Prepared By: Manoj Patel
JHUNJHUNWALA BUSINESS SCHOOL, FAIZABAD
Definition: A questionnaire is a set of
carefully planned written questions related to a
particular research topic which, when submitted
to and answered accurately by properly selected
persons called respondents, will supply data to
complete the research project.
Advantages of the Questionnaire
1. The questionnaire is easy to construct.
2. Distribution is easy and inexpensive.
3. Tabulation of responses is easy.
4. The respondent’s replies are of his own.
5. Confidential information may be given freely.
6. Respondents can fill out the questionnaire at their own
7. More accurate replies may be given.
Disadvantages of a Questionnaire
1. The questionnaire cannot be used with illiterates.
2. Some or many respondents may not return the questionnaire.
3. A respondent may give a wrong information.
4. Respondents may leave some or many items unanswered.
5. Some questions or items may be vague to the respondents.
6. The number of choices may be very limited.
Construction of a Questionnaire
The following are the steps in the construction of a
1. Making research in the library. There might be some
theses or dissertations dealing with studies similar to the
research problem at hand. The questionnaire in these studies
may serve as models in the construction of one.
2. Interviewing knowledgeable people. Talking to people
who know the principles of questionnaire construction may
help a lot.
3. Mastering the guidelines. The guidelines learned from the
theses and dissertations and from knowledgeable people must
be mastered before writing a questionnaire.
4. Writing the questionnaire. Write the questionnaire
following as much as possible the guidelines learned.
5. Editing the questionnaire. After the questionnaire has been
written, it must be shown to people who know about
questionnaire construction, especially to an adviser if there is
one, for correction and suggestions for the improvement of the
6. Rewriting the questionnaire. The questionnaire must be
rewritten according to corrections and suggestions for the
improvement of the questionnaire.
7. Pretesting the questionnaire. This is called a dry run. This
is the process of determining the validity and reliability of the
questionnaire and determining the clarity of the items, the
difficulty in answering them, the proper time length of
answering, attractiveness and other problems.
8. Writing the questionnaire in its final form. The
questionnaire should now be written in its final form after
making the necessary corrections, adjustments, and revisions
after the dry run.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS ASKED IN SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES
A. According to form:
1. The free – answer type. The respondent is free to answer
the question in his own words and his own way. This is called
the open form, open – ended, subjective, unrestricted, essay,
free response, and unguided response type.
2. The guided response type. This is also called the closed
form or restricted type. The respondent is guided in making his
reply. There are two kinds of this type (a) recall and (b)
a. Recall Type. The replies are recalled and supplied.
Example: Please supply the following asked for:
(a) Graduate Course finished _________
(b) School graduated from ___________
(c) Year of graduation _______________
b. Recognition Type. There are options given and the
respondent chooses his reply or replies. There are three
types: dichotomous, multiple choice, and multiple response.
1. Dichotomous. There are only two options and one is chosen.
Example: Are you employed? Yes ____ No____
2. Multiple Choice. Several options are given but only one is
elected as a reply.
Example: What program do you prefer to take? Please
_____ Education _____ Nursing
_____ Commerce _____ Optometry
_____ Medicine _____ Computer
_____ Engineering _____ Others
3. Multiple Response. Two or more options may be chosen
from those given.
Example: Why do you used Hapee toothpaste? Please
check your answers.
______ It sweetens my breath
______ It makes my mouth fresh
______ It prevents tooth decay
______ It is cheap
______ It is available all the time
______ It is made in the country
______ It is economical
B. According to the Type of Data asked for:
1. Descriptive Data (Verbal Data)
Example: In What kind of community do you live. Please
2. Quantitative Data (Numerical Data)
Examples: (1) What is your daily wage? ____
(2) What is the total income of your family?____
3. Intensity of Feeling, Emotion or Attitude
Example: Do you agree that RH bill be implemented?
Please check your attitude.
_____ Strongly agree
_____ Fairly agree
_____ Strongly disagree
4. Degree of Judgment
(1) How serious is drug addiction in your university?
______ Very Serious
______ Fairly Serious
______ Not Serious
______ Not a Problem
(2) How efficient is your graduate statistics Professor? Please
______ Very efficient
______ Fairly efficient
______ Very inefficient
Example: Explain what a dictatorship form of
Example: Why do you prefer a surprise examinations in
statistics for research?
Important Characteristics of Research Instruments
including the Questionnaire
I. Validity – means the accuracy by which an instrument
gathers information for which it is intended to gather.
Example: If data about the teaching of statistics are needed,
then the instrument must gather data about the teaching of
statistics and not data about the teaching of any other subject.
II. Reliability – means consistency of measurement that is, if
an instrument administered to the same group it should give the
same or about the same average measures of the two groups.
Guidelines in the Formulation of Items or Questions for a
1. Make the questionnaire as valid and as reliable as
possible. To do this, the following suggestions are offered:
a. Make all directions brief, clear and unequivocal. While
there are general directions, there should be a direction for
every specific type of questions asked.
Poor direction for multiple choice items: Answer the
Better: For each question, choose the best answer from among
those given and put a check mark before your choice.
b. Use correct grammar. Punctuation marks should be placed
properly to avoid misinterpretation.
Example of poor grammar: Please accomplish the
questionnaire as soon as possible return it.
Better: Please accomplish the questionnaire and return it as
soon as possible.
c. Make all questions brief, clear and unequivocal. Specify
the precise units in which the answer is to be given to avoid
Vague Question: What is your income?
Better: What is your monthly income?
Poor Question: Are you married or not?
Better: Are you married?
d. Avoid asking biased or leading questions. A biased or
leading questions is one in which there is veiled suggestion for
Example of a biased question: Do you use Hapee Toothpaste?
If no, what brand do you use? In this question, there is veiled
suggestion to make Hapee as the answer. The respondent may
think that because Hapee is mentioned, it is the best toothpaste,
and so has the tendency to say yes.
Better: What brand of toothpaste do you use?
Example of a leading question: Why do you use Hapee
toothpaste? This is a leading question if there is no preceding
question asking what brand of toothpaste the respondent is
using. If he says he is using Hapee toothpaste, the question is
good. However, if the respondent answers the question without
telling him first that he is using Hapee, that is an admission that
he is using Hapee although actually he is not.
e. Objectify Responses. This is to make easier for the
respondent to make replies and for the standardization of
responses for easier tabulation.
Example: Why do you use Hapee toothpaste? Instead of
requiring the respondent to write his responses, give all the
possible reasons and let him check his replies.
____ It sweetens my breath better
____ It makes my mouth feel fresher
____ It is cheaper
____ It is available all the time
____ It last longer
____ Others, please specify
f. Relate all questions to the topic under study. All questions
must gather data relevant to the study. If the study is about the
teaching of behavioral statistics, all questions should gather
data that have something to do with the teaching of behavioral
g. Create categories or classes for approximate answers.
There are questions that cannot be answered with the precise
units desired. Create categories or classes that accommodate
such approximate replies. Such categories may be qualitative or
How adequate are the library references in USJ-R?
______ Very adequate
______ Fairly adequate
______ Very inadequate
How much commission do you earned a month by selling cars?
_____ P3,000 – under P6,000
_____ P6,000 – under P9,000
_____ P9,000 – under P12,000
_____ P 12,000 – under P15,000
_____ P15,000 – under P18,000
h. Group the questions or items in logical sequence.
The following are some ways of grouping questions:
1. Questions or items may be grouped according to the specific
questions asked under “Statement of the Problem”. All
questions that gather data to answer one specific question
should be grouped together.
Example: Specific Question: How qualified are the professors
handling statistics? All questions dealing with degrees earned,
majors or specializations, units in statistics, special training and
seminars in statistics attended, teaching experiences, and
aptitude in statistics should be grouped together.
2. Questions that deal with items that are logically related
should be grouped together.
Example: Question about demographic characteristics such as
age, sex, civil status, place of birth, ethnic origin, native
language, etc. should be grouped together.
3. In each grouping, easier questions should be asked first.
4. Questions should be given in successive steps if the study
deals with a process such as rice farming, building
i. Create a sufficient number of response categories. This is
to include the respondent’s correct choice. If the correct choice
of the respondent is not included among the options and he is
required to make a response, his reply would be wrong.
Example: Do you agree that statistics be taught by
______ Agree ______ Disagree
If the respondent does not know which is better, to
allow or not to allow mathematicians to teach
statistics, his response is not among the options and
if he is required to answer, his answer is wrong.
Better number of responses or options:
______ Uncertain or do not know
______ Strongly disagree
j. Word carefully or avoid questions that deal with
confidential or embarrassing information. Suppose a woman
respondent has left her husband. You want to know why she
left her husband in connection with your study on family
Poor Question: Why did you leave your husband? The causes
might be too embarrassing to reveal and so she may give
distorted reasons that reduces the validity of the questionnaire.
Better Question: In your opinion, why do some wives leave their
husbands? If all possible reasons are given, she may check
those that apply to her since the question does not specifically
or directly refer to her.
k. Explain and/or illustrate difficult questions. Difficult
questions especially those with unfamiliar technical terms
should be clarified or illustrated to avoid misunderstanding and
a wrong reply.
l. State all questions in the affirmative. A question in the
affirmative can be answered categorically but a categorical
reply to a question in the negative has to be explained.
Example: Are you employed or not? If the respondent is not
employed he can say yes but this is vague. So if he is employed
his answer should be “Yes, I am employed” or “ No, I am not
Better: Are you employed? This can be answered by a
categorical yes if the respondent is employed or by categorical
no if he is not employed.
m. Add catch – all word or phrase to options of multiple
response questions. This is important because the respondent
may have additional information which he may want to give.
Example: Why did you take up psychology as your
____ I am interested in HRD positions. I love to
deal with job applicants
____ It is unique from other courses
____ It is easy to get a position after graduation
____ The salary is good enough for me
____ Others (Please specify)
The word “Others” is the catch – all word.
n. Make the respondents anonymous. This will make the
respondents give true information freely thinking that they will
not be held liable to any offense since they are not known.
o. Pre-test the questionnaire after writing it. This is
important to determine the worth of the questionnaire. The
process is to administer the questionnaire to at least ten persons
who have the same characteristics as those who are to be
requested to fill up the questionnaire but who will not be
involved anymore in the study. Then after the administration of
the questionnaire, the pre-test respondents may be asked to the
1. Are the directions, statements, questions, or items clear and
unequivocal? Are they brief but unambiguous?
2. Do the questions or items gather intended data? Are the
responses those called for?
3. Are there sufficient numbers of possible responses or choices
for multiple choice and multiple questions? Are all possible
replies to a question included?
4. Are all data to be gathered relevant to the topic of the study?
5. Is the questionnaire organized in its proper format? Are the
items grouped logically?
6. Is answering the questions easy enough? Are the replies so
objectified that replies are only in the form of check marks,
letters, numbers or short words or phrases? What difficulties
have been encountered in filing of the questionnaire.
7. Are all questions or items worded carefully so as to avoid
embarrassment or indictment? Are they in correct grammar?
8. Are there catch – all words or phrases for multiple response
9. Is the questionnaire free from all kinds of bias?
10. Are the respondents anonymous?
11. Are the data to be gathered by the questionnaire sufficient
and adequate enough to complete the study and to make the
conclusions and other generalizations valid and tenable?
12. Is the questionnaire too long that it becomes boring to
finish filing it up?
13. If some questions are not answered, why are they not
14. Are the spaces for writing the replies adequate and properly
15. What suggestions can you give to improve the questionnaire?
What items should be eliminated, added, or clarified?
2. The questionnaire should be accompanied by a good cover
A good cover letter in the form of a request should be made
as cordially and politely as possible to make the instrument more
acceptable to the respondents. The letter should explain the
purpose of the study, the importance of accomplishing it and
within reasonable period of time, that the information gathered
should be kept and treated as confidentially as possible to avoid
any embarrassment or trouble to anyone, and with a promise that
the respondents shall be informed of the results of the study if
they so desire.
3. The questionnaire must be accompanied,
if possible, by a letter of recommendation
from a sponsor. The sponsor should be one
who has some influence over the respondent to
insure the accomplishment and return of the
Definition: An interview is a verbal interaction between two
persons, one called the interviewer who ask questions to gather
information and the other called the interviewee who supplies
the information ask for.
Advantages of the Interview
Among the advantages of the interview are the
1. It yields a more complete and valid information.
If there is a reply of doubtful value, the interviewer can at once
check veracity of such information.
2. It can be used with all kinds of people. Anybody, literate
or uneducated, rich or poor, laborer or otherwise, can be
3. Any vague point can be clarified at once. This will enable
the interviewee to give accurate information.
4. Subliminal cues may be observed by the interviewer. The
non – verbal reactions of the interviewee such as the expression
of his face, the nodding or shaking of his head, and the gestures
of his hands may reveal some important facts that are useful to
5. Only the interviewee can make a reply.
The responses are truly of the respondent’s,
unlike in the questionnaire in which the
respondent may delegate somebody to
accomplish it making the responses of doubtful
6. There is flexibility. The interviewer can
always modify the conduct of the interview
whenever there is a need.
DISADVANTAGES OF THE INTERVIEW
Among the disadvantages of the interview are the
1. Some respondents are hard to contact. This is true
especially if the respondents are too busy or are abroad at the
time of the interview.
2. It is expensive. This is true if the study is big and many
interviewers are needed. Expenses for training of interviewers
plus their salaries may be too big.
3. Some responses may be inaccurate. This is true if the
respondent has no time to consult his records if pressed for an
4. It is time consuming. This is true if the researcher alone
conducts the interview.
5. It is inconvenient for both interviewer and interviewee.
There is inconvenience if the interview is conducted in an
unholy hour or if the interviewee is too busy. The interviewer
has to travel also long distances
6. Important data may be witheld. Since there is no
anonymity, the interviewee may evade to answer some
embarrassing questions or may withold some
important confidential information if he does not trust
7. Some bias may be introduced. There is always the
tendency for interviewers to get some information that
would redound to their expectations or benefit or that
would benefit their interview employers and so they
unknowingly introduce what is known as
8. Standardization of questions and
responses may be lessened. When an
interviewer revises a question because of
certain reasons, the standardization of the
questions and the responses is lessened and
categorization and tabulation become difficult.
TYPES OR CLASSES OF INTERVIEWS
Treece and Treece Jr. Classify interviews as follows:
1. Standardized interview. In this type of interview, the
interviewer is not allowed to change the specific wordings
of the questions in the interview instrument. This is the
same as the formal interview and structured interview.
2. Non-standardized interview. In this type of interview, the
interviewer is not tied up to the interview instrument. He
may revise or explain the questions as he sees fit depending
upon the situation. This is the same as the informal interview
and non – structured interview.
3. Semi – standardized interview. In this
type, there are listed major questions to be
asked and once they are asked and
answered, the interviewer is free to ask any
question as he sees fit depending upon the
situation. This is the same as the semi –
formal or semi – structured interview.
THE INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT
Types of Interview Instruments
I. The interview schedule. The interview schedule is the same
as a questionnaire. The preparation and validation of an
interview schedule are the same as those of the questionnaire.
The only difference is that in the interview schedule the
questions are asked orally by the interviewer and the
interviewee answers also orally. Besides, it is the interviewer
who writes the answer of the interviewee. In the questionnaire,
the respondent himself reads the questions and writes his
Remark: The interview schedule is usually used in
standardized or structured interviews.
II. The interview guide. The interview guide does not ask
specific questions but only provides general ideas from
which the interviewer derives his questions to get the
needed information. The interviewer is free to ask any
question depending upon the situation but of course the
questions must be relevant to the major question or idea
provided by the interview guide.
Remark: The interview guide is usually used in non-
standardized or semi – standardized interviews.
Example: An interview guide for gathering data about the
teaching of statistics in the tertiary level.
Name (Optional) ______________________ Date _________
Educational Qualifications of statistics instructors/professors
Methods and strategies in teaching college statistics
Facilities in the teaching of college statistics
Supervisory assistance to the instructors / professors
Problems encountered in teaching statistics
Proposed solutions to the problems
STEPS IN THE INTERVIEW
The following are the steps or pointers to be
followed in the interview:
1. Preparatory step. The following are included in the planning
a. Preparation of the instrument whether interview schedule or
b. Selection of the population and locale of the interviews.
c. Selection of the interviewees.
d. Selection of the type of interview whether structured or
2. Making a survey of the specific places for interviews. For
general research, the interviewer naturally goes to the dwelling
places of the interviewees or to their places of work. What is
important is that the place of the interview must be as quiet as
possible with minimum distractions.
3. Established rapport. There must be a cordial and friendly
atmosphere between the interviewer and the interviewee. The
interviewer must take pains in establishing one. He must
explain as politely as he can the purpose and importance of the
interview. The interviewee may have some benefit otherwise it
must be clear to him the information he imparts will be treated
with the utmost confidentiality and that he will not be placed in
any compromising or embarrassing situation nor will there be
any indictment brought against him for any information he
4. Carrying out the interview. Conduct in a polite,
friendly, and conversational manner. Praise and
thank the interviewee for many important
information that he imparts. If the interviewee
finds difficult in expressing himself, the
interviewer may help him out but he must
maintain his objectivity. He must avoid being
biased . The interviewer must also be very tactful.
If the respondents becomes uncooperative , the
interviewer must use all his resourcefulness in
winning back the cooperation of the interviewee.
5. Recording the interview. Record the interview
results immediately with the utmost objectivity.
Record exactly what the respondent said and shown
overtly. Do not interpret yet.
6. Closing the interview. In closing the interview.
Thank the interviewee for the data he has given and
the inconvenience he has gone through. Make him
feel that he has contributed a great deal to the
completion of the data you need.
WHAT TO AVOID IN INTERVIEWS
There are things that may spoil an interview and
should be avoided. Among of these are the following:
1. Avoid forcing an interview upon a respondent.
He may not give accurate and reliable information.
2. Avoid arguing. Disagreeing with or contradicting
the interviewee often may make him withhold vital
data for fear of being contradicted again.
3. Avoid pressing unduly the respondent for a
reply. He may give wrong information just to comply.
4. Avoid using unfamiliar language to the
interviewee. If he does not understand the language,
he may make a wrong reply or does not reply at all.
5. Avoid talking about things not related to the
topic of the interview. This will prolong the
interview and will bring more inconvenience to both
interviewer and interviewee.
6. Avoid embarrassing the interviewee. Word very carefully
questions that deal with morality, integrity, or sexual habits.
Touch very gently, if unavoidable.
7. Avoid appearing too high in social status. If the
interviewee feels that he is too low in education, knowledge
and social status compared with his interviewer he becomes
shy and may not cooperate.
8. Avoid conducting the interview in an unholy hour. When
the respondent is too busy attending to some important matter,
or when he is hungry, or the like, it is not wise to interview him
specially if the interview is a long one. He may not cooperate
fully. Wait for some opportune time.
Definition: Observation is gathering data by
means of the senses such as sight, hearing,
taste, touch, and smell. The sense of sight is the
most important and the most used among the
senses. Observation is very much used in
studying overt behavior.
PURPOSES OF OBSERVATION
The following are purposes of observation (why
observation is needed).
1. To gather empirical data difficult to gather by other
means. This is especially true in anthropological studies where
the life cycle, social and economic activities, the motivations
and aspirations, and other beliefs and practices of a group are
to be described in more detail.
2. To gather data to supplement or to verify data gathered
by other means. For instance, data gathered by a questionnaire
show that the library is rich. An occular inspection may verify
the truth of the data gathered by the questionnaire.
3. To gather data which can be obtained only through
observation. In individual case studies, especially in clinical,
psychiatric cases, observation of the behavior of the subjects is
an indispensable tool in gathering data for the case studies.
4. To gather directly primary or first-hand information.
This is to make description and interpretation more valid and
5. To gather data through experimentation. Observation is
indispensable in experimentation. The results of experiments
are collected only through observation. Generally, data
gathered by means of experimentation are more valid and
reliable because the variables involved are under the control of
TYPES OF OBSERVATION
I. Participant and nonparticipant observation
a. In participant observation, the observer engages himself in
the activities of the group being observed. He may even live
and work with the group for a length of time to enable him to
learn all the ins and outs of the activities of the group, its
beliefs, customs, and traditions, etc. Anthropologists usually do
this in studying tribal groups.
b. In nonparticipant observation, the observer does not
participate in the activities of the group being observed. He is
just a bystander using his five senses gathering data for his
II. Structured and Unstructured Observation.
a. In structured observation, the items of a variable to be
observed are specified and listed down. This is usually used in
b. Unstructured observation, on the other hand, is one in
which the observer does not have any list of items to be
observed. Any object, condition, situation, or behavior that is
relevant to the research investigation is included in the
observation. Unstructured observation is generally used in
participant or uncontrolled observation.
III. Controlled and Uncontrolled Observation.
a. Controlled observation is used in experimental
studies in which the experimental as well as the non-
experimental variables are manipulated and controlled
by the experimenter. While the experimental variable
is manipulated by the researcher, the non-
experimental variables are kept constant or are kept
equal so that change in the dependent variables is
attributable only to the independent variable.
Controlled observation is usually done in the
b. In uncontrolled observation, no attempt is made
to control the variables to be observed. In many cases,
the variables to be observed are beyond the control of
the observer. This is especially true in observing
natural phenomena and the behavior of subjects
involved in status studies. Uncontrolled observation is
similar to unstructured observation and is usually
utilized in participant observation.
ADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION
The following are the advantages of observation:
1. The information gathered is more accurate, valid, and
reliable. This is so because the information is direct, first-hand
2. Observation can be made as long and as many times it is
needed. The observer can make long and several observations
to ensure the accuracy and reliability of his data.
3. Observation is the only technique of collecting data from
inanimate objects and nonverbal behavior. No other means
can be used to collect such data
4. The subjects of the inquiry can be observed in their
natural setting. This will ensure a more accurate and valid
interpretation of data. This is especially true in participant,
uncontrolled and unstructured or even in controlled
5. Observation results can be checked and verified. If
observation has been delegated and the results are of doubtful
value, the results can be checked and verified by another or
repeated observations by different observers may be made.
CHARACTERISTICS OF OBSERVATION FOR RESEARCH
Observation for systematic investigational purposes
may be distinguished from ordinary observation as follows:
(Good and Scates)
1. Observation is specific. The observation is specific with
carefully defined data to look for, not just looking around for
2. Observation is systematic. There must be a system in the
observation. It is not merely a chance “dropping in” on a
situation at any time when one happens to be passing by. The
length of the periods of observation, the interval between them,
and the number of observations are carefully planned.
CHARACTERISTICS OF OBSERVATION FOR RESEARCH
3. Observation is quantitative. The observation is
quantitative, usually with a tally of the number of instances of a
particular type of behavior has occurred; sometimes a total
duration of the particular conduct during the period of
observation, or some other accountable or measurable
characteristic; sometimes a diagram is made showing special
4. Observation is recorded immediately. A record is made of
the observation immediately, or as promptly as possible, not
entrusting the recording of the results to memory.
CHARACTERISTICS OF OBSERVATION FOR RESEARCH
5. Observation is expert. Observation is expert, that is, it is
done by an investigator who has special training for such
work. This is essentially true in clinical and psychiatric cases
where expert observation skills and techniques are very much
needed. However, in ordinary community and school surveys
where graduate students are generally engaged, the investigator
– observer need not be very trained to be able to gather data for
6. Observation is objective. The results of observation must
be recorded as they are and treated as they are even if they are
not in accordance with expectations. That is research. Bias
must not influence the treatment of the results.