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Report on a building material [ bricks]

introduction, types of bricks, uses, properties , difference between stone and bricks , etc

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BY--
MANISHA AGARWAL
REPORT ON A BUILDING
MATERIAL [ BRICKS]
INRODUCTION A brick is a block of a single unit
of a ceramic material, used in
masonry construction. In
general sense brick is a
standard sized weight bearing
building structure. The raw
ingredients of bricks are sand ,
clay and water.
 Basically it is one of the clay
product. It is used as substitute
for stone , where stone is not
available.
 The manufacturing of bricks
involves four distinct
operations. They are earth
preparation for bricks, molding ,
drying and burning.
 Normal size of bricks– 9”*
4.5”*3” and 10”*5”*3”
 Brick are extensively used for
construction of building
COLOR AND TEXTURE OF
BRICKS
 The color of brick is
determined by raw
materials it contain
and method to use
to fire it.
 By adding different
types of techniques
you can add more
texture and decorate
to wall.
TYPES OF BRICKS
 Mostly two types of
bricks are used for
construction.
1. Pressed clay bricks
2. Wire cut bricks
 Bricks may be broadly
classified as -----
1. Building bricks
2. Paving bricks
3. Fire bricks
4. Special bricks
PRESSED CLAY BRICKS
 These are clay
bricks that recesses
on either of its
surfaces. These
recesses are called
frogs. Generally
Pressed clay bricks
have a deep frog in
one bedding surface
and shallow one in
the other.
WIRE CUT BRICKS
 These are clay
bricks that have
three or four holes
in them. They can be
laid either way and
requires less mortar
for the bedding.
MORTAR is made
from mixing lime,
sand , cement and
water.

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Report on a building material [ bricks]

  • 1. BY-- MANISHA AGARWAL REPORT ON A BUILDING MATERIAL [ BRICKS]
  • 2. INRODUCTION A brick is a block of a single unit of a ceramic material, used in masonry construction. In general sense brick is a standard sized weight bearing building structure. The raw ingredients of bricks are sand , clay and water.  Basically it is one of the clay product. It is used as substitute for stone , where stone is not available.  The manufacturing of bricks involves four distinct operations. They are earth preparation for bricks, molding , drying and burning.  Normal size of bricks– 9”* 4.5”*3” and 10”*5”*3”  Brick are extensively used for construction of building
  • 3. COLOR AND TEXTURE OF BRICKS  The color of brick is determined by raw materials it contain and method to use to fire it.  By adding different types of techniques you can add more texture and decorate to wall.
  • 4. TYPES OF BRICKS  Mostly two types of bricks are used for construction. 1. Pressed clay bricks 2. Wire cut bricks  Bricks may be broadly classified as ----- 1. Building bricks 2. Paving bricks 3. Fire bricks 4. Special bricks
  • 5. PRESSED CLAY BRICKS  These are clay bricks that recesses on either of its surfaces. These recesses are called frogs. Generally Pressed clay bricks have a deep frog in one bedding surface and shallow one in the other.
  • 6. WIRE CUT BRICKS  These are clay bricks that have three or four holes in them. They can be laid either way and requires less mortar for the bedding. MORTAR is made from mixing lime, sand , cement and water.
  • 7. BROAD CLASSIFICATION OF BRICKS  First class bricks  Second class bricks  Third class bricks  Over burnt or jhama bricks  Under burnt or pilla bricks
  • 8. FIRST CLASS BRICK  It should be 19*9*9cm  It is free from pebbles lime lumps, organic matter and sodium salt.  It is well burnt and should be uniform yellow or red.  It has regular surface and sides parallel, sharp edges and right angle to each other.  Its surface so hard that fingernails can not be able to make any impression on its surface.  It should not break when is dropped from a height of 1m.  Absorb water more than 20% of its own dry weight after 24 hours of immersion in cold water.  First class bricks are used in all works of permanent nature.
  • 9. SECOND CLASS BRICK  It is slightly over burnt than first class brick.  It absorbs water more than 22% of its own dry weight after 24 hours of immersion in cold water.  Generally its shape, size, texture and color is not regular and uniform.  Presence of lime stone, kankar should not be allowed to occur but pebbles may be allowed.
  • 10. THIRD CLASS BRICK  These are under burnt, soft and light colored and not uniform texture.  They emit a dull sound when stuck against each other.  Absorb water more than 25% of its own dry weight after 24 hours immersed in cold water.  It may suffer from intensive efflorescence.  It may show lot of pebbles on its surface.  These bricks are not used for important and permanent works.
  • 11. OVER BURNT OR JHAMA BRICKS  These are over burnt vitrified bricks.  They are only used for making aggregate for lime concrete , foundations and as a road metal in the road construction.
  • 12. UNDER BURNT OR PILLA BRICKS  These are just half burnt , yellow color and do not have any strength.  They can be ground to powder from and used as surkhi.
  • 13. USES  Building bricks are used for the construction of wall.  Paving bricks are vitrified bricks and used as pave.  Fire bricks are specially made to withstand furnace temperature. Ex. Silica bricks  Special bricks are commonly used as building bricks with respect to their shape and purpose for which they are made . Some of these bricks are –  specially shaped bricks  Facing shaped bricks  Perforated bricks  Sewer bricks  Acid resistant bricks  The different types of bricks offer a versatile way of working with bricks in constructing different structures from relating walls to house, large buildings such as churches. Different types of bricks provide a great way for home owners and builders to create beautiful and lasting structure.
  • 14. PROPERTIES  Bricks should be soaked in water for about one hour before use.  A brick should give a metallic ring when struck with a small hammer or another brick.  The surface should not so smooth otherwise mortar will not stuck to it.  A good brick should not break when struck against another brick or fell down from a height of about 4 or 5 feet.  Brick’s surface should be too hard to scratched by fingernail. 
  • 15. TESTS OF BRICKS BEFORE USE  Absorption test  Hardness test  Soundness test  Crushing strength test  Shape and size test  Test for presence of soluble salts
  • 16. SPECIALS SHAPES OF BRICKS  Cow nose brick  Bull nose brick  Copping bricks  Radial bricks  Queen closer brick  King closer brick  Splayed brick  Paving brick  Hollow brick  Perforated brick  Purpose made brick
  • 17. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STONE AND BRICKS  Stone is much more strong , durable and weather resisting than bricks, so brick construction may not last long.  Brick is a very good fire resistant material in comparison with stone.  Bricks absorb more water than stones therefore brick will be easily affected by harmful salts in water.  Brick masonry is easy to raise whereas stone masonry needs skilled masons.  Bricks work can be done anywhere, manufactured anywhere by establishing brick kilns but stone masonry remains restricted at and around the area where stone is easily and locally available.  Bricks do not require any dressing etc,. But stone masonry need lot of dressing  Brick work does not create the feeling of massiveness in comparison to stone work, specially in monumental structures.  Bricks walls can be as thin as 10cm but thickness of stone masonry is generally not less than 38cm.
  • 18. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTADES  Versatile thermal mass  Strong and durable  Low maintenance  Thermal performance  Acoustic performance  Design flexibility  Fire resistance  Bricks have so many advantages but production of bricks is energy intensive and uses non renewable resources.