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Database Management Systems<br />Chapter 15Methodology - Conceptual Databases Design<br />Presented By:<br />ManojNolkha 9...
Contents<br />Objectives of a Good Design<br />Objectives of Database Design<br />Database Design Methodology<br />Phases ...
Objectives of a Good Design<br />Information requirements must be determined during the design process, and the database m...
Objectives of Database Design <br />How to decompose the scope of the design into specific views of the enterprise<br />Ho...
Design  Methodology<br />A structured approach that uses procedures, techniques, tools, and documentation aids to support ...
Phases of Database Design<br />Conceptual:<br />	Process of constructing a model of the data used in an enterprise, indepe...
Phases of Database Design<br />Physical:<br />The process of producing a description of the implementation of the database...
Critical Success Factors in Database Design<br />Work interactively with the users as much as possible<br />Follow a struc...
Critical Success Factors in Database Design<br />Use diagrams to represent as much of the data models as possible<br />Use...
Methodology Overview -<br />Conceptual Database Design<br />10<br />
Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Conceptual database design<br />Step 1   Build conceptual data  model<br />Step ...
Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 1   Build conceptual data model  (continue)<br />Step 1.6  Consider use of ...
Methodology Overview -<br />Logical Database Design<br />13<br />
Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Logical database design for the relational model<br />Step 2   Build and validat...
Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 2   Build and validate logical data model (continue)<br />Step 2.5  Review ...
Methodology Overview -<br />Physical Database Design<br />16<br />
Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Physical database design for relational database<br />Step 3  Translate logical ...
Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 4  Design file organizations and indexes<br />Step 4.1  Analyze transaction...
Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 5  Design user views<br />Step 6  Design security mechanisms<br />Step 7  C...
Building Conceptual Data<br />20<br />
Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br />To build a conceptual data model of an enterprise for each specific view.<br />Model com...
Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.2  Identify relationship types</li></ul>To identify the important relatio...
Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.3  Identify and associate attributes with entity or relationship types</l...
Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.4  Determine attribute domains</li></ul>To determine domains for the attr...
Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.5  Determine candidate, primary, and alternate key attributes</li></ul>To...
Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.6  Consider use of enhanced modeling concepts (optional step)</li></ul>To...
Step 1 Build Conceptual Data Model<br />Step 1.7  Check model for redundancy<br />To check for the presence of any redunda...
Extract from data dictionary for Staff user views of DreamHomeshowing description of entities<br />28<br />
First-cut ER diagram for Staff user views of DreamHome<br />29<br />
Extract from data dictionary for Staff user views of DreamHome showing description of relationships<br />30<br />
Extract from data dictionary for Staff user views of DreamHome showing description of attributes<br />31<br />
ER diagram for Staff user views of DreamHome with primary keys added<br />32<br />
Revised ER diagram for Staff user views of DreamHome with specialization / generalization<br />33<br />
Example of removing a redundant relationship called Rents<br />34<br />
Example of a non-redundant relationship FatherOf<br />35<br />
Using pathways to check that the conceptual model supports the user transactions<br />36<br />
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Methodology conceptual databases design roll no. 99 & 111

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Methodology conceptual databases design roll no. 99 & 111

  1. 1. Database Management Systems<br />Chapter 15Methodology - Conceptual Databases Design<br />Presented By:<br />ManojNolkha 99<br />Swarna Murthy 111<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Objectives of a Good Design<br />Objectives of Database Design<br />Database Design Methodology<br />Phases of Database Design<br />Critical Success factors in Database Design<br />Methodology Overview<br />Building Conceptual Data<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Objectives of a Good Design<br />Information requirements must be determined during the design process, and the database must store the data necessary to support those requirements and requests.<br />Database describes only one subject, has relatively distinct fields, contains an absolute minimum amount of redundant data, and is identified by a field with unique values.<br />Ensure that the data provides valid and accurate information that is always meaningful to the business.<br />Ensure that the database structure will be easy to modify or expand as the information requirements of the business change and grow.<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Objectives of Database Design <br />How to decompose the scope of the design into specific views of the enterprise<br />How to use Entity–Relationship (ER) modeling to build a conceptual data model based on the data requirements of an enterprise<br />How to validate the resultant conceptual model to ensure it is a true and accurate representation of the data requirements enterprise<br />How to document the process of conceptual database design<br />End-users play an integral role throughout the process of conceptual database design<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Design Methodology<br />A structured approach that uses procedures, techniques, tools, and documentation aids to support and facilitate the process of design.<br />Three main phases<br />Conceptual database design<br />Logical database design<br />Physical database design<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Phases of Database Design<br />Conceptual:<br /> Process of constructing a model of the data used in an enterprise, independent of all physical considerations<br />Logical:<br />Process of constructing a model of the data used in an enterprise based on a specific data model (e.g. relational), but independent of a particular DBMS and other physical considerations<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Phases of Database Design<br />Physical:<br />The process of producing a description of the implementation of the database on secondary storage<br />It describes the <br />base relations<br />file organizations, and <br />indexes design <br />used to achieve efficient access to the data, and any associated<br />integrity constraints and security measures<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Critical Success Factors in Database Design<br />Work interactively with the users as much as possible<br />Follow a structured methodology throughout the data modelingprocess<br />Employ a data-driven approach<br />Incorporate structural and integrity considerations into the data models<br />Combine conceptualization, normalization, and transaction validation techniques into the data modelingmethodology<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Critical Success Factors in Database Design<br />Use diagrams to represent as much of the data models as possible<br />Use a Database Design Language (DBDL) to represent additional data semantics<br />Build a data dictionary to supplement the data model diagrams<br />Be willing to repeat steps<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Methodology Overview -<br />Conceptual Database Design<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Conceptual database design<br />Step 1 Build conceptual data model<br />Step 1.1 Identify entity types<br />Step 1.2 Identify relationship types<br />Step 1.3 Identify and associate attributes with entity or relationship types<br />Step 1.4 Determine attribute domains<br />Step 1.5 Determine candidate, primary, and alternate key attributes<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 1 Build conceptual data model (continue)<br />Step 1.6 Consider use of enhanced modeling concepts (optional step)<br />Step 1.7 Check model for redundancy<br />Step 1.8 Validate conceptual model against user transactions<br />Step 1.9 Review conceptual data model with user<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Methodology Overview -<br />Logical Database Design<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Logical database design for the relational model<br />Step 2 Build and validate logical data model<br />Step 2.1 Derive relations for logical data model<br />Step 2.2 Validate relations using normalization<br />Step 2.3 Validate relations against user transactions<br />Step 2.4 Define integrity constraints<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 2 Build and validate logical data model (continue)<br />Step 2.5 Review logical data model with user<br />Step 2.6 Merge logical data models into global model (optional step)<br />Step 2.7 Check for future growth<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Methodology Overview -<br />Physical Database Design<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Physical database design for relational database<br />Step 3 Translate logical data model for target DBMS<br />Step 3.1 Design base relations<br />Step 3.2 Design representation of derived data <br />Step 3.3 Design general constraints <br />17<br />
  18. 18. Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 4 Design file organizations and indexes<br />Step 4.1 Analyze transactions<br />Step 4.2 Choose file organization<br />Step 4.3 Choose indexes<br />Step 4.4 Estimate disk space requirements<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Overview Database Design Methodology<br />Step 5 Design user views<br />Step 6 Design security mechanisms<br />Step 7 Consider the introduction of controlled redundancy <br />Step 8 Monitor and tune the operational system<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Building Conceptual Data<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br />To build a conceptual data model of an enterprise for each specific view.<br />Model comprises entity types, relationship types, attributes and attribute domains, primary and alternate keys, and integrity constraints.<br /><ul><li>Step 1.1 Identify entity types</li></ul>To identify the required entity types.<br />21<br />Staff, Businessowner, Property for Rent, Supervisor, Branch, Client, PrivateOwner, Lease, Preference<br />
  22. 22. Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.2 Identify relationship types</li></ul>To identify the important relationships that exist between the entity types.<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.3 Identify and associate attributes with entity or relationship types</li></ul>To associate attributes with the appropriate entity or relationship types and document the details of each attribute<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.4 Determine attribute domains</li></ul>To determine domains for the attributes in the data model and document the details of each domain<br />24<br />(e.g. Domain of Branch_No attribute of Branch entity includes a three-character string, with values ranging from B1 to B99)<br />
  25. 25. Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.5 Determine candidate, primary, and alternate key attributes</li></ul>To identify the candidate key(s) for each entity and if there is more than one candidate key, to choose one to be the primary key and the others as alternate keys<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Step 1 Build Conceptual Data<br /><ul><li>Step 1.6 Consider use of enhanced modeling concepts (optional step)</li></ul>To consider the use of enhanced modeling concepts, such as specialization / generalization, aggregation, and composition<br />26<br />
  27. 27. Step 1 Build Conceptual Data Model<br />Step 1.7 Check model for redundancy<br />To check for the presence of any redundancy in the model and to remove any that does exist<br />Step 1.8 Validate conceptual model against user transactions<br />To ensure that the conceptual model supports the required transactions required by the view<br />Step1.9 Review conceptual data model with user<br />To review the conceptual data model with the user to ensure that the model is a ‘true’ representation of the data requirements of the enterprise<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Extract from data dictionary for Staff user views of DreamHomeshowing description of entities<br />28<br />
  29. 29. First-cut ER diagram for Staff user views of DreamHome<br />29<br />
  30. 30. Extract from data dictionary for Staff user views of DreamHome showing description of relationships<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Extract from data dictionary for Staff user views of DreamHome showing description of attributes<br />31<br />
  32. 32. ER diagram for Staff user views of DreamHome with primary keys added<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Revised ER diagram for Staff user views of DreamHome with specialization / generalization<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Example of removing a redundant relationship called Rents<br />34<br />
  35. 35. Example of a non-redundant relationship FatherOf<br />35<br />
  36. 36. Using pathways to check that the conceptual model supports the user transactions<br />36<br />

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