Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Lecture notes

508 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Lecture notes

  1. 1. Table of ContentsTitle Page #The comprehensiveness of Arabic Language 2The structure of Arabic Language 3Nahw - An Introduction to the Science of Arabic Grammar 6Nahw - The Phrase 8Nahw – The Grammatical States in Arabic Language 10Nahw – The Grammatical States in Arabic Language – Part 2 13Nahw – The Anatomy of a Sentence – Part 1 16Nahw – The Anatomy of a Sentence – Part 2 19Nahw – The Anatomy of a Sentence – Part 3 22Nahw – Attached Pronouns: their Grammatical States 25Nahw – The Grammatical States Playground 30Nahw – Methods of Reflection of an Ism 37Nahw – Methods of Reflection for the Muzare’ Verb 47Nahw – Particles Resembling Verbs 52Nahw – Singular, Dual and Plural Nouns in Arabic 55Nahw – Let us Count in Arabic 59Nahw – Let us Hit a Hitting or Rejoice a Rejoicing 62Nahw – The Concept of Haal and Zul Haal 64Nahw – The Followers 66Sarf 72Sarf – Variotaions of the Past Tense 74Sarf – The Present and Future Tense 76Sarf – Variations of al-Muzare’ 79Sarf – More Variations of al-Muzare’ 83Sarf – The Command Verb : Constructing the Amr 87Sarf – Abwaab-ul-Af’aal – Introduction to Verb Groupings 92Sarf – Categories of Irregular Verbs 97Sarf – The Irregular Verb 99Sarf – The Irregular Verb Part-1 105Sarf – The Irregular Verb Part-2 110Sarf – The Rules of Ta’leel – A Summary of Ajoof and Naaqis 115Source of this Book 118
  2. 2. The comprehensiveness of Arabic LanguageArabic is a language which is known for its brevity and comprehensiveness. As an example, look at theword given below which means: ‘they sought help’. Right away you can see that three English wordsare required to translate this one Arabic word. However, there is more to it than meets the eye. This oneArabic word conveys seven pieces of information to us. Let us see how: 1. : to help 2. : seek 3. The absence of one of the 4 prefixes (which makes a future tense verb) plus the fathah on which renders this word in the past tense. 4. the fathah on and and kasra on conveys the meaning of active voice ; changing this to a damma on and and a kasra will change this to a passive voice i.e will mean help was sought from them 5. at the end conveys the meaning of masculine gender 6. at the end conveys the meaning of a group of more than 2 persons 7. at the end conveys the meaning of third person
  3. 3. The structure of Arabic LanguageAll 28 alphabets of the Arabic Language are consonants. Unlike English, vowels do not form a part ofthe Arabic alphabet set. Rather, they are distinct entities called (harakat). There are 3 shortvowels in Arabic: 1. (fatha) corresponds to English a 2. (kasra )corresponds to English e, i 3. (dhamma) corresponds to English o,uThe term (articulation) refers to all words/sounds produced by the tongue. can be eitheri.e. meaningful, or i.e. meaningless. words can turn in towords through the process of coinage.Thus, the word DVD 15 years ago was but is thesedays. words can be further divided into two categories: 1. (also called ) is composed of single words 2. is composed of more than one wordIt is the which constitutes the parts of speech of the Arabic Language. Unlike English, which has 8
  4. 4. parts of speech, Arabic only has 3 ( !#$ ) . The following table gives a comparison of theparts of speech between English and Arabic: English Arabic DefinitionNoun, Pronoun, Adjective, This is the part of speech which indicates upon a meaning in itself !#$Adverb and is not linked to time This also indicates upon a meaning in itself but is also linked toVerb time(Thus the concept of tenses)Preposition, Conjunction, Indicates the meaning of something else and does not have a fullArticle independent meaning of it’s ownThe other kind of word i.e. can be further subdivided into 1. % , which is also known as a (, and contains a Subject/Predicate relationship. This is essentially what we call a sentence in English 2. % )* is what we call a phrase in English. This combination of words conveys an incomplete idea.Here is a chart of all this information
  5. 5. Nahw - An Introduction to the Science of Arabic Grammar The most important of the sciences associated with the Arabic language is , for without it no communication can exist : Ibn-e- Khaldun is the science of Classical Arabic which describes: 1. How to arrange words to make meaningful sentences 2. How to determine the grammatical structure of a sentence(by determining the positioning of ! #$% ) by change in the last letter of a wordRecall that a sentence in Classical Arabic is defined as a group of words conveying a complete idea andwhich has a Subject/Predicate relationship. Whenever we want to convey something to our listeners wefirst form a mental image into our own minds and then describe that image in words to other people.The ’something’ or the ‘primary’ part of the idea is the Subject of the sentence and its ‘description’ isthe Predicate of the sentence. The Subject is called ( )*and the Predicate is called ( )* in ClassicalArabic grammar. In English Language it is fairly easy to differentiate between the Subject and Predicatein a sentence by using the word is. As an example, note the sentence ‘Amr is standing’. Here Amr isSubject and standing describes what is happening with the Subject. As another another example notethe sentence ‘The cat ate the rat‘. Here it is very obvious that the cat is the subject and ‘ate the rat‘ isthe predicate, the rat being the object of eating . In English there is a sequence of words whichdetermines which part is the Subject and which is the Predicate. However, in Arabic there is no such
  6. 6. rule that a Subject has to come before the object i.e. there is no sequence rule. At first this might seem alittle odd; however, this is what gives the language its flexibility, where using only a few words one canexpress themselves in variety of ways.So how do we determine which is Subject and which is Predicate in a sentence? To make this easier,Scholars of have divided sentences into two types, based on the first word, and have named theSubject and Predicate in each differently: 1. +, -. (Nominal Sentence): This is the kind of sentence which begins with an e.g. / 1 ( 0 (The boy is standing). The Subject, ( , is called ( 2* , and the predicate, / 1,is called $23 0 2. 45 ! 4- 6(Verbal Sentence): This is the kind of sentence which begins with a ! e.g./ % 7 - (* . Here (* % is 8 and 7 is !Exactly how we determine which is the Subject and which is the Object will be dealt with once wedefine the concept of Grammatical States in Arabic, where we will make use of all the terms definedabove and will see which grammatical state each fits in.
  7. 7. Nahw - The PhraseIn the last post we defined the concept of the Sentence, also called . Now we define the otherpart, , or Phrase. A Phrase is essentially a group of words which does not convey acomplete idea e.g. tall boy, intelligent girl etc. We will start by defining two kinds of phrases: 1. Noun / Adjective Phrase:This kind of phrase is made up of two , the first being a noun and the second an adjective. The first is called and the second is called . Unlike in English, where the adjective precedes the noun, in Arabic the noun will come before the adjective e.g. (tall boy) or (intelligent girl) Rules for phrase: Both and should agree in Gender Both and should agree in number e.g. (two tall boys) Both and should agree in definiteness i.e. both should either be definite or indefinite e.g. !(a tall boy) or (tall boy) Both and should be in the same grammatical state 2. Possessive Phrase: This phrase is also made up of two , which are linked together in a
  8. 8. possessive structure e.g. #$ % (messenger of Allah). The possessor is termed as ( )*(here the word #$ ) and the possessed is termed as )* (here the word % )
  9. 9. ! # % ( )*+,- - . . . ! #./ 0 1 2 3 4 2 . 2 . 0 4 ) * 5- % 2 .6 2 . 7 , - 8 . . % , 7 ) % , * % ,
  10. 10. 5 ! # % , ! 0 + ) $% * ( 5 ) + *+)! 9 ) 7 2 $% 7 * 7 2 ( 7 5 7 7 ) 7 + *+) ,! #-./ % , 0 . 7 . . 01: ! 7
  11. 11. 2 7 . 7 .- . ; . . 1 . 0234 5 2 5 6 . . )5 7 7 2 6 2 . 4 ) 8234 92 : 76 * 9234 82 : 76 5 ;234 .2 : 76- 2 . 2 . 72 . . = . 8
  12. 12. ! # $ % ( ( )# )$ * + ,- ./ ( 0 .1 ( 0 -
  13. 13. ! #$%# .( 2 3 2 0 ! ($)$ $* .4 2 4 2 0 + , ( $)$$* - .% / .4 0 - .% / . 0 # 01 .+ 0 ! 01 .+ 0+ 23 4 # 5. 0 / 4 # 5 + + + 4 +
  14. 14. 67 ! 683 67 968 - 6: ! . 0 68 968 ; . 0 ( 6: ! 968 ;( ! %= 5 + 68 ! 67 ! 8 67 ! 968 ; - .% / 2 3 #8 01/ 6
  15. 15. ! !#$ % ! ! # $ % # %! ( ) *+ ,- -. 0 / +/ ( ) ) * + , - , 12 12 345 #$ +/ 0/ .
  16. 16. !#$ / # 0 #$-6 7 89: 34 !#!; % 1 / 2 -67 ,- -. -67 = #!; ,- -. 34 12 345 #$ 12 5 0#? 34 , ! @# / AB 89: C2 !#; D @# / 345 #$12 B 89: C2 ,- -. # = !#$ 3 AB C2 ! ! 2 4
  17. 17. @#- /!E F * -6 !#; D 7 !#$ G #?FH F * ! @#-/!E I ) *+ F *,- J -. , 1
  18. 18. ! #$ ! ! #$ ! # $ % $ ! ! #$ ! ()* ( )%* $ ( ) *
  19. 19. ! ()* #$ +, -.+/0( 12 + 34 56 ) * + 34 56 $ 12 + 12 + 34 56 + 34 56 +, -.+/0 ()* + 34 56 ()* +7 8/ 8 +/9:; , + +, -.+/0+7 8/ 8 +/9:; ( +7 8/ 8 +/9:; ()* #$ !
  20. 20. % ! -
  21. 21. ! # ! # $ $ $% % % ! $ # (% % )* (% % )*
  22. 22. )* $ )* (% % ( #% $ $ )( *++)+,-.+ ,-. +/01-. +2 ,30 04.5 0 ,61 0 7 +2 9 ,! ,! 0% +,80 0% 0) , +)98 +2 9 0%% #, 15+ ,)98 0/0:1;+ =0+7 .;0 7+@ ,@0A7 +/,1 04+71B+7 + 8.C +D E F7 +G,807 0%+2 99 ,!+)98 ,!0%+2 .0 + ; +? +/, , 0)+ ,=0:7+@ ,@0A7 +20 ,H1? I7 0 ,J0%0.C 0 K,L+M;0C+N0O1C+:7PQ 01 I7 +?%0R+7 +S,? 0;7 +T,80 7 +)98 0%+2 0% +) +)% )98 %+ 9 ,! 0) ,! 2 ( )98 T,80 7 #
  23. 23. ! # $ % ! ( !% ) *% ) *% ) * )% ) +% ) +% ) + ) ) * ) * , ) * ) ) + !
  24. 24. ) + , ) + ) ! ) * -+ #$! ) * -+ $, -). ! ) * -+ #$ + % ( ) /0 1 2 3 + * + 3 ,-. $ $ $0 3 4 3 / 0 5 # # . ! 0 $ $ ,-. # 0 $ $ 1$ # % 2 3 $ $ 4 5 6 7
  25. 25. 6 / 8 7 ,-. 9: - ;$9: - 7 1$ = % / 4 5 6 7 ( ?@ 4 # ?@ / 1$ ?@ %@ 38) 8 0 $ $ 9: - # !% 8 8 ABC * $ 1$ = 8 3 9 # 8
  26. 26. 8) % D ! 4 ( 5- $ 4 # ?@ EF$6 $ ?@ %@ 1$: #$ !% # # ! 9# 0: ? !% # 6 % + G. 7 HI4 3 ,-. 1$ 4 4 !% # 3 # ) 3 4 ? ? 9
  27. 27. 3
  28. 28. ! # $ % ! ( ! ) !* # !+ ,
  29. 29. ! # # % --. ! #$ % ( $ ) % * % + ,! )- () * . * * / 0 () ! # / 0 1 2 $ #3 #3 $ 2 $ # 42 $ 56 , ! 7 87- 4 7 87- 2 $ 56 ! ( 2 $56 54 #( $ ) ( ) 1 )
  30. 30. 1 $ 2 1 ( 2 $ $ ! ( ) ( # 2 $ 1 93 1 --. 2 $ 2 : * 2 $ : 2 $ * 1 1 ( # : * 2 $ , ! *; 7 ;7 *; 7 ;7 : * 2 $ 0 $ ( $
  31. 31. ( $ # ( $ 2 $ # = % ? =4 @, % A * ?8 B #C D E 1) ? 8 F D% G D H) I % $ % % % # $ B G F# = % = 4 / = ) = ! B = - =
  32. 32. = , ! G # (!JK =L N ( L, ) F M ( % 2 $ % % % $ % # ! ( (O G =% F ! = # (O1 4P5 4
  33. 33. 6 Q !RS (6% 7 T! U OB83 7# *O+ V( WN 9991 F X + 6 % ! F ( ?YR Z 1) ) % # X + F = ! : =
  34. 34. * # 5 5 * % % % % $% ( # 5 * * + % % % ) 5 [ + % % 0 8 5 _ 7]O ^ O % , ) % ( ;- . ` (-. ) ;-. a C (-.
  35. 35. ! ! #$ % #$ %()*+ # #$ ,-%(./ $ #$ % % 0/ 1 ,- #$ ( ) !* ( + ( !* ( ( ( %
  36. 36. , ( ! 2* 3%0 ! %4 5 2* 3%6 7 %+ 8%4 5# 0 ! % 9 %- ,: %; %. 0 ! %* * */ 0 = 1 $#?! @ : 2 A, %=%B, 3 C ! D %=% C ! D !4 ,: % E % = !! = ,: % E ! C=( F,G C , !4 34 = !# 7 % ( ,: % E % 0H!- !. I 7 ! % 5!* ,: % E % 0H 5 5 =6 ( ! 2* 3%0 ! %4 5 ( 5 ( 5
  37. 37. JK L% M K L%()*+ NK O,-%(./ 6 ( 2* 3%6 7 %+ 8%4 5 ( ( = ( C 9 J :4 JP Q R 5 JP Q R% MP Q R%()*+ NP Q S,-%(./ 6 ( # 0 ! % 9 % ( 5 JT % ! MU %()*+ NT ,-%(./ 6 ( - ,: %; % # ( $ (. ,A : %. #
  38. 38. . ,A : %() # . ,A :-%(./ # 6 ( . 0 ! %* 3 7 ! / ( ( ! ( 8 ( 0 ( /V ( % ( /V (9 $ 3 0 ! %* ! G , G G 9 % ( ( + ( $ % 5 1 4
  39. 39. # 9 0 A W : ( - 7 %X,: X,: ( #$A Q 1 # Q # 0 ! % * . 4=(K %X,: X,: ( (Y A G $ (YH * - # # 0 ! % * * ! L1 92 93 9 *,Z - [ 7 !4 9 . H 1 Q, !! 9 ) Q K 1 /V
  40. 40. ! 5 C 5 C @ G C # - % C @ G%/ G C @ G / G ]6 (* ( * ! J $ # J^ # # J 1 $ # - J # . J Z # * =(_ ( ( ( * ( (1 ( (# ( 0H ( !*/ NK, % ` a% Z_ ( # NK, % ` a%()*+ ( # NK, %P` a% %() Q Z _ # ( # 5 =(_ NT %=(_% $ # NT % _%()*+ $ #
  41. 41. NT %E,-%(./ $ # *A G%N A,G% _%bV %[ %= ) ) $ # ! *6 (1 $#?! @ : + C c C # # * a/ : %#$:d% * - 9 %CB e : # # C -$ # # C 8 (6 ( 2 B, A, # ( 5 Z B, C B % # ()*+ ,f *A, * A # ,f *A, % * A ,-%(./ #6 ( 3 C ! D C ! D ( ) C ! D % , - *! D %()*+ , - *! D,-%(./ , -6 ( !4 # ,: % E % ( $ C ,A : % # ()
  42. 42. *, ,A : # *, ,A : ,-%(./ # 6 ( !! ( ( 6 ( !4 ,: % E % ( 5 / :=( ( ( Q :g % :=(a%/ Z # $ Q :g %P,:=(a% K !,G% Q :g %P,:=(a%()*+ # $ # $ ; ( JV Z $ **hA,G # # #6 ( ! ( !4 4 34 C=( F,G C , 6 ( !4 !! 5 MB % C=( F,G MB % F,G%()*+ (./MB % F, ,-6 ( !# ( #$ #$ *,G X,: 7 / ( Gd ( $ 5#$ % . #$ %()*+ #$ ,-%(./ M G% $$ M G%()*+ $$
  43. 43. M ,-%(./ $$6 ( !- ( # # ,: % E % 0H /P, B ) /P, * -# 5 /P, B % ) /P, B %()*+ ) /P, B i,-%(./ )6 ( !. ( I 7 ! % ( c ( ; ( = 5 /P, 7 : # / P, 7 : %()*+ # //P, 7 :,-%(./ # /6 ( !* ( ,: % E % 0H jP, ,A ) ($( ,A = / , $ = $* ,A jP, ,A (jP, ,A ( jP, ,A %
  44. 44. jP, ,A %()*+ jP, ,A ,-%(./ $ ( ( $
  45. 45. ! # $ ! # # $ %$ () # ! $ * ! % % ) * % )+ # ,
  46. 46. - + + + . * ($ )* * ! % +, )# % -) + ! . . . !/ #0, % 1 23 43 + , ( $ 5 236 % ), 6
  47. 47. / !/ #0, 3 % 1 23 43 + , ( $ 5 236 % ) ($ )* % 1 2! , ( $ 5 2 % 1 2 , ! 0 0 1 2 1 13 $ ! % )+ 7 8 9 + 7 8 93 , + 7 8 93 + ,, ($ ! 0 ( % $4 $) , ( ! :$ 9 :( $ 9 ;$ 8 =
  48. 48. 4 )? 9 @4 43 ABC D B $ 9 D 93 ABC E $ 9 8 , 3 ABC 0 4 % $ 5 6) 8 9 7 8 9 8 2 +=B7 8 2 7 8 2, !, 7= 3; $ 8 # !@4 43 ABC D 93 ABC # 8 9 6 8 , 3 ABC # 9 60 4 1 3 3 : 3; $ 8 = F :$ 9% ) $ 93 + , % )
  49. 49. $ 93 , % ) : 93 ABC @4 43 ABC D F B $ 93 43 4: G 9 % ) # B $ 93 43 4: G 93 + , % ) 8 $ 93 ,3 43: G 93 , % ) 9 6: 8 , 3 ABC !E $ 9 % # )E $ 93 + , % ) H $ 93 , %9 6 ): 0 4 ! +=B7 8 2 8 9 7 8 9 %1 ) 8 23 + , % ) %3 ) 7 8 23 , % ) %3 )/ . +
  50. 50. ! #$ % %( ! ) * +,* -./ 0# 12!3! ! # $ # % # ! 4 56 7 18 9:;
  51. 51. 0 ; # ( . 4 ;. 56 07 ;=; 7 18 ? 9:; 07 ;=; 0 ; 0@ ;) * + + A A; 4) 56 B ;C , 7 18 - 60/!; 9:; 0 ;? . 0 ; ;? .
  52. 52. + ) ! -./ D. %( E$ ) ) %( -./
  53. 53. ! # ! # $ % ( ) ( * +, - # . /0 1 # $ %
  54. 54. # $ %$ # 2 3 4 5 6 7 # 2 3 6 7 4 5 % 8 $ $9 % ( % ! % ) % : /0 1 # : ! /0 1 * 5 ;$ * ( ;$ )
  55. 55. ( ;$ * +, - * % + ! +* + ;$ + + # $ % + * + ;$ ) + ;$ * +, - % + # =: =5 % ) 2 ? @ A A @ , B ? @ C C @ - ,- / ; ? @ B D E / ; F E@ . ,. 2 ? G 1 % 1 % , B5 ? ; H G5 ; H / ,/
  56. 56. B ? 2 B ) ,) I ? @ ( ( @ ) ,) I ? JI K ; K , B ? L M N M 0 ,0 I ? ( O O , 2 3 @ / ; @ 2 - @ * ,* 2( 3 @ P *Q P *@ , 2 3 - 4 $ - 4 $- ) 1 ,) 1 2 ( 3 - R 1 - S ( T - 0 ,0# , ,% 2
  57. 57. ! # $% % ! ! % % # ! % # % $ ! ( ) ! !! ! % ! * + ! , - ! % . # / $ % 0 / 0 / 0 ! ! ! $ % ! % # % !. ! ) 1 1 ! #$ #$ 1# % % ,$ ( )* (
  58. 58. , # ! + ( + ( , - % % ! ./ 0 1 / 0 1 # / 0 1 ./ 0 1 # / 0 1 ./ 0 1 / 0 1 ./ 0 1, 2 3 ! 4 # ! 1 4 25 ! %% / 0 ! /2 $ % 34% ( + (/ 0 567 ! $ / 0 8 + 9 : ; 1 $ % 9 . / 0 1/ 0 + =#3 = / 0 1 / 0 1 23 % / !69 6 8 + 9 : ; / 5 7 / 0 1 / 0 , 1 ./ 0 1 / 0 ?+, @ - / 0 1 #8 / 0 9 . / 0 1 #8 / 0 ! ;$ ! #8 #8 !/2 AB- ! 7! ! 23 1 % %% !
  59. 59. % % 8 + 9 : ; 1 $ % C62 $ / 0 1 / 0 . / 9 . / 0 1 / 0 ! / 0 1! ./ 0 1! ! # ! /1 ! , )- 1 $ % . D 2 E, - % / 0 ( E, ! #$ / 0 36F4D/ 5 7/ 0 $G / H 9 1 $ % 1 I 9/ 0 ( J K / 0 % ! % $ % , % ! 8
  60. 60. ! # $ % % ! ! ! # % ! % # ! $% $ ! ! #! # $ $ ( ) ! $ $$ ! $% * $$ ! ! ! ( ) ( ) ! ) #!*# ! ! $ !+! , - . % . # %! ! $ $$ ! / 0* $$ ! ! ! ! - 1 . ! 2 )
  61. 61. !3 $ 2 ) # $ % $ $$ !4 $% + !, $ ! ! ! ! 5! 6 7 8# % % $$ 5! 6( 9 8 7 8+ ! $: 5 ;% % $$ 3 5 ) ;! % ; # $ % + $ $ !=? # % $$!=? # # 1 @# $$ !- $AB , $ C% % $$ AB , $ C( D 2 ! 2# .$ - $$ ! % $$ $ % $ ! /$ $ % ! ! ! 0
  62. 62. ! # $ % ! # $ ! % ! ( $ % ! )* + , $ ! %-. )* + , $ ( ! /0+ % 1 ) #
  63. 63. 2 3 ! ! # $2 3 ! 45 ! # $ 45 60 7 8 )0 * 8 )0 60 7 4$ /9 # $ % 8-+ %:) 8.%4$ ;0;74: /=4 ? ;.- / 4@ 0 A B C + DE+ . D.%4$ F 1 / G84 H4I J 0 K / G ! # $ ,
  64. 64. ! # ! $ % ! $% # ( ) * +
  65. 65. , - . )$ % $ % $ ( )*+ , - ./ 0 % 0 1( 2 3 453 $ # 6 7 + # 8 # 8 #9: 6 9 ! % 4 ; $* + 9$ 8 9 + = 4 9 9 4 3 6 + = / % ? @ % A 9$ % B C 2
  66. 66. D ! ! % ! 0 % ! . E 8 F + 8 G D HG 0 .I ( G ; F ! J K ! % $ )* L J K :M = G D: D )*43 D # 9L / % 9LN O % P(Q 0 O 3 G *4 6 R 3 0 ) S 0 3 32 9 $4O R 3 @ ! $%
  67. 67. C L % TU3 * D $IL @ 3 C L ( ) / % V L $ WX A % % % % % % 1 ( $Y O 8 = 3: 43 % 1 $Y O 8 = 3: 43 % $ $ = $Z S / % $[ A : % B 3 :7 - S ] % = A^ $ @ 9$ % B * - $Y O 8 = 3: 43 % %
  68. 68. * $* _ 4+3 : 43 1 : 43 $* _ 4+3 % / % $ D S$ D S : + 8 3 + ! R R :` ( , !! / % $ a 6 $0 - 6 . %B b L ! !2 0 - 6 ! . %B bL:7 O ! ! ( c @ 3 :! ! :7 O ! / % A:9d 8 a 9 A:9e O % = 3 :C 2 * Sd ! - * f 8 3 :! % / % :7 L(N %B: a , ! :7 g + K hJ 3 : + L , ! , ! = V i :! ! % :7 O ! / %
  69. 69. :7 = + $ %B* O G L ! * D :7 D ^ h : @ 3 [ 34 3 % . + j 3 :! ! / % N( = 6 N D: % V , . !- f 8 3 :! ! = V i :! % :7 O ! / %C ; 3 3 8 :74+3 8 + . . . S % B . ( .I G V 0 : 2 % ! % % 2 % % % % % #)
  70. 70. SarfSarf is the science of Classical Arabic which deals with: 1. patterns of vowelization which indicate tense of a verb 2. designated endings which reflect the gender, plurality, and person of the Subject (the one doing the verb)Gender: There are two genders in Arabic: Masculine and Feminine. Unlike English, there is no neutralgender in Arabic. All nouns are masculine unless they are defined feminine, either by generalagreement e.g. Umm (Mother), shams (Sun), or by the the ending which is called ta marbuta.Plurality :In Arabic there are three ways of describing the number of nouns: single, dual, and plural(more than 2).Person: Similar to English, there are three persons in Arabic: 1st, 2nd, and 3rdAccording to the above scheme the Subject of a verb can cause 18 (2 x 3 x 3) changes to the patterns ofvowelization and designated endings of that verb. These are listed below:3rd person Masculine Singular/Dual/Plural 33rd person Feminine Singular/Dual/Plural 32nd person Masculine Singular/Dual/Plural 32nd person Feminine Singular/Dual/Plural 31st person Masculine Singular/Dual/Plural 31st person Feminine Singular/Dual/Plural 3However, the 1st person Masculine Singular/Dual and 1st person Feminine Singular/Dual are condensedas one; thus, the total is reduced by 4, bringing it to 14. A complete listing of these is given in the tablebelow (note: this is taken from page 20 of Hussain Abdul Sattar’s Book, Fundamentals of ClassicalArabic, available here).
  71. 71. Sarf - Variations of the Past TenseUntil now we have seen how to conjugate verbs using the simple past tense e.g. he ate, he helped, hedid etc. Now we will see how we can couple some words to the past tense verb and make it eitherpresent perfect e.g. he has helped or past perfect e.g. he had helped.Sticking the word in front of a past tense verb makes it present perfect. Thus, denotes actionswhich have just been completed e.g. he has helped, he has done, he has read etc. Note that is a(i.e. a particle) so it does not change its form with the changing form of the verb. As an example,means he helped and means he has helped. The significance of this will become clear when wedeal with the next section about making past perfect tense. One more thing to note is that you cannotattach a in front of to negate it: this construction is not allowed in Arabic.If we add in front of a past tense verb the verb becomes past perfect. Thus, denotes actionswhich have been completed in distant past. However, is a verb, just like , so it will also changeits form when coupled with the past tense verb. The following table shows how this is done: He had helped They (2 males) had helped They (many males) had helped She had helped They (2 females) had helped They (many females) had helped You (1 male)had helped
  72. 72. ! You (2 males) had helped #! # You (many males) had helped $ % You (1 female) had helped ! You (2 females) had helped ! You (many females) had helped ! I had helped We had helpedThe negation of this conjugation is constructed simply by adding a in front of it. Also, the passivevoice for this conjugation is constructed the same way as before: dhamma on the first letter, kasra onthe second last letter.
  73. 73. Sarf - - The Present and Future Tense is the tense in Arabic which conveys the meaning of both present (simple and continuous) andfuture tenses. The context and situation of the usage will determine which of the above three are meantto be conveyed. It is what is called the Imperfect tense in English i.e. the action is either going on or isstill to start.Unlike the , the is peculiar in its nature because it is characterized by the presence of one ofthe 4 letters, namely (hamza, taa, ya’a, nun) at the start of a word . Thus a verb willhave one of these 4 letters as a prefix. Plus, unlike the , the endings of verbs do not follow aset pattern but are rather based on loose groupings. Mentioned below are the prefix and suffix rules forthe 14 conjugations:Prefix Rules: 1. Conjugation 1,2,3, and 6 will have as prefix 2. Conjugations 4,5,7,8,9,10,11,12 will have as a prefix 3. Conjugation 13 will have as a prefix 4. Conjugation 14 will have as a prefixSuffix Rules: 1. 5 conjugations will have no suffix at all i.e. the last letter of the word will be the base letter of
  74. 74. the verb. These are conjugations 1,4,7, 13, and 14 2. 9 conjugations are further subdivided into 4 groups: The 4 duals ( 3rd person Dual Masculine/Feminine, 2nd person Dual Masculine/Feminine) will have an ending consisting of an followed by a with a kasra e.g. .These are conjugations 2,5,8, and 11 The 2 Masculine Plural Conjugations, number 3 and 9, will end in i.e. preceded by a dhamma and succeeded by a with a fatha e.g. ! # $ # % The 2 Feminine Plural Conjugations, number 6 and 12, will end with a sukun on the laam position of the verb followed by a with a fatha The 2nd person Singular Feminine, conjugation number 10, has the suffix # %i.e. a yaa saakin plus a with a fathae.g.# # $ # The Table below lists all these He does They (Dual, Male) do They (Plural, Male) do She does They (Dual, Female) do They (Plural, Female) do You (Singular, Male) do You (Dual, Male) do You (Plural, Male) do You (Singular, Female) do
  75. 75. You (Dual, Female) do You (Plural, Female) do I do We do The passive voice for the is constructed by:1. Putting a fatha on the second last letter (if not already a fatha)2. Adding a dhamma to the prefix Thus, ()*# becomes ()*#(he is helped, he is being helped, or he will be helped). % % Adding + in front of both active and passive voice of the will negate it

×