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1. PRE-CAST (PRESENTATION)
2. BILL OF QUANTITIES (PRESENTATION)
3. PRE-CAST PREFAB (SHEET)
4. INTELLIGENT BUILDING (PRESENTATION)
5. INTELLIGENT BUILDING (SHEET)
6. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION_KITCHEN (SHEET)
7. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION_WASHROOM (SHEET)
CIDCO MASS HOUSING
INTRODUCTION TO PRE-FABRICATON
Pre-Fabrication system, involves processing and assembling of
structural components such as beam, columns and slab in a
factory or other manufacturing site and transported on site.
The system consists of using precast
structural components such as
• Dense concrete,
• hollow core columns,
• Dense concrete partially precast beams,
• lintels, staircase, etc.
to achieve strength, safety and speed.
INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT
• To overcome the problem of migration
From rural area to urban area ,
Mass housing has been introduced especially
For EWS and LIG groups.
• The basic concept of mass housing
is speedy construction which is a major
advantage of precast technology and
cost is reduced.
• The method finds application particularly
where the structure is composed of
repeating units or forms, or where
typically same basic structure are
PRODUCTION OF PRE-CAST MATERIAL
1. QUALITY OF MATERIAL:
As soon the pre-production materials such as crushed sand,
cement, coarse aggregate reaches the factory, these materials
are monitored and measured as per the specification of
After this proper testing of material is required .
Following are the quality
• Moisture Correction
• Workability Testing
• Cube Testing
• Aggregate Testing
• Silt Content Test
• Water Test
• Temperature Testing
• Slump Cone Test
• Fly Ash Testing
• Cement Testing
2.CASTING OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS:
a) Precast Beams.
As per the requirement of the building the various types of
beam such as chajja beam, roof beam, floor beam, plinth
beam, are manufactured.
• The construction of the beams initiate by arranging
the reinforcements as per the designs.
• After this the coveris attached to the reinforcements and
then placed in to the certified moulds.
• The mould is oiled from inside before the placement of the
• After placing the reinforcement the concrete is poured in the
mould. The slump of the concrete is 70mm.
• To eliminate the voids which are present in the concrete,
compaction is done by vibration either manually or
• The period of 15 hours is provided so that the concrete
gains it’s required strength,
CURING : 15 Days curing is done and then dispatched for erection purpose on site .
The columns are manufactured in the factory as per the
requirements includes single core and multi-core columns.
• The construction of the columns initiated by arranging the
reinforcements as per the design.
• Before placing the reinforcement the pallet should be oiled
properly. These columns reinforcement is placed on the
pallet along with the plates at the end to provide opening for
• After this, the pallet is moved forward with the help of
lorry. The core is then inserted hydraulically. This is
followed by pouring of concrete in the pallet with the help
of bucket. The capacity of bucket is 1.5 cubic meters.
• The concrete in bucket is poured from the adjacent batching
• After pouring, uniform spreading of concrete is done
• For removing the voids hydraulic vibrators are
provided below the pallet.
• Core is taken out after the setting of the concrete. Proper surface
finish is achieved with the help of floater machine.
CURING: Further, the pallet is moved forward with the help of lorry and the entire pallet is
covered with the plastic, so as to use the moisture generated by the heat of concrete is for curing.
C) Precast slab:
Slabs are design as per the requirement
• Before placing the reinforcement the
pallet should be oiled properly.
The reinforcement of the slab consists
of a mesh and lattice girder.
• The mesh and the lattice girder are
manufactured with the help of machines.
These are the tied manually.
• After this the covers are provided and electrical conduits are
placed. These reinforcement are placed on the pallet and moved
forward with the help of lorry.
• The concrete is poured with the help of bucket having capacity
of 3 cubic meters.
• The slump of concrete maintained is 55mm.
• For removing the voids hydraulic vibrators are provided below the
pallet. For a single pallet 4 vibrators are provided.
CURING: After pouring, uniform spreading of concrete
is done manually. After the concrete is compacted the
pallet is moved forward in the curing chamber for thermal
curing for a period of 24 hours.
• According to design the reinforcements are arranged and while
placing the reinforcements the moulds are oiled.
• The mould is designed in such a way that 2 flights staircase are
casted at a time.
• The reinforcements are inserted in the mould manually.
• After this concrete is poured from the bucket with the help of
remote control cranes.
D) Precast staircase
The pre-casted staircase consists two flights which includes floor
landing to mid landing and mid landing to floor landing.
CURING :After 24 hours the moulds are
removed and then lifted with the help
of cranes and placed in the stacking
yard. Curing is done for 7 days
• For the installation or erection of staircase, notches are made in the
columns while casting in which the beams are allowed to rest.
• These beams are provided for supporting the mid-landing of the
• The beam should be arranged properly so that the level of mid
landing is exactly at a distance equal the half of floor to floor height.
• After this the mid landing is allowed to rest on these beams and
reinforcements are then provided.
• Then the prefabricated staircase are placed between floor landing to
mid landing and then midlanding to floor landing.
SUBMITTED BY :
AR. PREETI NAIR
ORIGINS OF PRECAST CONSTRUCTION
• Ancient Romans used to pour concrete into molds to build
aqueducts, culverts and tunnels beginning around 100 B.C.
• In modern times, precast was first utilized in Liverpool, England by
then city engineer John Alexander Brodie in 1905. Later, the
method was widely adopted in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia.
WHAT BRINGS PRECAST INDUTRY IN ENTHOPIA ?
• The in-situ construction activities being carried out in Ethiopia
can be broadly categorized into two.
• In the first category, there are the construction projects, usually
big scale ones, where theirs are professional project managers,
site supervisors, and site engineers and that these persons fulfill
their responsibilities with sufficient capability, honesty, and
• In the second category, we find projects that are essentially
ridden with lack of supervision, poor quality management, and
• The amount of water used to mix concrete is rarely measured,
which means the strength of the finished concrete is not known.
• Hence, there is an abundance of irregularities in terms of quality
of concrete structures in Ethiopia.
• Lack of a practical method to choose between a
precast method of construction and an in situ
method of construction, according to the shape,
size, type, desired quality, and speed of a
• Assumption that precast construction is typically
less economical than in-situ construction.
disregarding the indirect effects that construction
• Lack of conclusive information and data about the
current working capacity of PBPPE, which is
needed to know, if precast construction is to be
realized in Ethiopia.
PREPARATION PROCESS OF PRECAST
• There are a number of ways that each of the above
processes can take place.
• First, the location of where to cast the RC members has
to be decided.
• Availability, price, and, convenience of using heavy
trucks for transportation or heavy duty precision cranes
for onsite installments have to be compared.
• NEXT what kind of bolts to use to fasten the elements
together, the amount of tension to be applied to the
rebars, and similar factors that have to do with rebar
arrangement in precast
• NEXT Consolidation is one of the most important
processes that must be applied to freshly cast concrete.
It is primarily done by vibrating the freshly poured
THE PRECAST ERECTION PROCESS
• Four basic concerns face the people charged with
responsibility for erection of precast:
concrete members: the weight and size of the member
• Temporary bracing that will be required; and the
individual site problems.
• The weight of the largest individual precast concrete
member to be handled on a project will dictate the size
of the crane and hauling equipment required.
• Too often the sequence of erection is not considered during
the design stage but this sequence becomes important at
the start of construction, especially when Critical Path
Method of scheduling is planned.
• The relationship of erection sequence to construction of
elevator shafts, shear walls and stairways is necessary in
• truck delivery is the usual form of transportation
and scheduling of truck deliveries is a never-
• Due to the weight of precast concrete members, a
large number of truck loads are involved.
• Usually the members are taken directly from the
trucks and set in place.
• This requires predetermining the exact erection
sequence. Each truck must be loaded with respect
to mark number, position on trailer, and time of
COST BREAK DOWN
COST BREAK DOWN
The total precast
construction price in
Table 4.5 is inclusive of
PBPPE’s profit margin
of 15%. This means the
actual construction cost
is: ETB 6,040,690.87 /
1.15 = ETB
transportation & 15%
IN –SITU CONSTRUCTION
5.83 138 804.54
11.66 138 1,609.08
17.49 138 2,413.62
23.32 138 3,218.16
29.15 138 4,022.7
34.98 138 4,827.24
Crane Time Per
Avg. No. of
• It took a total of 16,985.34 minutes to lift and place
the total number of precast items.
• That is almost 12 days for lifting elements.
• There are on average 138 items that have been lifted
for every story of the Islamic Affairs building during
Punjab Kesari Headquarters
➢ Fusion of traditional
Indian architecture and
➢ Located at an urban
corner in Delhi NCR.
➢ Designed by Studio
completed in 2017
Submitted by : MANVI VARSHNEY
SUBMITTED TO : AR. PREETI NAIR
AR. SAMREEN SULTAN
➢ Punjab Kesari Headquarters is designed as Fusion
of traditional Indian architecture and
contemporary office space, the main objective is to
reduce heat gain and optimize façade opening
ratio, ensuring no artificial lighting is required on a
➢ An animated façade is designed as an outcome of
different façade opening ratio depending on the
➢ The project site area is 5220 sqm with plot dimension of
87m x 60 m.
➢ The allowed coverage was 50percent out of which only
43percent was utilized to fulfil the fire safety rules.
➢ The outlook for the client was to create a flexible model
whereby they occupy one floor and rent out the rest as office
modules of 500 sqm each.
➢ Located in a commercial/ industrial zone the total built up area is
18,000 sqm with a height restriction of 23 meters.
➢ The building dimensions are 70m x 41m x 21m.
➢ A central
a visual porosity
➢ Since the design
looks at no
lighting to make
the user feel
closer to nature
and allow to
work in natural
C.O.N.C.E.P.T OF ATRIUM &
BREAKING THE BOUNDARY B/W HUMAN & NATURE
➢ Sustainability is at the
epi-center of the
project embedded in
form of, optimized
natural lighting, cross
reduction of heat
➢ The colder air is
going in and pulled
into the atrium
through the chimney
effect of the atrium
space and resulting in
and reducing the
so the cooling load for
the air conditioning is
Being an office space the
building is seen as an
interaction zone by creating
moments allowing informal
interaction. A central atrium
connects the various floors
creating a diffused
boundary condition and a
visual porosity between
people working on different
floors. Since the design
looks at no artificial lighting
it makes the user feel closer
to nature and allow to work
in natural lighting.
A sense of invitation with
an urban lobby is created
whereby the landscape
flows inside the building
➢ Lux level of 500 has been achieved in the building at a workstation height from each
floor plate, along with a daylight factor of 2 over 80% of the floor plate; this is done to
ensure that artificial lighting is not required inside the building on a normal
CANWE IMPROVETHERMALCOMFORTTHROUGH DIGITAL SIMULATION ?
➢ The scenario considered is a hot summer day when the
outside temperature is about 32°C. The effect of cooling
systems is investigated. The cooling system has a passive
outlet and an active inlet.
➢ A natural convection heat transfer process is chosen. For a
preliminary design analysis, it would be sufficient to assume that
the flow is laminar and has reached a steady state.
➢ In reality, HVAC designers only need to consider the steady state
rather than the initial transient state.
➢ Thus, the model described here is as near to reality as possible.
➢ The initial velocity is zero while the pressure is atmospheric
pressure.The initial temperature in the room is set at 30 °C.
The conditions of the room after approximately 15 minutes
(1000 sec) is reviewed and discussed.
We compare two simple scenarios to start with :
In the first case, the inlet for colder air is above,
while a passive outlet (outlet at atmosphere
pressure) is provided at the bottom.
In the second case, they are exchanged. In each of
these cases, the walls are considered to be adiabatic
or do not otherwise conduct.
Fig :Comparison of velocity streamlines for variation in
placements of inlets/outlets.
➢ If the office was on the top floor, and we maintain the assumption
that the roof is badly insulated, then the roof can be almost as
warm as the outside conditions on a hot summer’s day (say 32 °C).
Now, with all walls (including roof and floor) adiabatic, is
still on the right.
And where the roof is heated up, is illustrated on the left.
As expected, there is a strong counter-current from the
roof that is heating the room.
In this scenario, a constant temperature boundary condition
is assigned to this wall.The comparison for such a scenario
is as shown in Figure.
Contrary to the assumption that this could impede air
cooling, such a scenario actually facilitates better cooling by
increasing the flow of air across the room.
Comparison of velocity streamlines for an office space with all walls adiabatic
(right) and with one not-so-well insulated external wall (left)
EVOLUTION OF PATTERNWHITE
EVOLUTION OF PATTERN BLACK
• A hexagonal pattern was used as a base and through
iterative process various porosity patterns were
generated from it to create different light conditions.
• This resulted in a variable opacity condition in the facade
that had a dual purpose of creating performative
architecture and also created variable openings on the
facade in various orientations generating a design for the
facade that is animating and has an inherent meaning.
• This resulting pattern morphs from 81% opacity on the
north facade to 27% opacity on the south facade, with
an intermediate opacity of 54% on East and 62% on
west facade respectively.
• The Jali facade is made of Glass Reinforced Concrete
panels. The curvature of the entrance will be also
casted whereby by using digital fabrication of mould a
higher accuracy in the design is achieved.
➢ Act as ‘warm blanket’
Around the building,
reducing heat intake
➢ Blocked solar radiation
35 C – 45C outside.
➢ Blocked solar radiation.
➢ The inspiration was to translate
a traditional Indian façade
pattern by using digital
simulations into an iterative
process to create a responsive
built form. This traditional “Jali”
screen creates culturally a
sense of belonging.
➢ Lux level of 500 has been
achieved in the building at a
workstation height from each
floor plate, along with a
daylight factor of 2 over 80%
of the floor plate; this is done
to ensure that artificial lighting
is not required inside the
building on a normal day.
CROSS SECTION OF BUILDING
Lux level of 500
achieved in the
building at a
height from each
floor plate, along
with a daylight
factor of 2 over
80% of the floor
plate; this is done
to ensure that
artificial lighting is
building on a
GRC PANEL CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
• Housing formula GRC, "Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement" is a compound material being
its matrix a concrete reinforced with glass fiber dispersed in all its mass.
• The resulting compound is a panel of 10 mm thickness approximately and it is
characterized by its extreme lightness (between 30 and 80 kg/m², depending on the type
of GRC panel), high resistance to bending, traction and impact, resistance to atmospheric
agents, incombustibility, waterproof, versatility, etc.
• Façades made with GRC panels of Housing formula panels allow to give the building a
magnificent architectural and aesthetic value.
GRC in construction industry:
•Façade panels and cladding.
•All kinds of façade elements.
•Permanent or reusable formwork.
•Modular systems of housing.
•Transformers and surveillance huts.
•Renewal and restoration of façades
and architectural accessories.
•Elements for roofs.
•Interior decoration: ceilings,
false ceilings, columns...
•Barriers and fences.
•Fascia for bridges.
•GRC for tunnels (paneled or without them) and sewers.
➢ Punjab Kesari headquarters won the International
property award for best office Architecture India 2016-
➢ It was presented at Tedx talk in Bremen, Germany in 2015 by Britta Knobel Gupta
as a part of the talk Performative Aesthetics and at Smart Geometry Hong Kong 2014.
➢ Punjab Kesari Headquarters by Studio Symbiosis in
India won the WA Award Cycle 23.
Occupant behavior has significant impacts on energy use in buildings.
A simulation approach is proposed to estimate energy savings of behavior measures.
Behavior measures can achieve up to 41.0% savings based
on the simulation results.
Occupancy schedule significantly affects the energy savings of
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