Background The dominant language of education,religion,and goverment in the fourteenth andfifteenth centuriesIn the eighteenth century modernlanguages enter the curriculum of EuropeansschoolsIn the nineteenth century the approach ofGrammar Transation Method (GTM)appeared
Underlying PrinciplesGMT first devised and developed for used inthe secondary schools.Classes are taught in the students ‘ mothertongue , with little active use of the targetlanguage.
The principles of GTM by Richards andRodgersThe goal of foreign language is to learn languageVocabulary and grammar are emphasized.Vocabulary selection baased on the texts usedThe sentence is the basic unit of teaching ndlanguage practice.Accuracy is emphasizedGrammar is taught deductivelyThe students’ native language is the medium ofinstruction
Characteristics of GTM by Prator and Celce Murcia classes are taught in the mother tongueFocus on explanations of grammaticalparsingReading of difficult classical textsMuch vocabulary is taughtA typical exxercise to translate sentencesLittle attention on prununciation andcontent of the texts
Classroom TechniquesThe roles of the teacher and the studentsTranslation of a Literary passage as the mainclassroom activityReading Comprehension ActivityVocabulary ActivityGrammar Activity
ClosingoGTM dominated European and foreignlanguage teaching from 1840s to 1940s.oIn the mid-nineteenth century, severalreactions agains GTM developed in Europeancountries.oThe reform movement laid the foundation fordevelopment of new ways of teachinglanguages.