTICAL BASICS • Cognition and emotion are inseparable: there is no rationality without emotion (Mora, 2013: 42) • The challenge of education is to trigger emotions that predispose the learning (Bisquerra, 2013: 6) • While the brain searches for patterns, it is alerted by novelty (Tokuhama & Espinosa, 2011:212) (Sousa, 2011:29) • Feedback and meaningful assessment is important to human learning (Tokuhama & Espinosa, 2011:79) • Emotional memory, shown to be more permanent and influential than other types of memory (Tokuhama & Espinosa, 2011:148) • There is no learning without attention (Mora, 2013: 81) • Learning environment is one of the most important determinants of high quality teaching-learning experiences exchanges (Tokuhama & Espinosa, 2011:219) • Active learning is more pleasurable than passive one and this one needs more effort (Zull, 2002:62)
  8. 8. LEARNING BY FEELING New approach to teaching second and foreign languages considering what we know about cognition and emotion that focuses on the affective factors involved in the learning process, in order to: a) achieve the best conditions possible, b) enhance better and longer results, and c) trigger a positive experience of the instructed second language learning.
  9. 9. Why focus on feelings? • Inhibition (Arnold, 1999: 27) • Anxiety (Oxford, 1999: 79, DeWaele, 2014) • Low self-esteem (De Andres, 1999: 106) • Tolerance to ambiguity (Ehrman, 1999: 93) • Stress (Jensen, 2010: 80) • Motivation (Dörnyei & Ryan, 2015: 84) • Control (Zull, 2015: 52) WHAT WE KNOW: How students feel about a subject influences how they learn (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2011:145) • Optimism (Goleman, 2014: 107) • Happiness (Goleman, 2014: 125) • Capability (Ibarrola, 2013: 76-77) • Sense of achievement (Ibarrola, 2013: 77) • Curiosity (Williams & Burden, 1999: 134)
  10. 10. HOW TO IMPLEMENT LEARNING BY FEELING? ATTENTION NEEDS TO BE PAID TO ALL PREVIOUS IDEAS, BUT ALSO TO... · Individual differences (learning styles, multiples intelligences, …) · Group dynamics · Activities · Didactics · Timing · Attention · Memory
  11. 11. Does it work? A PRELIMINARY STUDY
  12. 12. THESE RESULTS ARE PRELIMINARY • PRE-EXPERIMENTAL • A POSTERIORI • Only some objectives were tested • ATTEMPT AT UNDERSTANDING THE RECEPTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF THE STUDY BY STUDENTS • IT NEEDS TO BE replicated by A INTERDISCIPLINARY GROUP OF RESEARCH • University students, multilingual classes and multicultural, all levels, immersion
  13. 13. SURVEY • 100 STUDENTS • ON LINE: SURVEY MONKEY • 30/1/2016 – 1/2/2016 • 8 QUESTIONS: • 4 personal information: gender, age, how long we studied together, how long ago did we study Spanish together? • 4 questions about the learning experience
  14. 14. SURVEY · Gender: 38 men / 61 women · Age: - 25 years old: 52 informants between 26 y 31 yo: 38 informants More than 32 yo: 10 informants · How long ago did we study together: - 6 months: 23 between 7 months and one year: 10 more than one year: 65 persons · How long we studied together: 1 month or less: 13 between 1 and 4 months: 61 more than 5 months: 26
  15. 15. QUESTION Nº5: DESCRIBE YOUR CLASSROOM EXPERIENCES IN ONE WORD agradable (1), alegre (1), amazing (3), amigos (1), aventura (1), beneficioso (1), cautivador (1), cautivante (1), completo (1), conocimiento (1), dinámico (1), divertido (7), divino (1), entretenido (4), entusiasmante (1), especial (1), espléndido (1), estupendo (3), excelente (3), exitoso (2), fantástico (7), felicidad (1), fenomenal (2), friendly (1), fun (2), funmotivational (1), genial (9), good (1), ilusionado (1), increíble (5), informativo (1), inolvidable (2), inspiración (1), interactivo (2), magnífico (2), maravilloso (5), moderno (1), motivación (1), motivador (1), multinacional (1), perfecto (6), placer (1), pleasant (1), refrescante (1), significante (1), super (1), útil (3)
  16. 16. • What do they remember from our classes? • Why do they think that they remember those things and not others? • Have they realized in some way the didactical strategy that I was implementing? QUESTION 6: WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER most FROM THESE CLASSES? WHY DO YOU REMEMBER THOSE THINGS, AND NOT OTHERS?
  17. 17. THE POINT OF THIS QUESTION • What kind of activities had a better reception? • Was it the multisensorial ones, or the games, or those designed to boost their ego and self-esteem, or to promote good relations between the group? QUESTION 7: DO YOU PARTICULARLY REMEMBER ANY CLASSROOM ACTIVITY? WHY?
  18. 18. • La lección del cuerpo humano (post-its) • Role play • Presentaciones • Historia • Versión española del Cluedo • Visitas y excursiones • Explicación de las esdrújulas • Nubes de palabras • Mapas mentales • Dulces • Deseos en papelitos • Quién se llevará un millón • Trabajar en grupos, trabajo cooperativo • Competición de los imperativos • Juegos • Clase sobre miss y superlativo • Ser y estar • Vídeos • Canciones • Cocinar – imperativo • Verbo gustar • La pareja perfecta • Actividad de anuncios • Tarjetas de navidad • Muchas actividades de hablar
  19. 19. THE POINT OF THIS QUESTION • Did they feel the result of this approach to teaching? • Do they feel that the learning process was successful? QUESTION 8: DO YOU CONSIDER YOU LEARNED DURING THE LESSONS?
  20. 20. • Mucho, muchísimo, un montón: 30 informants • Seguro: 5 informants • Sí, sí claro, claro que sí: 27 informants • Por supuesto: 6 informants • OTHERS: obviamente; definitivamente; fue un placer; aprendí un idioma en menos de 9 meses; no solo el idioma, sino también la cultura; especialmente el subjuntivo…
  21. 21. WHAT CAN WE CONCLUDE AT THIS POINT? • The explicit and implicit work, following the basics of what we know of cognition and emotion and what neuroeducation has taught us, implemented as a new approach to teach has positive results on: • The feelings about the experience of learning a 2L/FL • The feelings about the proficiency that they got • The degree of retrieval of the learning experience
  22. 22. WHAT WE INTUIT THAT NEEDS TO BE STUDIED IN SUBSEQUENT STUDIES? • DO the explicit and implicit work, following the basics of what we know of cognition and emotion and what neuroeducation has taught us, implemented as a new approach to teaching have positive results on?: • On the real proficiency degree that the students get • On the speed of the learning • On the fluency of the output • Are these outcomes result of this new approach or are there other factors involved in the learning process?
  23. 23. AIMS • Create a trandisciplinary research group (neurologists, educators, and psychologists) • Focus on MBE to 2L/FL • Extract and systematize successful classroom experiences, practice teaching elements, and curriculum lesson planning • Reconfirm their success with other studies and delineate the theory of Learning by feeling • Compilate practical recommendations and guidelines to use it • Train teachers to implement it • Develop educational materials according to this approach • Publish it on line/open access journals to make it available for teachers everywhere • Design syllabus templates with guidelines for the best possible
  24. 24. References • Arnold, Jane y Brown, Douglas (2000), “Mapa del terreno” en Arnold, Jane (coord.): La dimensión afectiva en el aprendizaje de idiomas, Madrid: Cambridge, págs. 19-41. • Bamford, Anne (2012), “Eslabones de una cadena: aspectos que influyen en la enseñanza creativa” en Clouder, Christopher (dir.): ¡Buenos días, creatividad! Informe Fundación Botín. Hacia una educación que despierte la capacidad de crear. Fundación Botín. • De Andrés, Verónica (2000), “La autoestima en el aula o la metamorfosis de las mariposas” en Arnold, Jane (coord.): La dimensión afectiva en el aprendizaje de idiomas, Madrid: Cambridge, pp. 105-126. • Dörnyei, Zoltán (2008), Estrategias de motivación en el aula de lenguas, Barcelona: UOC. • Dörnyei, Zoltán y Malderez, Angi (2000), “El papel de la dinámica de grupos en el aprendizaje y la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras” en Arnold, Jane (coord.): La dimensión afectiva en el aprendizaje de idiomas, Madrid: Cambridge, pp. 173-196. • Dörnyei, Zoltán y Ryan, Stephen (2015), The psychology of the language learner revisited, Nueva York: Routledge. • Ehrman, Madeline (2000), “Los límites del ego y la tolerancia a la ambigüedad en el aprendizaje de segundas lenguas” en Arnold, Jane (coord.): La dimensión afectiva en el aprendizaje de idiomas, Madrid: Cambridge, pp. 87-104. • Gardner, Howard (1995), Inteligencias múltiples. La teoría en la práctica, Barcelona: Paidos. • Goleman, Daniel (2014), Liderazgo. El poder de la inteligencia emocional, Barcelona: De Bolsillo. • Ibarrola, Begoña (2013), Aprendizaje emocionante, Madrid: SM.
  25. 25. References • Jensen, Eric (2010), Cerebro y aprendizaje, Madrid: Narcea. • Marina, José Antonio (2011), “Memoria y aprendizaje”, Pediatra Integral. XV (10), pp. 978-980. • Méndez Santos, María del Carmen (2016), “Gerora gogoratuko diren jardueren diseinu eraginkorra AH eskolan: zergatik, nola eta zertarako”, E-Hizpide, nº 89, (en prensa). • Mora, Francisco (2013), Neuroeducación. Solo se puede aprender aquello que se ama, Madrid: Alianza editorial. • Netten, Joan y Germain, Claude (2012), “A new paradigm for the learning of a second or foreign language: the neurolinguistic approach”, Neuroeducation, nº1, pp. 85-114. • Ortiz, Tomás (2009), Neurociencia y educación, Madrid: Alianza editorial. • Oxford, Rebecca (2000), “La ansiedad y el alumno de idiomas: nuevas ideas” en Arnold, Jane (coord.): La dimensión afectiva en el aprendizaje de idiomas, Madrid: Cambridge, pp. 77-86. • Rogers, Carl (1969), Freedom to learn: a view of What Education Might Become, Ohio: Charles F. Merrill. • Sabitzer, Barbara (2011), “Neurodidactics: Brain-based Ideas for ICT and Computer Science Education”, The International Journal of Learning, vol.18, nº2, pp. 167-177. • Sousa, David (2011), How the brain learns?, California: Corwin • Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey (2010), Mind, Brain and Education Science, NY: Norton. • Williams, Marion y Burden, Robert (1999), Psicología para profesores de idiomas, Madrid: Edinumen. • Zull, James (2002), The art of Changing the Brain, Enriching the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of Learning, Virginia: Stylus.