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Details OF bioremediation and Oilzapper Technology

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Oil Spill and Bioremediatin

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Details OF bioremediation and Oilzapper Technology

  1. 1. Bioremediation Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. Ahmedabad Asset
  2. 2. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. Ahmedabad Asset Total Employees : 2700 Total Installation : 63 Total Production : 4500/MT Per Day Total Exploration Area : 70 km radius of Ahmedabad City
  3. 3. Oil Exploration - Technology  Crude Oil – most important source of energy.  Exploration of oil involves Surveys, drilling and production.  The crude oil produced from wells is transported through a network of pipe lines.
  4. 4. An Oil Rig
  5. 5. Oil Exploration – Oil Well
  6. 6. An Oil Well Producing crude oil
  7. 7. Oil Exploration - Transportation  Crude Oil is also transported from many oil wells through tankers.  The pipe lines carrying crude oil are mostly buried under ground.  These pipe lines pass through large tracts of country side including farmlands, ponds etc.  With time these pipelines develop leakages due to effects of wear/tear and corrosion
  8. 8. Pipelines carrying crude oil
  9. 9. Oil Spill due to leakage in pipelines
  10. 10. Oil Spills in the Oil Fields  These pipe line leakages cause environmental pollution due to oil spills in  Farmlands  Water bodies  Forests  Water wells  Human habitation
  11. 11. Oil Spills in the Oil Fields  Oil spill can also occur due to several other reasons :  Theft and pilferages in pipe lines & tankers  Blow out in a well eg; BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010  War & Terrorist activity eg; Gulf War I in 1990-91  Accidents in Oil Tanker ships eg; MSC Chitra Mumbai 2010
  12. 12. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills - Marine oil spill
  13. 13. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills- Marine oil spill Mumbai
  14. 14. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills - Farmland
  15. 15. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills – Human Habitation
  16. 16. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills – Animal Life
  17. 17. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills – Animal Life
  18. 18. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills – Spoiled Beaches
  19. 19. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills – Oil Well Blow Out
  20. 20. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills – Coastal Areas
  21. 21. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills – Sea Shores
  22. 22. Environmental Impact of Oil Spills  When oil comes in contact with Land the plants and animals die and soil loses its fertility.  When oil comes in contact with inland water bodies and/or ground water, aquatic plants and animals die and water becomes toxic.  Marine Oil Spills kills marine animals, plants and destroys marine Ecosystem.
  23. 23. How to clean oil spill ?  Conventional methods –  Land Filling  Incineration  Natural Remediation  Chemical Decomposition  New Eco-Friendly method –  Bioremediation
  24. 24. Land filling: Oil contaminated Soil/Sludge is stored in protected concrete pits and land fill sites. Merits: Easy and immediate solution Demerits: Confines the pollution  Cost-intensive and leads to limitation of land  Risk of Transportation of hazardous material  Natural calamity can destroy Protected pits/ landfill sites Conventional methods
  25. 25. Incineration: Burning of Oil Contaminated Soil/Oily Sludge Merits: Easy and quick disposal of Pollutant Demerits: Emission of hazardous gases like NOx, CO, SOx etc.  Enormous amount of poisonous fly ash generated  Safe disposal of fly ash is a limitation  Incomplete combustion generates highly toxic and carcinogenic chemicals eg; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  Requires long transportation to incineration facility Conventional methods
  26. 26. Natural Remediation : By natural degradation, leaching, evaporation, auto oxidation, photo oxidation, etc. Merits: Cost effective Demerits: Increases air, soil, as well as water pollution  Degradation is a very slow process  Hazardous and not environment-friendly  Time consuming Conventional methods
  27. 27. Chemical decomposition: Decomposes Polluting oil by solubilization or making dispersions using chemicals Merits: Easy and Quick Method Demerits: Useful in water body only  Increase water pollution due to chemicals.  Hazardous to health and not environment friendly Conventional methods
  28. 28. Bioremediation- Definition “The use of bacteria and other small organisms to clean up or reduce unwanted concentrations of certain substances”. Bioremediation was first applied in 1979 at Minnesota, USA, to treat oil spill due to leakage in crude oil pipeline.
  29. 29. Bioremediation Advantages and Limitations Advantages:  Environment friendly.  Economical in comparison to Conventional methods  Simple to implement.  Bye products are simple and non toxic. Limitations:  Being a biological process it takes time to work. Bioremediation
  30. 30. Bioremediation An Indian Innovation  The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi developed an innovative product Oilzapper in 1996 after seven years of extensive Laboratory Research.  Oilzapper is a consortium of bacteria which is known to selectively consume Petroleum Hydrocarbons and change it to simple non toxic substances.
  31. 31. Bioremediation – An Indian Innovation  This led to development of an innovative technique of Bioremediation as an environment friendly solution to the problem of pollution due to Oil spills.  Since its inception Bioremediation has found many successful applications all over the world.
  32. 32. In 1996 TERI developed a Bacterial consortium to degrade crude oil from oil contaminated soil/oily sludge etc. This innovative product known as OILZAPPER was invented by Dr. Banwari Lal Director TERI (Patented Item of TERI) Dr. Banwari Lal, Director, TERI, & CEO, OTBL OILZAPPER
  33. 33. About Oilzapper  OILZAPPER is a bacterial consortium being manufactured in a Bioreactor facility of TERI at Gurgaon.  OILZAPPER also contains nutrient carrier material and is packed in 15 Kg HDPE bags.  OILZAPPER is functional up to 6% salinity and 600 C.
  34. 34. ONGC and TERI Mr. A K Hazarika Chairman, ONGC & OTBL Dr. R K Pachauri DG, TERI Chairman, IPCC entered in to a collaboration and formed a Joint Venture company OTBL in 2007 with a common goal to work for a sustainable future
  35. 35. Bioremediation Projects in Ahmedabad Asset Year Quantity of Oil contaminated soil bioremediated (MT) 1 2006-07 8232 MT oily soil bioremediated in 600 locations 2 2007-08 2477 MT oily soil bioremediated in 17 locations 3 2008-09 9883 MT oily soil bioremediated in 15 locations 4 2009-10 27,614 MT at 74 locations in process 5 2010-11 Proposed 36000 MT at 95 locations
  36. 36. Bioremediation in field  Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil/ oily sludge is carried out by either In-situ or Ex-situ technique.  In-Situ Bioremediation– In this technique bioremediation of oil contaminated soil/oily sludge is carried out at the location of spill itself without involving transportation. eg; Barren land and land inside ONGC installations.
  37. 37. Bioremediation in field  Ex-Situ Bioremediation– In this technique bioremediation of oil contaminated soil/oily sludge is carried out in a secure bioremediation pit.  Oil contaminated soil/oily sludge is transported to these secure bioremediation pits.  Ex-Situ Bioremediation is mainly carried out to treat oil spills occurring in farmlands, forest lands and other ecologically sensitive areas from where oil contaminated soil/oily sludge is to be removed on priority.
  38. 38. Bioremediation in field  Secure Bioremediation Pit (SBP)  It is a centralized place to collect contaminated soil of near by area.  These pits are made Leaching proof with a liner of High Density Polythene of 500 microns laid at the bottom and side wall boundaries.  Once sufficient volume of oil contaminated soil/oily sludge is accumulated bioremediation is started.
  39. 39. Secure Bioremediation pit (SBP) At Nawagam, ONGC Ahmedabad
  40. 40.  Ex-Situ bioremediation  Excavation of oil contaminated soil.  Transportation of oil contaminated soil to bioremediation pit.  Refilling of Excavated land with fertile soil. For both In-Situ and Ex-Situ bioremediation oil contaminated soil is thoroughly mixed before bioremediation Field Management of Oil Spills
  41. 41. Field Management of Oil Spills At Nawagam GGS-II, ONGC Ahmedabad Oil spill Excavation of oil contaminated soil
  42. 42. EX-Situ Bioremediation Site Nawagam, ONGC Ahmedabad Ex-situ Bioremediation Site
  43. 43. EX-Situ Bioremediation Site Nawagam, ONGC Ahmedabad Secure Bioremediation Pit Lined with HDPE liner
  44. 44. Collection of Oil contaminated soil at SBP EX-Situ Bioremediation Site Nawagam, ONGC Ahmedabad
  45. 45. EX-Situ Bioremediation Site Nawagam, ONGC Ahmedabad Oil contaminated soil at SBP
  46. 46.  Testing of soil samples to detect initial oil concentration as Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH).  First Application of OILZAPPER.  Periodic monitoring of bioremediation progress.  Tilling of soil & nutrient addition at fixed intervals. Steps of Bioremediation Process
  47. 47. Steps of Bioremediation Process  Second and third application of OILZAPPER if required.  Approximately 5 Kgs of OILZAPPER is applied for every 1000 kg of oil contaminated soil.  Final sampling and testing of soil samples.
  48. 48. Steps of Bioremediation Process OILZAPPER Application Oilzapper Application at Nawagam Secure Bioremediation Pit of ONGC Ahmedabad
  49. 49. Steps of Bioremediation Process OILZAPPER Application Spreading of Oilzapper at Nawagam Secure Bioremediation Pit of ONGC Ahmedabad
  50. 50. Steps of Bioremediation Process OILZAPPER Mixing Oilzapper Mixing with oil contaminated soil at Nawagam Secure Bioremediation Pit of ONGC Ahmedabad
  51. 51. Sampling and Testing  Soil Samples are collected before and during bioremediation to measure Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), Moisture percentage and bacterial count.  Samples are tested in approved laboratories using internationally used testing methods.  Decline in Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) indicates progress of bioremediation work.
  52. 52. Steps of Bioremediation Process Sampling of soil Sampling of soil at Secure Bioremediation Pit of ONGC Ahmedabad
  53. 53. Sampling in a Bioremediation site Bioremediation site Sampling Row Sampling Points 1 11 2 22 3 33 4 44 Sampling strategy in a bioremediation site
  54. 54. Testing of soil for TPH 0 5 10 15 20 25 TPHValuein% 0 Days 30 Days 60 D ays 90 ays 120 days 150 D ays Incubation period TPH Concentration of Soil 1 st Row 2 nd Row 3 rd Row 4 th Row TPH results of samples taken from Bioremediation site
  55. 55. Bioremediation Completion  Bioremediation of Oil contaminated soil is considered as “COMPLETE” When TPH of Oil contaminated soil becomes <1%.  This treated and restored soil is full of biomass and organic compounds  Local Plants or any other crop may be grown on bioremediated soil.
  56. 56. Examples of Treated bioremediated sites at Nawagam GGS-II, ONGC Ahmedabad Before After
  57. 57. Before After Examples of Treated bioremediated sites at Kalol, ONGC Ahmedabad
  58. 58. Before After Examples of Treated bioremediated sites at Jhalora GGS-II, ONGC Ahmedabad
  59. 59. Examples of Treated bioremediated sites at Kalol, ONGC Ahmedabad Before After
  60. 60. Who are Using Bioremediation  Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, UAE  Kuwait Oil Company.  Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL)  Reliance Industries Limited.  Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited.  TATA Power Limited.  Jindal Petroleum Limited.  Oil India Limited.
  61. 61. BIOREMEDIATION - A STEP TOWARDS A GREENER FUTURE Thank You

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