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Social marketing

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Social marketing

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Social marketing

  1. 1. SOCIAL MARKETING IN HEALTH Presenter- Dr. Manju
  2. 2. Contents • Definition of Marketing • Social Marketing – Definition History Need • Difference b/w social and commercial marketing • Objectives & eight essential component • Six phases of social marketing • Social marketing in India • National Strategy for Social Marketing (NSSP), 2001 • Global Social Marketing Challenges • Implications of Social Marketing for Health Care Practice
  3. 3. Marketing Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. American Marketing Association
  4. 4. Social Marketing In 1971, Kotler and Zaltman "the design, implementation and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research." Andreasen, 1995 "the application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to influence voluntary behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of society.”
  5. 5. History • Field of social marketing began from an article published by G.D. Wiebe in the Winter 1951-1952 edition of Public Opinion Quarterly. He saw challenges of attempting to sell a social good as if it were a commodity, thus identifying social marketing (though he did not label it as such) as a discipline unique from commodity marketing. • The term “Social marketing” was first coined by Kotler and Zaltman in 1971.
  6. 6. SOCIAL MARKETING IS: SOCIAL MARKETING IS NOT: A social or behavior change strategy Just advertising Most effective when it activates people A clever slogan or messaging strategy Targeted to those who have a reason to care and who are ready for change Reaching everyone through a media blitz Strategic, and requires efficient use of resources An image campaign Integrated, and works on the “installment plan” A quick process
  7. 7. SOCIAL MARKETING ADVERTISING Targets complex, psychological processes Target simpler, feel-good behaviors (e.g. purchasing) Tries to change deeply held beliefs Fit into existing social norms Requires sophisticated research Research can be more informal Needs emotional “hook” Simple slogans
  8. 8. Why is social marketing needed? • Methods traditionally used to deliver health products and services in developing countries often do not reach a large portion of the population, especially those at the low end of the cash economy. • Commercial entities sell products at high prices affordable only to a small portion of the population, usually with little or no promotion. • Over-burdened public health systems generally do not have enough outlets, and provide a free, generic product or service that often is not valued by the consumer. • Government ministries are limited in the type and nature of motivational campaigns they can undertake.
  9. 9. Why sell products rather than give them away? • When products are given away free, the recipient often does not value them or even use them. • Accordingly, the quantity supplied under the Free Supply Scheme is prone to wastage. (not only at the consumer level but also along the disbursement line). • Selling products can tap the resources of the local commercial infrastructure, which is financially motivated to stock and sell the products. The products become available, not just in a small number of public health clinics, but also at pharmacies and other retail and NGO outlets. • Those outside the cash economy will continue to use the free products given away by public health clinics.
  10. 10. Objective Of Social Marketing Program • To promote the acceptability and adoption of socially beneficial, voluntary health behaviour. • To improve access to, and availability of a wide range of quality health information, affordable products and services for the rural, under-served, low-income and vulnerable populations. • To adequately research the segmented market for contraceptives and other products and services for basic and essential health care, as well as consumer preferences in respect of product attributes.
  11. 11. Objective Of Social Marketing Program • To decentralise the social marketing programme. • To mainstream the coalition envisaged for private–NGO- public partnership. • To ensure the strengthening of logistics at state levels to enable an uninterrupted flow of products and services.
  12. 12. Eight Essential Components In 1988, Craig Lefebvre and June Flora 1. A Consumer orientation to realize organizational (social) goals 2. An emphasis on the voluntary exchanges of goods and services between providers and consumers 3. Research in audience analysis and segmentation strategies 4. The use of formative research in product and message design and the pretesting of these materials 5. An analysis of distribution (or communication) channels 6. Use of the marketing mix in intervention planning and implementation 7. A process tracking system with both integrative and control functions 8. A management process that involves problem analysis, planning, implementation and feedback functions
  13. 13. SIX PHASES OF SOCIAL MARKETING Problem description Formative research Strategy development Intervention design Evaluation Implementation
  14. 14. Problem Description • A full, clear problem description and analysis will help to decide whether to undertake a social marketing effort. • will help you keep your main goal in mind. In this Phase, you will… • state your health or safety problem and the groups it affects • Identify factors that contribute to the problem. • List of broad potential target audiences, secondary audiences, and behavior changes.
  15. 15. Problem Description. • Summary of any existing data about the problem, audience, and behavior. • Models of behavior change that may apply. • previous efforts to address the problem • Best practices or lessons learned from other programs that may be similar. • List of your strategy team members and summary of how decisions will be made. • SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis.
  16. 16. Formative research • Also called formative assessment, market research, consumer research, or audience research. • Research conducted during the development of program to • choose and describe a target audience, • understand the factors which influence their behavior, and • determine best ways to reach them.
  17. 17. Audience Primary target audience: Also called target audiences, • a group of individuals whose behavior needs to change to positively impact the problem. • They could be directly affected by the problem themselves, or those who can make policy or environmental changes (i.e., voting behavior, approval of policies). Secondary audience: A group of individuals who exert influence on the primary target audience's behavior.
  18. 18. • what the target audience currently knows, believes, and does? • The program is designed to fulfill the audience's needs and wants. Example- • Program planners created an intervention for young women to increase physical activity and healthy eating habits. • They originally thought that their target audience would find personalized phone calls motivating, and planned to incorporate them into the intervention. • However, the target audience did not respond to that idea at all when asked about it in focus groups. Audience Orientation
  19. 19. • Audience segmentation is the process of dividing a broad target audience into more homogeneous subgroups, called audience segments. Importance: • to do more with limited resources • can use the programming, communication channels, and messages that are most relevant to your segment. done on basis of • Demography • Behavior Audience Segmentation
  20. 20. • For example, completely different programs would be designed for these two segments: • Overweight adults who do not enjoy physical activity and are not motivated to participate in it. (The program for this segment would need to address the target audience's motivation before behavior change can be expected.) • Overweight adults who like physical activity and are motivated to do it, but can't find the time during the day to participate in it. (The program for this segment would need to address the target audience's perception of the barrier of lack of time.) Audience Segmentation
  21. 21. Behavior • Program's goals should be designed to influence behavior instead of only increasing knowledge or awareness of a problem Should know • Current behaviors of your audience. • Ideal behaviors. • Reasonable steps to move the audience from the current behavior towards the ideal behavior. • What determines their behavior.
  22. 22. Behavior Example- Current behavior of the target audience: Watches approximately 5 hours of television per day Recommended behavior: Watching two or fewer hours of television per day Possible behavior change: Reduce television viewing by one hour-long TV show per day (an intermediate behavior change that will move the audience towards the ideal behavior).
  23. 23. Broad Behavior Specific Behaviors Eat more fruits and vegetables 1. Choose fruit or vegetable options in the vending machine over candy or other high-fat snacks. 2. Eat a piece of fruit or some vegetables as a mid-day snack. 3. Purchase fruits and vegetables from a local farmer's market. Do more physical activity 1. Join a sports team. 2. Use lunch hour to walk on trail near office. 3. Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Watch less TV 1. Turn off the TV during mealtimes. 2. Remove TV from bedrooms. 3. Establish and enforce rules limiting TV time.
  24. 24. Strategy development • Be creative. • Consider policy and environment-level changes when appropriate. • Keep your audience's perspective
  25. 25. 4 P’s of Market Mix MARKET ING MIX PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION
  26. 26. Product Product: What the audience gets or what you offer; can be tangible items, intangible benefits, or the behavior itself. Core product - or innermost level is made up of the benefits of the desired behavior, Actual product - is the behavior itself, Augmented product - contains any objects or services created to support behavior change.
  27. 27. Product For example, • behavior of eating fruits and vegetables - actual product • fruits and vegetables themselves and a new farmer's market that sells fruits and vegetables - augmented products. • Decrease in obesity- core product
  28. 28. Price Price: • What the audience gives up to get a tangible product; • also the costs or barriers to making the desired behavior change. barriers such as loss of time, decrease in pleasure, loss of self-esteem, loss of respect from peers, lack of access, or embarrassment
  29. 29. Price Example- • Psychological and social costs of physical activity for teens include • embarrassment • fear of being teased. • Other costs include • loss of time that could be spent doing something else (i.e., playing video games or talking on the phone) or • financial costs, such as those associated with sports teams or organized classes
  30. 30. Place Place: includes both where and when the audience • Performs the desired behavior. • Is located or gathers. • Accesses products or services. • Thinks or hears about the health issue or behavior.
  31. 31. Promotion Promotion : • Promotion includes communication or education that describes the program's benefits, product, price, and place. • It includes • Messages. • Materials. • Channels. • Incentives. • Activities.
  32. 32. • Promotion included consistent, persistent and targeted communications using a variety of channels • paid advertising, • public relations, • printed materials, • promotional items, • signage, • special events, • video showings, • local celebrity involvement, and • Web sites Promotion
  33. 33. Competition • "behaviors and related benefits that the target audience is accustomed to—or may prefer—to the behavior you are promoting.“ • The target audience is doing something instead of the behavior you want them to do. e.g. Possible competing activities for physical activity in teens– » Watching TV » Playing on the computer » Talking on the phone » Going to the mall/shopping » Spending time with friends » Doing homework
  34. 34. Exchange • give one thing up in return for something else. • The target audience will compare the costs and benefits of performing a behavior before choosing to adopt it. • The exchange should increase the perceived benefits of the target behavior and minimize its costs. Or • it could increase the perceived costs of the competing behaviors and minimize their benefits. • It can be • Tangible (paying a higher price for a healthier vending machine option), • Intangible (giving up a TV show to go for a walk to improve one's health).
  35. 35. You Give Me Rs. 2.00 /- Embarrassment Loss of Pleasure You Get • A Condom • protection against pregnancy • protection against STDs • peace of mind Exchange
  36. 36. Additional P’s MARKETING MIX PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION PARTNERSHIP POLITICS POLICY PUBLIC
  37. 37. Policy • POLICY refers to the laws and regulations that influence the desired behavior. • Policy or environmental level changes can support individual behavior change • Make strategies to influence the "upstream" behavior of policymakers and those responsible for the environment • Example – • requiring sidewalks to make communities more walkable, or • prohibiting smoking in shared public spaces.
  38. 38. Partnership • The social marketing organization can enhance its program effectiveness by teaming up with other organization pursuing similar goals. • The educational and economic levels of the beneficiaries are some of the factors determining the effectiveness of program pertaining to health and ecological conservation. • Avoid duplication of efforts, expanding resources, minimizing costs and enhancing program effectiveness.
  39. 39. Politics • Religious leaders and organizations, village heads or community leaders • Permission granting groups • Trigger social change faster
  40. 40. SIVA MODEL • This system is basically the four Ps renamed and reworded to provide a customer focus. The SIVA Model provides a demand/customer-centric alternative to the well-known 4Ps • Product → Solution • Price → Value • Place → Access • Promotion → Information
  41. 41. Intervention Design In this phase, you will: • Assemble your planning team and assign roles • plan your interventions in detail • test and revise your interventions Know the details about • Partnerships or agreements with organizations or people. • New or modified services that will be offered (including staff, training). • Lesson plans or curricula for training, skill-building, or courses. • Messages or materials needed to communicate with the audience. • Incentives for the target audience to participate.
  42. 42. Evaluation Evaluate to know whether you are doing: • the right things • the right things right • enough of the right things to make a difference in outcomes In this phase you will: • determine which program components should be monitored and/or evaluated • decide how to gather the information • decide how to analyze and report the data
  43. 43. Evaluation activities should be: • useful (i.e., responsive to stakeholder information needs) • feasible given time, resources, and available expertise • accurate enough to inform the kinds of decisions to be made • proper/ethical Evaluation
  44. 44. Implementation In this phase, you will implement both your intervention plan and your monitoring and evaluation plan In Phase 6, you will: • Execute intervention plans • Initiate monitoring and evaluation activities • Modify program components based on feedback • Share evaluation findings and lessons learned
  45. 45. MARKET STRUCTURE IN INDIA TOTAL MARKET COMMERCIAL MARKET SOCIAL MARKETING FREE SUPPLY IMPORTED BRANDS DOMESTIC BRANDS SMO BRANDS GoI BRANDS
  46. 46. MILESTONES 1968: Social Marketing was launched with 6 leading consumer goods/oil companies with 3 lakh outlets, with area allotted to each. 1983: Introduction of promotional incentive on sale of condoms to social marketing organizations (SMOs) 1987: Oral Pills – the social marketing programme was extended to include Oral Contraceptive Pills with the brand name- Mala-D. 1995: Introduction of Centchroman, ‘Saheli’, through HLL under social marketing, with Product & Promotional Subsidy 1999: Working Group with all SMOs constituted for evolving the social marketing programme strategy
  47. 47. NSSM, 2001 "National Strategy for Social Marketing", [NSSM], 2001 develops a strategy for the social marketing of products and services for reproductive and child health (RCH) in India. • Free supply was intended to address the unmet need of 40% of the Indian population below poverty line (BPL) • Social marketing focuses at the lower (20%), lower-middle (15%), and middle-middle (12%) income brackets, for a 47% share of the Indian population • Commercial marketing targets an estimated 8% upper middle class and 5% upper class, total of 13% share
  48. 48. STRATEGIES OF SMP IN INDIA 1. Expand Demand among Priority Target Groups 2. Expanding the Basket of Products in the SMP 3. A Public – Private / NGO Partnership 4. Expand the market to reach rural areas and urban slums 5. Social Franchising of Health Care Services 6. Align Government Subsidy to Programme Objectives 7. Diversify sources of funding 8. Institutional Mechanism for Running the Social Marketing Programme 9. Improving Programme Management 10. Allocation of Public Funds towards Area Projects 11. Social Marketing Ethics
  49. 49. Expand Demand Among Priority Target Groups Promotion of behaviour change among potential users, and especially among priority target groups • Generic Campaigns • Brand Advertising Behaviour change communication (BCC) may be designed to: • increase overall demand for products with public health benefits • encourage adoption of healthy lifestyles To bring a health benefit, communication to increase demand must be combined with measures to ensure access and supply of the desired product or service in the public and/or private sectors.
  50. 50. Expanding The Basket Of Products In The SMP Operational Strategies • Provide multiple choices through multiple products and services at multiple delivery points • Social marketing organization (SMOs) must diversify and introduce newer products for basic and essential health care. • SMOs must ensure that appropriate training and refresher courses for their retailers/vendors. • Ensure regular supplies. • SMOs must ensure that all prior clearances from the office of the Drug Controller of India have been duly obtained with current validity for products not subsidised by government
  51. 51. A Public – Private / NGO Partnership • Operational Strategies: • MoHFW will furnish district profiles to the District Magistrates and District Medical Officers updated once every year • District Magistrates and Chief Medical Officers must facilitate a dialogue with and between potential partners • SMOs play a catalytic role in sustaining the partnerships • Non–overlapping concession areas awarded for the marketing of public sector brands
  52. 52. Expand The Market to Reach Rural Areas And Urban Slums Operational Strategies: • through the existing and widespread public health infra- structure • Additional channels such as the ICDS program could similarly be utilised • Promotional programmes like folk theatre, video vans, and sales booths could become a regular feature of these partnerships.
  53. 53. Social Franchising of Health Care Services • Social franchising consists of developing networks of private sector and NGO run clinics, contracted to offer health information and counselling, health products, and health care services • Social franchisee would be a private-NGO-public partnership • Contract out a Package for Essential Health Care • Finance private sector / NGO providers through pre payment scheme
  54. 54. THE "JANANI MODEL" IN INDIA • In Bihar and Madhya Pradesh • Janani provides family planning and comprehensive abortion care services by strengthening and expanding the capacity of the private sector. • incorporated clinical services, and served rural areas, using private sector channels that already exist. • “Butterfly centres" & "Surya clinics"
  55. 55. Government Subsidy To Programme Objectives Product subsidy: the difference between procurement cost of the product and the issue price to the SMOs. Promotional subsidy: to pursue promotional activities, pegged upon the sales achieved. Packaging subsidy: for those SMOs who market their own brands, since they supply the packaging materials to the manufacturer.
  56. 56. Illustrative cost chain for OCPs marketed through SMOs: • The DOFW buys OCPs from manufacturers at Rs 3.55/ cycle • An SMO buy OCPs from DOFW at 1.60/ cycle • The SMO receives a promotional subsidy from the GOI of Rs. 0.25/ cycle sold • The SMO buys its own packaging with a government subsidy of up to Rs 0.35/ cycle Government Subsidy To Programme Objectives
  57. 57. • A promotional incentive provided to the SMOs • 10 paise per condom sold for Deluxe and Super Deluxe varieties, and • 3 paise per condom sold for New Lubricated variety • Deluxe Nirodh is also sold by State AIDS Control Societies through their NGOs network. The names of manufacturers: • Hindustan Latex Ltd • TTK LIG • Polar Latex Ltd. • J.K. Ansell Government Subsidy To Programme Objectives
  58. 58. Diversify Sources Of Funding • GoI will continue to provide financial support to SMPs Additional resources mobilised from: • Multilateral development banks, • Bilateral and other development organisations • Global foundations • The private corporate sector • Other related programs and organisations, such as National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO)
  59. 59. Institutional Mechanism For Running SMP • Secretariat coordinated by UNFPA within the Consortium. • Consortium on Social Marketing: A mechanism for stakeholder involvement in decision-making and for transparency. • A dedicated Social Marketing Unit within MoHFW for performing the role of facilitator. • Technical Support Group: A TSG contracted by Social Marketing Unit, within the MoHFW, for providing needed technical inputs in programme management, and advising the Secretariat and the Consortium
  60. 60. Improving Programme Management Participation in the Social Marketing Programme: based on pre-defined criteria, carefully documented, and reviewed each year Programme Management: • memorandum of understanding (MOU) with details like price range • SMOs to furnish reports at regular and pre-determined intervals • External assessment twice a year
  61. 61. Improving Programme Management • Product Management: • Branding: promotes market segmentation and image building, which enhances demand • Quality assurance: an inter-laboratory calibration mechanism set up at the Nodal GOI laboratory for testing • Product pricing: an appropriate structure of margins in the MRP, to cover the cost of distribution and some minimal incentive. Flexibility to the SMOs to set their MRP within a stipulated price range
  62. 62. Allocation of Public Funds Towards Area Projects • The Secretariat for the administration of the SMP: identifies areas of need in all parts of the country, and invites plans from the stakeholders for addressing the need through the special projects. • Funding support for this component is over and above the funds earmarked for normal social marketing operations.
  63. 63. Allocation of Public Funds Towards Area Projects • Swastha Gram Pariyojana: • In 1998-99, the Department of Family Welfare sanctioned a pilot project to M/s. Hindustan Latex Family Planning Promotion Trust, Thiruvananthapuram HLFPPT) of HLL, for strengthening Social Marketing of Contraceptives programme. • The project has been implemented in three districts of Madhya Pradesh viz., Gwalior, Bhind and Morena. • This has been extended up to 31.3.2001 with inclusion of two more adjacent districts namely; Shivpuri and Datia.
  64. 64. Social Marketing Of MCH Products • Social Marketing of condoms under the brand name Masti, being supported by behaviour change communication through television in UP, Uttarakhand and hoardings in Jharkhand. • Social marketing of OCPs under the brand name Pearl promoted through generic behaviour change communication campaigns on television; bolstered via the distribution of flyers addressing common myths regarding side effects of OCP consumption.
  65. 65. • Social marketing of ORS under the brand name Neotral supported by intensive meetings among groups of 18-20 private health providers, called “Saadhan Baithaks”. • Social marketing of IFA tablets under the brand name Vitalet-preg promoted through “Saadhan Baithaks”.. • • Newborn brand Clean Delivery Kits (CDK) were being sold in selected district of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand. Social Marketing Of MCH Products
  66. 66. Social Marketing Ethics • Be truthful, fair and balanced • Protect privacy • Don’t model inappropriate behavior • Don’t be offensive • Do more good than harm • Favour free choice • Evaluate marketing within a broader context of behavior management
  67. 67. • Select marketing tactics that fit marketing philosophy. • Evaluate ethicality if policy before agreeing to develop strategy • Seek permission to enter and address targeted social issues. • Be certain to understand culture, values and norms. • Ensure there will be responsible participation who can be held accountable for changes. Social Marketing Ethics
  68. 68. Barriers in Social Marketing • Potential of social marketing unappreciated. • The consumer base is very heterogeneous, customization of products for so many segments and mini segments is virtually impossible • Media is privately owned; airtime is expensive • Social marketing is often done poorly • Policy decisions at local, national and international levels often guide the product strategy and hence the product cannot be easily changed
  69. 69. Global Social Marketing Challenges • Increase in health issues competing for public attention (tobacco, obesity, drug abuse, HIV/AIDS) • Busy lifestyles, people’s time limitations, technology. • Cluttered media environment for health information. • Increase in the number and type of communication channels, including the Internet. • Consumers & practitioners: Demands on time, multiple education/information sources, changing practice guidelines.
  70. 70. Implications of Social Marketing for Health Care Practice • Social marketing can be useful in health care practice. • Evidence on social marketing suggests underlying principles can influence health care consumer decision making through multiple strategies. • Health care setting provides a unique opportunity to reinforce messages aimed to consumers through brief counseling. • As a trusted source, practitioners’ reinforcement of social marketing messages adds value beyond the effects of mass communication.
  71. 71. References • Basics of social marketing. Centre for diseases control and prevention. Atlanta, United States. • Training: Social marketing planning process. CDC. www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/socialmarketing/.../planning_pr ocess.htm • National Strategy For Social Marketing: DRAFT (November 2001). • ADM Ganju, Prasad R.Marketing for Public Health Programmes.The Journal of family Welfare 50; 2004. • The Basics of Social Marketing. Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative. Turning Point National Program Office. University of Washington

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