• Selection is the process by which the identified problem is
refined and structured by focusing on specific targets and
emphasising on certain variables
• We are cutting down the edges to reach a well structured
• What is the purpose of the study?
• How much is already known?
• Is additional information necessary?
• What is to be ascertained or measured?
• How is it to be measured?
• A researcher, after refining his research problem, ends up in
formulating the RQ, which describes the ideas contained in the
• A RQ is nothing but a refined, focused, structured and well
defined statement of the research topic.
Techniques of developing RQ
• Recording questions
• Reviewing Questions
• Classifying Questions
• Examining the questions
• Separate major or key questions
Types of Research Questions
• ‘What’ Questions
• ‘Why’ Questions
• ‘How’ Questions
Purpose of Research Questions
1. Define Scope of the research
2. Avoiding deflection or distraction
• Why is the productivity of Japan is so much higher than in India?
• What factors were responsible for the higher labour productivity of
Japans manufacturing industries during the decade of 1971-1980
relative to Indian manufacturing industries
• To what extend did the labour productivity in 1971-80 in Japan
exceed that of India in respect of 15 selected manufacturing
Industries? What factors were responsible for the productivity
differentials b/w the two countries by Industries
• RQ/RP is the basis or foundation for every research.
• Just as in case of physical structures, once you have laid down
the foundation, you cannot go any further beyond its scope.
• Since a RP, defines the scope of a research, one should observe
maximum care and thinking while formulating the same.
• Research methods, Ram Ahuja, Rawat Publications.
• Research Methodology Techniques and Trends, Dr. Y.K. Singh &
Dr. R.B. Bajpai, APH Publishing corporations.
• Research Methodology, K. Chakraworthy, Sumit Enterprises.
• Research Methods in Social Science, Chava Nachmias & David
• Research Methodology Methods And Techniques (2nd revised
Edition), C.R. Kothari, Vishwa Prakashan Publications.
• Methodology of Social Sciences, O.R. Krishnaswami, Himalaya
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