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Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

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brief mechanism of hydrogen fuelcell vehicles

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Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

  1. 1. Hydrogen Fuel CellHydrogen Fuel Cell VehiclesVehicles By:By: MANOJA M HMANOJA M H manojamh333@gmail.commanojamh333@gmail.com
  2. 2. Very Relevant TopicVery Relevant Topic The topic of alternative fuel vehicles isThe topic of alternative fuel vehicles is especially relevant given the events of theespecially relevant given the events of the last few weekslast few weeks As gas prices continueAs gas prices continue to rise this summer we’llto rise this summer we’ll likely see this topic getlikely see this topic get more and more attentionmore and more attention
  3. 3. Why Relevant?Why Relevant? Gas prices/Oil MarketGas prices/Oil Market  Oil currently around $73/barrelOil currently around $73/barrel  Projections have oil hitting $90/barrel thisProjections have oil hitting $90/barrel this summersummer  $4/gallon this summer? What about in 2010?$4/gallon this summer? What about in 2010?  How long will oil be around? What about easyHow long will oil be around? What about easy to get to oil? Is it already gone?to get to oil? Is it already gone? EnvironmentEnvironment Bush’s April 25Bush’s April 25thth “Plan”“Plan”
  4. 4. Alternate Fuel VehiclesAlternate Fuel Vehicles HybridsHybrids  Here now, but stillHere now, but still require gasrequire gas Ethanol/E85Ethanol/E85  Pushed by GMPushed by GM  More expensive, justMore expensive, just as dirty?as dirty?
  5. 5. Alternative Fuel VehiclesAlternative Fuel Vehicles Internal CombustionInternal Combustion HydrogenHydrogen  Slightly modified formSlightly modified form of internal combustionof internal combustion engineengine  Burns hydrogen,Burns hydrogen, produces pure waterproduces pure water exhaustexhaust  Serious rangeSerious range problemsproblems BMW has broken severalBMW has broken several speed records forspeed records for hydrogen cars and ishydrogen cars and is banking on cars that canbanking on cars that can run successfully on bothrun successfully on both gas and hydrogengas and hydrogen
  6. 6. Hydrogen Fuel CellsHydrogen Fuel Cells ““An old idea whose time has come”An old idea whose time has come”  Fuel cells invented in 1838 by Swiss scientistFuel cells invented in 1838 by Swiss scientist Christian Friedrich SchönbeinChristian Friedrich Schönbein Aspects of engines as well as batteriesAspects of engines as well as batteries No pollution emittedNo pollution emitted PEM FCs ideal for light-duty vehicles,PEM FCs ideal for light-duty vehicles, buildings & much smaller applicationsbuildings & much smaller applications
  7. 7. Hydrogen Fuel CellsHydrogen Fuel Cells Fuel cells are similar toFuel cells are similar to batteries, but designedbatteries, but designed for continuousfor continuous replenishment of energyreplenishment of energy via external fuelvia external fuel Many different types ofMany different types of fuel cells, most commonfuel cells, most common will likely be the PEM FCwill likely be the PEM FC Hydrogen and oxygen in,Hydrogen and oxygen in, water vapor and liquidwater vapor and liquid water outwater out Typical output is about .8Typical output is about .8 voltsvolts
  8. 8. Storage & EfficiencyStorage & Efficiency Two storage optionsTwo storage options 1.1. Produce the hydrogen on the ground and then storeProduce the hydrogen on the ground and then store it onboard the vehicle (theit onboard the vehicle (the direct hydrogen optiondirect hydrogen option)) 2.2. Produce the hydrogen on the vehicle by means of aProduce the hydrogen on the vehicle by means of a tiny onboard hydrogen plant (thetiny onboard hydrogen plant (the onboard fuelonboard fuel processor optionprocessor option)) Hydrogen FC’s 2 times as efficient as internalHydrogen FC’s 2 times as efficient as internal combustioncombustion  Internal combustion efficiency – 15-25%Internal combustion efficiency – 15-25%  Hydrogen FC’s – 50-60%Hydrogen FC’s – 50-60% Estimates that FC Vehicles can achieveEstimates that FC Vehicles can achieve equivalent of 80 miles/gallon gasoline.equivalent of 80 miles/gallon gasoline.
  9. 9. Fuel Cell StacksFuel Cell Stacks In order to produceIn order to produce enough voltage, cells areenough voltage, cells are grouped into stacksgrouped into stacks A hydrogen fuel cellA hydrogen fuel cell automobile would have atautomobile would have at least 45 cells in a stackleast 45 cells in a stack Hydrogen is stored andHydrogen is stored and injected in either liquid orinjected in either liquid or gas formgas form Many cells, but onlyMany cells, but only output is still liquid andoutput is still liquid and vapor watervapor water
  10. 10. Applications of Fuel CellApplications of Fuel Cell TechnologyTechnology CarsCars BusesBuses Space Travel & ExplorationSpace Travel & Exploration AirplanesAirplanes SubmarinesSubmarines Off-grid Power SupplyOff-grid Power Supply Combined Heat & PowerCombined Heat & Power
  11. 11. Fuel Cell VehiclesFuel Cell Vehicles Being pushed by car companies themselvesBeing pushed by car companies themselves  DaimlerChrysler – Several test cars in Japan andDaimlerChrysler – Several test cars in Japan and Singapore; UPS vans in 2003-04 in U.S.Singapore; UPS vans in 2003-04 in U.S.  Ford – 40-60 vehicles in Germany, Canada,Ford – 40-60 vehicles in Germany, Canada, California; widespread production by 2010California; widespread production by 2010  GM – wants to be first company to sell 1M FCVGM – wants to be first company to sell 1M FCV profitably; started with fuel cell backup systems inprofitably; started with fuel cell backup systems in 2005. Prototype is Hy-wire2005. Prototype is Hy-wire  Also Honda, Nissan, Toyota, Hyundai, VW, Mazda,Also Honda, Nissan, Toyota, Hyundai, VW, Mazda, others have FCV prototypes on the roadothers have FCV prototypes on the road Severing connection with gas prices?Severing connection with gas prices?
  12. 12. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle IssuesHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Issues Storage isStorage is complicatedcomplicated Limited rangeLimited range Expensive fuelExpensive fuel Still a fossil fuel?Still a fossil fuel?  Energy carrier, notEnergy carrier, not energy sourceenergy source *Infrastructure**Infrastructure*
  13. 13. Hydrogen SourcesHydrogen Sources
  14. 14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell VehicleHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle InfrastructureInfrastructure Hydrogen ProductionHydrogen Production  Almost all of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. todayAlmost all of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. today is by steam reforming of natural gasis by steam reforming of natural gas  Produce hydrogen directly from new nuclear powerProduce hydrogen directly from new nuclear power reactors?reactors?  R&D into several new methods:R&D into several new methods: Biological Water SplittingBiological Water Splitting Photoelectrochemical Water SplittingPhotoelectrochemical Water Splitting Reforming of Biomass and WastesReforming of Biomass and Wastes Solar Thermal Water SplittingSolar Thermal Water Splitting Renewable ElectrolysisRenewable Electrolysis
  15. 15. Hydrogen Fuel Cell VehicleHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle InfrastructureInfrastructure The Hydrogen HighwayThe Hydrogen Highway  World’s first hydrogenWorld’s first hydrogen refueling station openedrefueling station opened in Iceland in 2003in Iceland in 2003  California & Florida haveCalifornia & Florida have both approved fundingboth approved funding  BC Hydrogen HighwayBC Hydrogen Highway will link Vancouver &will link Vancouver & Whistler by start of 2010Whistler by start of 2010 Winter Olympic GamesWinter Olympic Games
  16. 16. EnvironmentEnvironment Why we are pursuing Hydrogen FCVs(?)Why we are pursuing Hydrogen FCVs(?) Emissions freeEmissions free There are costs associated withThere are costs associated with environmentalenvironmental damagedamage
  17. 17. EconomicsEconomics Current projections – several times theCurrent projections – several times the price of standard carsprice of standard cars Flexibility of oil industryFlexibility of oil industry  Manipulation of supply to keep oil just cheapManipulation of supply to keep oil just cheap enoughenough  At what point does it become worthwhile toAt what point does it become worthwhile to consumers?consumers? Cost of gas + environmental costs + dependencyCost of gas + environmental costs + dependency costs (political, militarily, social) > Cost of fuel cellcosts (political, militarily, social) > Cost of fuel cell cars + hydrogen fuel???cars + hydrogen fuel???
  18. 18. EconomicsEconomics Only 2 ways to reduceOnly 2 ways to reduce our dependence onour dependence on foreign oilforeign oil  Increase productionIncrease production  Decrease demandDecrease demand The push for hydrogenThe push for hydrogen fuel cell technology infuel cell technology in cars represents thecars represents the secondsecond
  19. 19. PoliticsPolitics Obvious connectionObvious connection between currentbetween current administration and oiladministration and oil companies andcompanies and certain oil producingcertain oil producing companiescompanies Some criticize a FCVSome criticize a FCV push as a cynical ploypush as a cynical ploy But…2006 State ofBut…2006 State of the Union Addressthe Union Address  Also, the 2003Also, the 2003 AddressAddress
  20. 20. Legal EnvironmentLegal Environment Energy Policy Act of 2005Energy Policy Act of 2005  §§ 721-723: Advanced Vehicles Demonstration &§§ 721-723: Advanced Vehicles Demonstration & Pilot ProgramPilot Program  § 743 – Fuel Cell School Buses§ 743 – Fuel Cell School Buses  § 773 – Study of Reducing Use of Fuel for§ 773 – Study of Reducing Use of Fuel for AutomobilesAutomobiles  § 782 – Federal & State Procurement of FCVs and§ 782 – Federal & State Procurement of FCVs and Hydrogen Energy SystemsHydrogen Energy Systems  § 1341 – Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit & Fuel Cell§ 1341 – Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit & Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle CreditMotor Vehicle Credit  § 1342 – Alternative Fuel Cell Infrastructure Tax§ 1342 – Alternative Fuel Cell Infrastructure Tax CreditCredit  § 1825 – Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technology Study§ 1825 – Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technology Study
  21. 21. Other StatutesOther Statutes Clean Air Act – 1990 AmendmentsClean Air Act – 1990 Amendments  § 211 – Emission Standards for Moving Sources§ 211 – Emission Standards for Moving Sources  § § 241-250 – Clean Fuel Vehicles§ § 241-250 – Clean Fuel Vehicles Many other federal incentive programs, includingMany other federal incentive programs, including IRS tax breaks for FCV purchasersIRS tax breaks for FCV purchasers State Incentives & RegulationsState Incentives & Regulations  E.g. California:E.g. California: 15 different incentive programs for AFVs15 different incentive programs for AFVs Hydrogen Energy PlanHydrogen Energy Plan  CA Hydrogen Highway NetworkCA Hydrogen Highway Network  Network of hydrogen refueling stations, safety standards,Network of hydrogen refueling stations, safety standards, commercial availability by 2010commercial availability by 2010
  22. 22. So Where Are We At?So Where Are We At? Hydrogen is only type of energy that can provideHydrogen is only type of energy that can provide a wholesale substitute for foreign oil within aa wholesale substitute for foreign oil within a decadedecade Clean, twice as efficient as internal combustion,Clean, twice as efficient as internal combustion, and plentifuland plentiful But like manned space flight in early 60s,But like manned space flight in early 60s, hydrogen fuel cells are proven but primitivehydrogen fuel cells are proven but primitive  Do we need a 10 year goal ala Kennedy?Do we need a 10 year goal ala Kennedy? Currently several times (10x?) more expensiveCurrently several times (10x?) more expensive
  23. 23. RecommendationRecommendation We should aggressively pursue hydrogen fuelWe should aggressively pursue hydrogen fuel cell vehiclescell vehicles There are definite issues, but nothing comparedThere are definite issues, but nothing compared to the economic, political and environmentalto the economic, political and environmental issues associated with being wholly dependentissues associated with being wholly dependent on oil.on oil. A Kennedy-type goal, combined with gas pricesA Kennedy-type goal, combined with gas prices continuing to rise at the current rate could get uscontinuing to rise at the current rate could get us there by 2010-15, possibly even sooner.there by 2010-15, possibly even sooner. Americans will need to look beyond the stickerAmericans will need to look beyond the sticker priceprice
  24. 24. Major SourcesMajor Sources National Renewable Energy LaboratoryNational Renewable Energy Laboratory http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/proj_production_delivery.hthttp://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/proj_production_delivery.ht mlml DoE Alternative Fuels Data CenterDoE Alternative Fuels Data Center http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/epact_2005.htmlhttp://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/epact_2005.html Hydrogen Fuel Cell RealmHydrogen Fuel Cell Realm http://www.geocities.com/aardduck/fc_basic.htmlhttp://www.geocities.com/aardduck/fc_basic.html Wired Magazine –Wired Magazine – How Hydrogen Can Save AmericaHow Hydrogen Can Save America Bosselman et al.,Bosselman et al., Energy, Economics and theEnergy, Economics and the EnvironmentEnvironment FuelCellWorks.comFuelCellWorks.com Cnn.com, WikipediaCnn.com, Wikipedia

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