1920 - 1960 Early researches on BilingualismBased on SUP : Separate Underlying Proficiency (now discredited) •Bilingualism resulted in cognitive deficiencies, lower IQ scores, and even mental retardation. • Studies often associated bilingual children with terms such as ‘mental confusion’ and ‘language handicap’. • Monolingual children were up to 3 years ahead of bilingual children in various skills relating to verbal and non-verbal intelligence.
1920 2000 60’1933 – Bloomfield - Native proficiency in L2. too strict…1965 – Macnamara – Minimal competence in any of the 4 skills in L2 too lose…1972 –Totine – Capacity of speaking L2 following its structure rather than paraphrasing L1.
Unidimensional or Multidimensional approach? Based on CUP: Common Underlying Proficiency (Jim Cummins 1981)
Unidimensional or Multidimensional approach? Based on CUP: Common Underlying Proficiency(Jim Cummins 1981) Baker (2006) defines CUP in 6 points: • One integrated source of thought. • People have the capacity to easily store two or more languages • The language a student uses in the classroom needs to be sufficiently well developed for them to be able to process the cognitive challenges that are presented. • The 4 skills in L1 and L2 help the whole cognitive system to develop. • Inf. processing skills and educ. attainment may be developed through both 1 or 2 languages.• When one or both languages are not functioning fullystudents’ cognitive functioning and academicperformance may be negatively affected
Unidimensional or Multidimensional approach? 1998 – Baker, Prys, Li-wei – Individual who have 2 languages.1998 – Spolky – The identifying criteria(psycholinguistic, neurolinguistic,sociolinguistic, etc…) is more important thanthe definition.1999 – Grosjean – When one can make social use of 2languages in his daily life. Proficiently or functionally, nomatter how often L2 (3,4,5..) is used in which context withwhatever purpose.
Multidimensional2000 (1989) – Harmer and Blanc – “the state of alinguistic community in which two languages are in contactwith the result that two codes can be used in the sameinteraction and that a number of individuals are bilingual,”while “bilinguality is the psychological state of an individualwho has access to more than one linguistic code as a meansof social communication.”
Summary table of psychological dimensions of Bilingualism Balanced Relative competence Dominant Compound Cognitive organization Coordinate Childhood : Simultaneo us Age of acquisition Consecutive Adolescent Adult Endogenous Exogeneity Exogenous Additive Social cultural status Subtractive Bicultural Monocultural Acculturated Cultural identity Deculturated
A form of education in which information is presented in two (or more)languages.Technically, any educational system that utilizes more than one language isconsidered bilingual.This means that many school programs are bilingual …..(in at least a literal sense of the word) The main difference between programs toted as ‘bilingual’ is the degreeto which multiple languages are used. It is all about literacy and knowledge…
1 - Bilingualism is the need and norm in many placesand hot fashion in others.2- Bilingualism leads to cognitiveand linguistic delays.
3 - Bilingualism leadsto linguistic confusion.4- Bilingualism is “genetics” –it just comes naturally andspontaneously when parents arespeakers of different languages.
5 – Bilingualism is always possibleand easy during childhood.No matter when it starts.6- Bilingualism is useful only ifboth languages are useful(ie.if they are widley spoken).
7 – Attitudes do not influenceLinguistic development. 8- Bilinguals and monolingualsmake similar mistakes.
9 –A child should first fully acquire L1and only then learn L2. 10- The more exposure one has to alanguage, the more quickly one willlearn it.11- Students learn L2 the same way.
One wheel (one language)can get you places… So can a big wheel and a little one…However, when your wheels arenicely balanced and fully inflated,You’ll go furhter… Provided, of course, that the people who made the wheels knew what they were doing…
References-Harmers, J.F; Blanc (200). Bilinguality and Bilingualism . Second edn. Cambridge Universitypress-Hodges, L; Nobre, A. (2010). The Bilingualism-cognition relationship in the literacy process.Ciencias e cognição vol. 15.-Spolky, B. (1998) Sociolinguistics. Bristol:OUP.- Cummins, J. (1981).-Baker, C. (2006). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Fourth edn.Multilingual Matters, Clevedon- Megale, Antonieta Heyden. B (2005) Bilingüismo e educação bilíngüe – discutindo conceitos.Revista Virtual de Estudos da Linguagem ReVEL. V. 3, n. 5- www.umich.edu Bilingual Education- www.joanwink.com-
❝Tohave another languageis to possess a second soul.❞‒Charlemagne