TinyOS Course 00: Introduction to WSN

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Lesson 00 slides for one day introductory course on wireless sensor networks and TinyOS, that took place at the University of Alcalá de Henares in Madrid Spain the 18th of September 2013. This course was jointly designed by the Electronics Department of the university and Advanticsys. Find source code for the lessons here: http://www.advanticsys.com/wiki/index.php?title=TinyOS%C2%AE_Course_at_UAH_18th_September_2013

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TinyOS Course 00: Introduction to WSN

  1. 1. WSN Programming Course Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks Manuel Fernández UAH, 18th September 2013
  2. 2. Contents •What areWireless Sensor Networks? •WSN Advantages & Challenges •Applications • Future ofWSN •What are Motes? •WSN Evolution • IEEE 802.15.4 • IEEE 802.15.4 vs. ZigBee • Future of IEEE 802.15.4 • Embedded Operating Systems • Introduction toTinyOS 2.x 2
  3. 3. • A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network of small autonomous devices spatially distributed over a certain area that cooperatively monitor physical or environmental variables through their attached sensors, and transmit this information to a main location. What are WSNs? 3
  4. 4. • Advantages: • Low cost devices • Low power • Easy and quick to deploy • Scalability (increase network robustness) • Challenges: • Energy constrained • Limited memory and computation • Low Bandwidth WSN Advantages &Challenges 4
  5. 5. • Monitoring of objects • Monitoring of areas • Monitoring of objects and areas Applications 5
  6. 6. Monitoring of objects • Structural Monitoring • Condition-based Maintenance • Medical Diagnostics • Urban terrain mapping Example:Condition-based Maintenance Fabrication plants: • Sensors collect vibration data, monitor wear and tear; report data in real-time • Reduces need for a team of engineers; cutting costs by several orders of magnitude Applications 6
  7. 7. Monitoring of areas • Environmental and Habitat Monitoring • PrecisionAgriculture • Indoor Climate Control • Military Surveillance •TreatyVerification • IntelligentAlarms Example: Precision agriculture • Precision agriculture aims at making agricultural operations more efficient and cost effective, while reducing environmental impact. • The information collected from sensors is used to evaluate optimum sowing density, estimate fertilizers and other inputs needs, and to more accurately predict crop yields. Applications 7
  8. 8. Monitoring of objects and areas •Wildlife Habitats • Disaster Management • Emergency Response • Ubiquitous Computing •AssetTracking • Health Care • Manufacturing Process Flows • … Applications 8
  9. 9. Smart Home/Smart Office • Sensors controlling appliances and electrical devices in the house • Better lighting and heating in office buildings. Biomedical/Medical • Health Monitors:Glucose /Heart rate • Chronic disease: artificial retina/ cochlear implants • Hospital sensors: monitor vital signs/ record anomalies Traffic management & monitoring •Traffic flow • Real time routing update Industrial & Commercial •Agricultural crop conditions •Inventory tracking •Plant equipment maintenance monitoring •Automated problem monitoring Future of WSN 9
  10. 10. • Low cost and power computer • Sensors • Radio module • Storage • Power unit What are Motes? CONTROL SENSOR 3 10
  11. 11. • CM5000 What are Motes? 11
  12. 12. WSN Evolution • First developments for military applications • At the end of the 90’s, the possibilities of this technology were very evident for researches & the industry across the globe. • In 2003 the IEEE 802.15.4 standard was formulated. The first embedded operating systems are developed • First WSN designs are distributed systems • Newest designs focus on in-node processing and actuation, and multipoint communication 12
  13. 13. • In 2003 the IEEE 802.15.4 standard was formulated, as an answer to the industry needs for a common communication stack among small devices • This stack is aimed towards low power consumption, and low data transfer rates • The communication stack focuses on the definition of the frequencies of operation, and how they physically access the medium IEEE 802.15.4 13
  14. 14. IEEE 802.15.4
  15. 15. 802.15.4 802.11 (Wi-Fi) Bluetooth UWB (Ultra Wide Band) Wireless USB IR Wireless Data Rate 20, 40, and 250 Kbits/s 11 & 54 Mbits/sec 1 Mbits/s 100-500 Mbits/s 62.5 Kbits/s 20-40 Kbits/s 115 Kbits/s 4 & 16 Mbits/s Range 10-800 meters 50-100 meters 10 meters <10 meters 10 meters <10 meters (line of sight) Networking Topology Ad-hoc, peer to peer, star, or mesh Point to hub Ad-hoc, very small networks Point to point Point to point Point to point Operating Frequency 868 MHz (Europe) 900-928 MHz (NA), 2.4 GHz (worldwide) 2.4 and 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 3.1-10.6 GHz 2.4 GHz 800-900 nm Complexity (Device and application impact) Low High High Medium Low Low Power Consumption (Battery option and life) Very low (low power is a design goal) High Medium Low Low Low IEEE 802.15.4 Tech comparison: 15
  16. 16. IEEE 802.15.4 vs. ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4 IS NOTTHE SAME AS ZIGBEE!!! 16
  17. 17. • IPv6 over 802.15.4 • 6LoWPAN • Blip • RPL (IETF ) • …. • Industrial Automation with IEEE 802.15.4 • WirelessHART • ISA100 • … Future of IEEE 802.15.4 17
  18. 18. • Embedded OS run inside the mote and take care of most of most of the operations, always focusing on achieving a low power state • This allows the programmer to focus on developing applications, and staying away from low power tinkering • Among the most popular, TinyOS and Contiki lead the research Embedded Operating Systems 18
  19. 19. Introduction to TinyOS-2.x 19 Overview •One of the first OSs to target WSNs – currently the most widespread • Emphasis is on memory consumption – both program and data memory • Open-source w/ rich component library • Memory efficient • Rich tool-chain • Large code-base and user community
  20. 20. TinyOS Features: •TinyOS is programmed in nesC • nesC is a C-style language • nesC provides the programming abstractions – component based • Split-phase execution – return values arrive asynchronously through events • Tasks provide the unit of concurrency – typically spawned by events – can be pre-empted by asynchronous events – FIFO scheduling • Pre-emptive threaded model with TOSThreads Introduction to TinyOS-2.x 20
  21. 21. • TinyOS abstracts everything as a component: – Components can be reused – Components can be replaced – Components can be hardware or software 21 Introduction to TinyOS-2.x
  22. 22. Component-oriented Programming • Object-Oriented Programming: – Focuses on the relationships between classes that are combined into one large binary executable • Component-Oriented Programming: – Focuses on interchangeable code modules that work independently and don't require you to be familiar with their inner workings to use them. 22 Introduction to TinyOS-2.x
  23. 23. TinyOS Architecture Sensing Comms Other Libraries Application Main (scheduler) Hardware Abstractions (ADC, CLOCK, I2C, LEDS, PHOTO, UART, SPI) 23 Introduction to TinyOS-2.x
  24. 24. Compiling 24 Introduction to TinyOS-2.x
  25. 25. Contact Info: Manuel Fernández manuel.fernandez@advanticsys.com 25

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