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hydraulic-testing-of-pvc-pipe-laboratory-and-field-tests-confirm-flow-coefficients.pdf

Recent hydraulic research on new and in-service PVC pipe has confirmed that industry-recommended flow coefficients are conservative for design of pressure and non-pressure pipes.

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Hydraulic Testing
of PVC Pipe
Laboratory and Field Tests Confirm
Flow Coefficients
Hydraulic Testing
of PVC Pipe: Laboratory
and Field Tests Confirm
Flow Coefficients
Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association
201 E. John Carpenter Freeway
Suite 750
Irving, TX 75062
Utah Water Research Laboratory
Utah State University
8200 Old Main Hill
Logan, UT 84322-8200
M.E. Simpson Co., Inc.
3406 Enterprise Avenue
Valparaiso, IN 46383
June 2023
3
Introduction
Historical Perspective
In North America most of the hydraulic research on PVC pipes was done in the 1960s and 1970s. These early tests established the
following flow factors to be used for PVC pipe hydraulic design:
 Pressure pipe — Hazen Williams (HW) “C” factor = 150
 Nonpressure pipe — Manning’s “n” number = 0.009
Since friction-factor testing for PVC pipe in North America took place more than 50 years ago, the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association
(PVCPA) decided to engage in a two-pronged test program: (1) laboratory testing of new pipe and (2) field testing of installed pipe.
PVCPA contracted with Utah State University (USU) to:
 Perform hydraulic-flow testing at the University’s Utah Water Research Laboratory (UWRL)
 Oversee field testing of installed PVC pressure pipe
Research Program
Research goals were to:
 Measure hydraulic coefficients for pressure and nonpressure applications
 Determine if established coefficients were conservative compared to established values
Laboratory testing was performed at UWRL in Logan, UT, and overseen by Research Professor Steven Barfuss who is Associate
Director of UWRL. Field testing was performed in West Valley City, UT, by M.E. Simpson Co., Inc., and witnessed by Research
Professor Barfuss.
The results of both tests are summarized in Table 1. The procedures and testing undertaken are discussed in detail in the rest of
this report. Test results for Darcy-Weisbach “f” are provided in Tables 1, 4, and 5, but are not discussed in the rest of this document.
TABLE 1: RESULTS OF LABORATORY AND
HYDRAULIC FIELD TESTING ON PVC PIPE
Pipe Age Pipe Size Friction Factor Results
New 6"
HW “C” = 154 – 161
Manning’s “n“ = 0.0085 – 0.0070
Darcy “f“ = 0.012 – 0.017
New 12"
HW “C” = 150 – 157
Manning’s “n“ = 0.0094 – 0.0077
Darcy “f“ = 0.011 – 0.017
46 Years 8" HW “C” = 164
HYDRAULIC TESTING OF PVC PIPE: LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS CONFIRM FLOW COEFFICIENTS
4
LABORATORY TESTING
Introduction
Laboratory hydraulics testing was performed in March 2022 at
the UWRL facility. The tests were run on 6- and 12-inch PVC
pipe to determine three coefficients:
 Hazen-Williams “C”
 Darcy-Weisbach “f”
 Manning’s “n”
To improve accuracy of measurements, minimum pipe length
required was 200 times pipe inside diameter. Actual length for
the 6-inch line was 111 feet (222 times ID) and for the 12-inch
line was 220 feet (220 times ID). Figure 1 shows the test set-up
for both pipes. To provide as much data as possible, tests were
performed over a full range of flow rates under full operational
pipe conditions for both pipe sizes.
Process
Each test-section set-up included:
 A calibrated flow-meter installed in the upstream piping to
accurately measure flow rates for each test run
 A control valve to adjust flow rates passing through the test
pipe
 Pressure taps (each consisting of a hole through the wall of
the pipe with a brass fitting) to make the tubing connections
 A pressure transmitter to make pressure-loss
measurements between the upstream and downstream
pressure taps
 Flexible tubing to connect each pressure tap to the high and
low sides of the pressure transmitter for measurements of
pressure differentials
After the test pipes were installed in the laboratory flume,
wood braces and nylon straps were used to keep the pipes
straight and to hold them in position when pressure was
applied.
Flow meters were calibrated for accuracy immediately prior to
the actual testing. For each test run, flow rate through the pipe
and differential pressure along the length of the pipe were
measured. Differential-pressure measurements were taken
from the pressure taps that were installed in each PVC pipe at
the upstream and downstream ends of each test pipe section.
Throughout each test, constant flow was maintained through
the pipe length during the run period. Each averaging period
took between 3 and 5 minutes, which was long enough to:
 Allow the flow rate and differential pressure to stabilize
 Record the actual flow rate through the flow meter
 Record the average pressure differential
Pipe Dimensions
Dimensions for 6-inch pipe are found in Table 2 and for 12-inch
pipe in Table 3. Inside-diameter measurements were taken at
the ends of the test sections (where the pressure taps were
installed). Overall average ID is shown in each table and was
used to calculate roughness coefficients.
FIGURE 1: 12-INCH AND 6-INCH TEST LINES
(LOOKING DOWNSTREAM)
5
Results
Test results for the friction coefficient tests are shown in Table 4 for 6-inch PVC pipe and in Table 5 for 12-inch pipe. Darcy “f,”
Manning’s “n,” and Hazen-Williams “C” are listed in each table. Flow velocities were 2 feet per second and greater as shown. The
coefficient results for these tests vary with increasing Reynolds number, which is consistent with the Moody Diagram and other
theoretical calculations.
TABLE 2: DIMENSIONS FOR 6-INCH PVC PIPE
Section
ID 1
(in)
ID 2
(in)
ID 3
(in)
Average ID
(in)
1 5.88 5.85 5.88 5.87
2 5.88 5.87 5.85 5.87
3 5.85 5.88 5.89 5.87
Overall Average ID (in) 5.87
Average Flow Area (in2) 27.10
Average Flow Area (ft2) 0.19
TABLE 3: DIMENSIONS FOR 12-INCH PVC PIPE
Section
ID 1
(in)
ID 2
(in)
ID 3
(in)
Average ID
(in)
1 11.69 11.65 11.65 11.66
2 11.63 11.68 11.65 11.65
3 11.60 11.68 11.68 11.65
Overall Average ID (in) 11.65
Average Flow Area (in2) 107.00
Average Flow Area (ft2) 0.74
HYDRAULIC TESTING OF PVC PIPE: LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS CONFIRM FLOW COEFFICIENTS
6
TABLE 4: TEST RESULTS FOR 6-INCH PVC PIPE
Run
No.
Flow
Volume
(cfs)
Flow
Velocity
(fps)
Inlet
Reynolds
Number
Friction
Loss
(ft of H2O)
Friction
Loss
(psi)
Hydraulic
Slope
(ft/100 ft)
Darcy
“f”
Hazen-
Williams
“C”
Manning‘s
“n”
1 0.5 2.7 84,600 0.42 0.18 0.38 0.017 154 0.0085
2 0.8 4.2 133,000 0.95 0.41 0.85 0.015 157 0.0081
3 1.1 5.7 182,000 1.67 0.72 1.50 0.014 158 0.0078
4 1.4 7.3 230,000 2.54 1.10 2.29 0.014 159 0.0077
5 1.6 8.7 276,000 3.55 1.54 3.20 0.013 159 0.0075
6 1.9 10.2 324,000 4.75 2.06 4.28 0.013 160 0.0074
7 2.2 11.8* 373,000 6.15 2.67 5.54 0.013 160 0.0073
8 2.5 13.3* 422,000 7.67 3.33 6.91 0.013 161 0.0072
9 2.8 14.8* 470,000 9.33 4.04 8.40 0.012 161 0.0072
10 3.1 16.4* 518,000 11.20 4.85 10.09 0.012 161 0.0071
11 3.3 17.8* 564,000 13.10 5.68 11.80 0.012 161 0.0071
12 3.6 19.3* 613,000 15.20 6.60 13.69 0.012 161 0.0070
13 2.0 10.5* 332,000 4.98 2.16 4.48 0.013 160 0.0074
Notes:
1. Length of pipe tested: 111.05 feet
2. Date of calibration: 29-Mar-2022
3. Data: water temperature 45°F, unit weight 62.2 pcf, kinematic viscosity 1.54 x 10-5 ft2/sec
*These test runs use velocities that exceed typical designs of municipal pipelines

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hydraulic-testing-of-pvc-pipe-laboratory-and-field-tests-confirm-flow-coefficients.pdf

  • 1. Hydraulic Testing of PVC Pipe Laboratory and Field Tests Confirm Flow Coefficients
  • 2. Hydraulic Testing of PVC Pipe: Laboratory and Field Tests Confirm Flow Coefficients Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association 201 E. John Carpenter Freeway Suite 750 Irving, TX 75062 Utah Water Research Laboratory Utah State University 8200 Old Main Hill Logan, UT 84322-8200 M.E. Simpson Co., Inc. 3406 Enterprise Avenue Valparaiso, IN 46383 June 2023
  • 3. 3 Introduction Historical Perspective In North America most of the hydraulic research on PVC pipes was done in the 1960s and 1970s. These early tests established the following flow factors to be used for PVC pipe hydraulic design:  Pressure pipe — Hazen Williams (HW) “C” factor = 150  Nonpressure pipe — Manning’s “n” number = 0.009 Since friction-factor testing for PVC pipe in North America took place more than 50 years ago, the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association (PVCPA) decided to engage in a two-pronged test program: (1) laboratory testing of new pipe and (2) field testing of installed pipe. PVCPA contracted with Utah State University (USU) to:  Perform hydraulic-flow testing at the University’s Utah Water Research Laboratory (UWRL)  Oversee field testing of installed PVC pressure pipe Research Program Research goals were to:  Measure hydraulic coefficients for pressure and nonpressure applications  Determine if established coefficients were conservative compared to established values Laboratory testing was performed at UWRL in Logan, UT, and overseen by Research Professor Steven Barfuss who is Associate Director of UWRL. Field testing was performed in West Valley City, UT, by M.E. Simpson Co., Inc., and witnessed by Research Professor Barfuss. The results of both tests are summarized in Table 1. The procedures and testing undertaken are discussed in detail in the rest of this report. Test results for Darcy-Weisbach “f” are provided in Tables 1, 4, and 5, but are not discussed in the rest of this document. TABLE 1: RESULTS OF LABORATORY AND HYDRAULIC FIELD TESTING ON PVC PIPE Pipe Age Pipe Size Friction Factor Results New 6" HW “C” = 154 – 161 Manning’s “n“ = 0.0085 – 0.0070 Darcy “f“ = 0.012 – 0.017 New 12" HW “C” = 150 – 157 Manning’s “n“ = 0.0094 – 0.0077 Darcy “f“ = 0.011 – 0.017 46 Years 8" HW “C” = 164
  • 4. HYDRAULIC TESTING OF PVC PIPE: LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS CONFIRM FLOW COEFFICIENTS 4 LABORATORY TESTING Introduction Laboratory hydraulics testing was performed in March 2022 at the UWRL facility. The tests were run on 6- and 12-inch PVC pipe to determine three coefficients:  Hazen-Williams “C”  Darcy-Weisbach “f”  Manning’s “n” To improve accuracy of measurements, minimum pipe length required was 200 times pipe inside diameter. Actual length for the 6-inch line was 111 feet (222 times ID) and for the 12-inch line was 220 feet (220 times ID). Figure 1 shows the test set-up for both pipes. To provide as much data as possible, tests were performed over a full range of flow rates under full operational pipe conditions for both pipe sizes. Process Each test-section set-up included:  A calibrated flow-meter installed in the upstream piping to accurately measure flow rates for each test run  A control valve to adjust flow rates passing through the test pipe  Pressure taps (each consisting of a hole through the wall of the pipe with a brass fitting) to make the tubing connections  A pressure transmitter to make pressure-loss measurements between the upstream and downstream pressure taps  Flexible tubing to connect each pressure tap to the high and low sides of the pressure transmitter for measurements of pressure differentials After the test pipes were installed in the laboratory flume, wood braces and nylon straps were used to keep the pipes straight and to hold them in position when pressure was applied. Flow meters were calibrated for accuracy immediately prior to the actual testing. For each test run, flow rate through the pipe and differential pressure along the length of the pipe were measured. Differential-pressure measurements were taken from the pressure taps that were installed in each PVC pipe at the upstream and downstream ends of each test pipe section. Throughout each test, constant flow was maintained through the pipe length during the run period. Each averaging period took between 3 and 5 minutes, which was long enough to:  Allow the flow rate and differential pressure to stabilize  Record the actual flow rate through the flow meter  Record the average pressure differential Pipe Dimensions Dimensions for 6-inch pipe are found in Table 2 and for 12-inch pipe in Table 3. Inside-diameter measurements were taken at the ends of the test sections (where the pressure taps were installed). Overall average ID is shown in each table and was used to calculate roughness coefficients. FIGURE 1: 12-INCH AND 6-INCH TEST LINES (LOOKING DOWNSTREAM)
  • 5. 5 Results Test results for the friction coefficient tests are shown in Table 4 for 6-inch PVC pipe and in Table 5 for 12-inch pipe. Darcy “f,” Manning’s “n,” and Hazen-Williams “C” are listed in each table. Flow velocities were 2 feet per second and greater as shown. The coefficient results for these tests vary with increasing Reynolds number, which is consistent with the Moody Diagram and other theoretical calculations. TABLE 2: DIMENSIONS FOR 6-INCH PVC PIPE Section ID 1 (in) ID 2 (in) ID 3 (in) Average ID (in) 1 5.88 5.85 5.88 5.87 2 5.88 5.87 5.85 5.87 3 5.85 5.88 5.89 5.87 Overall Average ID (in) 5.87 Average Flow Area (in2) 27.10 Average Flow Area (ft2) 0.19 TABLE 3: DIMENSIONS FOR 12-INCH PVC PIPE Section ID 1 (in) ID 2 (in) ID 3 (in) Average ID (in) 1 11.69 11.65 11.65 11.66 2 11.63 11.68 11.65 11.65 3 11.60 11.68 11.68 11.65 Overall Average ID (in) 11.65 Average Flow Area (in2) 107.00 Average Flow Area (ft2) 0.74
  • 6. HYDRAULIC TESTING OF PVC PIPE: LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS CONFIRM FLOW COEFFICIENTS 6 TABLE 4: TEST RESULTS FOR 6-INCH PVC PIPE Run No. Flow Volume (cfs) Flow Velocity (fps) Inlet Reynolds Number Friction Loss (ft of H2O) Friction Loss (psi) Hydraulic Slope (ft/100 ft) Darcy “f” Hazen- Williams “C” Manning‘s “n” 1 0.5 2.7 84,600 0.42 0.18 0.38 0.017 154 0.0085 2 0.8 4.2 133,000 0.95 0.41 0.85 0.015 157 0.0081 3 1.1 5.7 182,000 1.67 0.72 1.50 0.014 158 0.0078 4 1.4 7.3 230,000 2.54 1.10 2.29 0.014 159 0.0077 5 1.6 8.7 276,000 3.55 1.54 3.20 0.013 159 0.0075 6 1.9 10.2 324,000 4.75 2.06 4.28 0.013 160 0.0074 7 2.2 11.8* 373,000 6.15 2.67 5.54 0.013 160 0.0073 8 2.5 13.3* 422,000 7.67 3.33 6.91 0.013 161 0.0072 9 2.8 14.8* 470,000 9.33 4.04 8.40 0.012 161 0.0072 10 3.1 16.4* 518,000 11.20 4.85 10.09 0.012 161 0.0071 11 3.3 17.8* 564,000 13.10 5.68 11.80 0.012 161 0.0071 12 3.6 19.3* 613,000 15.20 6.60 13.69 0.012 161 0.0070 13 2.0 10.5* 332,000 4.98 2.16 4.48 0.013 160 0.0074 Notes: 1. Length of pipe tested: 111.05 feet 2. Date of calibration: 29-Mar-2022 3. Data: water temperature 45°F, unit weight 62.2 pcf, kinematic viscosity 1.54 x 10-5 ft2/sec *These test runs use velocities that exceed typical designs of municipal pipelines
  • 7. 7 TABLE 5: TEST RESULTS FOR 12-INCH PVC PIPE Run No. Flow Volume (cfs) Flow Velocity (fps) Inlet Reynolds Number Friction Loss (ft of H2O) Friction Loss (psi) Hydraulic Slope (ft/100 ft) Darcy “f” Hazen- Williams “C” Manning‘s “n” 1 1.5 2.0 126,000 0.23 0.10 0.10 0.017 150 0.0094 2 2.5 3.4 217,000 0.59 0.26 0.27 0.015 153 0.0089 3 3.5 4.8 304,000 1.10 0.48 0.50 0.014 154 0.0086 4 4.5 6.1 393,000 1.75 0.76 0.79 0.013 155 0.0084 5 5.7 7.7 493,000 2.66 1.15 1.21 0.013 155 0.0082 6 6.7 9.1 581,000 3.57 1.55 1.62 0.012 156 0.0081 7 7.9 10.6 679,000 4.74 2.06 2.15 0.012 156 0.0080 8 8.8 11.9* 761,000 5.83 2.53 2.65 0.012 157 0.0079 9 10.0 13.5* 861,000 7.30 3.16 3.31 0.012 157 0.0078 10 10.9 14.7* 943,000 8.64 3.75 3.92 0.011 157 0.0078 11 12.0 16.3* 1,040,000 10.40 4.49 4.72 0.011 157 0.0078 12 13.5 18.2* 1,170,000 12.80 5.55 5.81 0.011 157 0.0077 Notes: 1. Length of pipe tested: 220.29 feet 2. Date of calibration: 28-Mar-2022 3. Data: water temperature 46°F, unit weight 62.2 pcf, kinematic viscosity 1.52 x 10-5 ft2/sec *These test runs use velocities that exceed typical designs of municipal pipelines Summary of Test Results  Hazen-Williams “C” factor — average value was 159 for 6-inch pipe and 155 for 12-inch  Manning’s “n” number — average value was 0.0075 for 6-inch pipe and 0.0082 for 12-inch  Darcy-Weisbach “f” factor — values ranged from 0.012 to 0.017 for 6-inch pipe and 0.011 to 0.017 for 12-inch In all cases, results obtained verified the traditional values used for the last 40+ years for PVC pipe hydraulic design. The results also confirmed that these values are conservative.
  • 8. HYDRAULIC TESTING OF PVC PIPE: LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS CONFIRM FLOW COEFFICIENTS 8 FIELD TESTING Introduction To corroborate the results of the laboratory testing described, field tests were performed by M.E. Simpson in November 2022 at West Valley City, UT. The tests were run to determine Hazen-Williams “C” for installed 8-inch PVC pressure pipe. The pipe section that was chosen for testing had been in service in the Granger-Hunter Improvement District since 1976 (in service for 46 years). The field tests were witnessed by Research Professor Steven Barfuss, who had overseen the laboratory tests described. Oversight included planning, equipment validation, and test execution. Process The method for determining flow coefficients is as follows:  Flow volumes are measured  Pressure loss is measured between two hydrants spaced at a known distance apart  Using the pressure, flow, and length values, Hazen-Williams “C” is calculated Preparation for the tests included:  Selection of an appropriate site  Installation of pressure tubing and pressure instrumentation  Installation of flow-measurement instrumentation  Closure of valves and shut-off of residential connections Test procedures included:  Continuous measurement of differential pressures  Continuous measurement of fluid flow FIGURE 2: DIFFERENTIAL-PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION FIGURE 3: FLOW DISCHARGE THROUGH HOSE MONSTER
  • 9. 9 Pipe Dimensions A run of 8-inch PVC pipe between two hydrants was used. Distance between the hydrants was 278 feet. Pipe dimensional information is found in Table 6. Results Two tests were performed on the same length of pipe. Each test used a different flow velocity to generate additional data. Test information is found in Table 7. Summary of Test Results  The first test used a velocity of 3.86 fps — HW “C” factor was 164.2  The second test used a velocity of 8.73 fps — HW “C” factor was 163.3  Average HW “C” factor for the two tests was 163.8, about 9% higher than the recommended design of 150 FIGURE 4. EXCAVATED SAMPLES OF PVC WATER MAINS FOR DIMENSION MEASUREMENT TABLE 6: DIMENSIONS FOR 8-INCH PVC PIPE Section ID 1 (in) ID 2 (in) ID 3 (in) Average ID (in) Pipe Length (ft) 1 8.0350 8.0005 7.9960 8.01 278 Overall Average ID (in) 8.01 Average Flow Area (in2) 50.40 Average Flow Area (ft2) 0.35 TABLE 7: DIMENSIONS FOR 8-INCH PVC PIPE Run No. Flow Volume (gpm) Flow Velocity (fps) Friction Loss (ft of H2O) Friction Loss (ft H2O / ft) Hazen- Williams “C” 1 606 3.86 1.30 0.005 164.2 2 1,370 8.73 5.93 0.021 163.3 Average 163.8
  • 10. HYDRAULIC TESTING OF PVC PIPE: LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS CONFIRM FLOW COEFFICIENTS 10 CONCLUSION: PVC PIPE FLOW COEFFICIENTS ARE CONSERVATIVE The two questions addressed by hydraulics testing were answered:  Results of hydraulic testing performed in the 1970s are verified  Conservatism of recommended flow coefficients was confirmed. Tests showed that:  Hazen-Williams “C” = 150 is conservative for pressure pipe design  Manning’s “n” = 0.009 is conservative for gravity sewer pipe design Designers of PVC piping systems can be confident that these coefficients have provided conservative hydraulic designs in the past and will continue to do so in the future. There is no need to design with a higher-friction PVC coefficient. The testing shows that even with varying flow rates and long use, the HW “C” factor remains above 150 and the Manning’s “n” stays below 0.009. The use of higher-friction coefficients results in engineering designs that are not consistent with previous and current findings of PVC pipe’s hydraulic attributes and may result in adding unnecessary project and operational costs. This is shown in the following section. COMPARISON OF FLOW COEFFICIENTS: RECOMMENDED VS. CONSERVATIVE This section provides examples of how the use of overly conservative hydraulic values (i.e., “C” = 120 or “n” = 0.013) may lead to additional costs for projects and pipeline operation (i.e., increase in pipe size, pumping costs, gravity pipe slope, etc.). Actual cost information of pipe sizes is not included. PVC Water Main Example Assume a PVC DR 18 watermain design requires sizing the pipe for a flow of 1,300 gpm while not exceeding a headloss of 10 feet per 1,000 feet of pipe. For:  HW “C” factor of 120: 12” PVC DR 18 would be selected  HW “C” factor of 150: 8” PVC DR 18 would be selected PVC Transmission Main Example Assume 20,000 feet of 24” PVC DR 25 pipe conveys 5,000 gpm, the pump has an overall efficiency of 75% while operating 24 hours/ day, and the cost of electricity is $0.10/kWh. The pumping cost per year (not including inflation) based on friction loss is as follows:  HW “C” factor of 120 represents $49,900/year  HW “C” factor of 150 represents $33,200/year PVC Gravity Sewer Main Example Assume a PVC PS 46 sewer pipe design requires sizing the pipe for a flow of 14 cfs on a slope of 0.05 feet per 100 feet and maintaining a minimum velocity of 2 fps. For:  Manning’s “n” of 0.013: 36” PVC PS 46 would be selected  Manning’s “n” of 0.009: 30” PVC PS 46 would be selected
  • 11. 11 THE IMPORTANCE OF USING CONSERVATIVE FRICTION FACTORS WHEN COMPARING TO OTHER PIPE MATERIALS Designers should realize that recommended PVC pipe Hazen-Williams “C” = 150 and Manning’s “n” = 0.009 are conservative values compared to test data. In fact, despite using a wide range of flow velocities, every data point in recent research has been at or better than these recommended values. When making comparisons with other materials, it is important to avoid using average values for friction factors for hydraulic design, since average values are not conservative. Users are encouraged to review test data from other pipe materials to understand how their recommended values were obtained. Additionally, it is essential that recommended industry coefficients include any internal pipe-wall or pipe-lining degradation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The PVC Pipe Association expresses its appreciation to the Granger-Hunter Improvement District for allowing hydraulic testing to occur in their water system and also to their employees who actively assisted in making the tests happen. Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association The PVC Pipe Association is the North American trade association for gasketed PVC pipe. Since 1971, PVCPA has been the authoritative source for information on PVC water, sewer, and reclaimed water pipe. The Association serves the engineering, regulatory, public health, and standardization communities. Utah Water Research Laboratory The Utah Water Resources Laboratory is an internationally renowned research institution at Utah State University. Dedicated in 1965, it is the oldest and one of the largest water research laboratories in the United States. The facility includes more than 113,000 square feet of office and laboratory space. UWRL is primarily focused on research in water and irrigation engineering and supports undergraduate and graduate programs in several subject areas. M.E. Simpson Co., Inc. M.E. Simpson was founded by Marvin Simpson in 1979 with the objective of providing technical services to water utilities throughout the Midwest. Since then, the company has improved distribution system performance for utilities, optimized distribution system data, and increased revenues for water systems throughout the United States. REFERENCES “Laboratory Testing of PVC Pipe Hydraulics,” Water Research Laboratory (2022) “C Factor Testing of an Installed PVC Water Main (Witness Test),” Water Research Laboratory (2022) “Report for C-Factor Loss-of-Head Testing in an Installed PVC Water Main,” M.E. Simpson Co., Inc. (2023) UNI-TR-7-23
  • 12. Utah Water Research Laboratory Utah State University 8200 Old Main Hill Logan, UT 84322-8200 M.E. Simpson Co., Inc. 3406 Enterprise Avenue Valparaiso, IN 46383 Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association 201 E. John Carpenter Freeway Suite 750 Irving, TX 75062