General apa guidelines final

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General apa guidelines final

  1. 1. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>Manuscript Pages </li></ul><ul><li>Title page: Title, author’s name, and other identifying information. Page 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract: Page 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction, Analysis & Discussion: This is body of the research report (containing four sections; Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion) beginning on page 3 </li></ul><ul><li>References: Listed together, starting on a separate page, </li></ul>
  2. 2. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>Manuscript Pages </li></ul><ul><li>Appendixes (if any): Each appendix starts on its own separate page. </li></ul><ul><li>Author note (if any): Listed together, starting on a separate page. </li></ul><ul><li>Tables: Each starts on its own separate page. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure Captions: Listed together, starting on a separate page. </li></ul><ul><li>Figures: Each on its own separate page. </li></ul>
  3. 3. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>Title Page </li></ul><ul><li>The title page is the first page of the manuscript and contains four pieces of identifying information: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) The title, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The author name, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The author’s institutional affiliation, </li></ul>
  4. 4. General APA Guidelines 1 Effect of managerial functions on the level of satisfaction of new employees Summaya Hqqi BBA Department of Business administration IQRA University, Karachi. AN APA-STYLE TITLE PAGE Centre title Author names Author Affiliations
  5. 5. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>ABSTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>The abstract is a brief summary of the research study, totaling no more than 120 words. The abstract focuses on what was done and what was found in the study </li></ul><ul><li>IT CONTAINS </li></ul><ul><li>A one sentence statement of the problem or research question </li></ul><ul><li>A brief description of the subjects or participants (identifying how many and any relevant characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>A brief description of the research methods and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>A report of the results </li></ul><ul><li>A statement about the conclusions or implications </li></ul>
  6. 6. General APA Guidelines Employees’ job satisfaction 2 Abstract The issue of Job Satisfaction, Motivation in the workplace and the role of Job Characteristics have been the cause of intensive research for many years now and have given rise to many theories. It is often assumed that all people receive satisfaction by the same things. Actually a whole range of factors satisfies employees. The way supervisors treat their subordinates is obviously very important. The four dimensions of management that are researched upon in this paper are planning, organizing, controlling and motivating. All these management functions, as the hypotheses suggests, effect the job satisfaction of employees’. A total of hundred bank employees were surveyed to identify what factors have a greater effect on their level of job satisfaction. To achieve this, a regression model was developed based on the dependent and independent variables. The model identified that out of the four independent variables, planning and motivating have a significant effect on the level of satisfaction of employees . AN APA-STYLE ABSTRACT Begin a new page Center No Indent Statement of problem Describe participants Conclusion Or Implications Describe method & results
  7. 7. General APA Guidelines THE INTRODUCTION The introduction presents a logical development of the research question, including a review of the relevant background literature, a statement of the research question or hypothesis, and a brief description of the methods used to answer the question or test the hypothesis.
  8. 8. General APA Guidelines Employees’ job satisfaction Effect of managerial functions on the level of satisfaction of employees Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and they need to handle various situations, which will depend on their style of management. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager but managers must adjust their styles according to the situation that they are presented with as well as the relationship behavior (amount of support required) and the task behavior (amount of guidance required) Job satisfaction emerges from a variety of factors, including characteristics of the organizational environment, specific features of the job, and the personal characteristics of the worker. Higher job satisfaction has been linked with employees who are able to exercise autonomy (Sekaran 1989) and with those who have a higher level of job involvement (Mortimer and Lorence 1989). a considerate supervisor who treats his workers as human beings, respects their dignity, is prepared to help them is respected. (Parkinson, Rustomji & Sapre, 1986) Similarly, participation in the decision-making process (planning) can increase job satisfaction (Parkinson, Rustomji & Sapre, 1986). Within superior-subordinate exchanges, subordinates' perceptions of the exchange affect their attitudes about the job itself (Wesolowski & Mossholder, 1997). A questionnaire was designed to carry out the survey. Each participant was handed out a questionnaire that consisted of various questions inquiring them about the practices of their supervisors and its subsequent effect on their level of job satisfaction Based on the arguments above the following hypotheses were developed Level of satisfaction increases when subordinates are involved in the planning process by their supervisors”. “ Level of satisfaction increases when subordinates are involved in the organizing process by their supervisors”. “ Level of satisfaction of subordinates decreases when the supervisors implement high level of control”. “ Level of satisfaction increases when the supervisors motivate their subordinates”. AN APA-STYLE INTRODUCTION Begin a new page Center title General Introduction Relevant literature Purpose & Method Hypothesis
  9. 9. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>THE METHOD SECTION </li></ul><ul><li>The method section of a research report describes how the study was conducted, including the subject or participants, the apparatus or material and the procedure used. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually a method section is divided into three subsections: </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects or Participants, </li></ul><ul><li>Apparatus or Material, and </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures. </li></ul>
  10. 10. General APA Guidelines public recognition, and/or participation (Business Balls, n.d.). Once this is identified, then it would become a lot easier to direct them towards what is required of them, in this case efficiency and effectiveness. Method Participants Participants were selected from the newly hired employees of different banks who had one year or less job experience with the same organization. Materials This was the study of a stochastic relationship, the level of job satisfaction was measured, with relation to the job experience, & managerial behavior to new employees Employees’ job satisfaction 5 so no particular materials were required or used. A questionnaire was used as a tool of primary data collection, from the respondents. Procedure Participants were given the questionnaire individually. After giving informed consent, each participant completed a general demographic/personal history questionnaire to collect information such as age, gender, details of job activities, and job tenure with the company. The questionnaires were recollected after being filled by the respondents and the data has been transferred to the computer software for further statistical analysis. AN APA STYLE METHOD SECTION End of introduction No new Page Center Italics & flush left Describe participants Describe Apparatus &/or Materials used Describe process of conducting study
  11. 11. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>THE RESULTS SECTION </li></ul><ul><li>The results section of a research report presents a summary of the data and the statistical analysis . </li></ul><ul><li>It begins with a statement of the primary outcome of the study, </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by the basic descriptive statistics (usually mean and standard deviation) then </li></ul><ul><li>The inferential statistics (usually the results of hypothesis tests) and finally the measure of effect size </li></ul>
  12. 12. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>THE RESULTS SECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Reports of statistical significance should be made in a statement that identifies; </li></ul><ul><li>The type of test, </li></ul><ul><li>The degrees of freedom, </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome of the test and </li></ul><ul><li>The level of significance </li></ul>
  13. 13. General APA Guidelines Were tested individually, so that the responses be kept unbiased. Results A multiple regression model was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables i.e. planning (PLN), organizing (ORG), controlling (CTRL) & motivating (MTV), and the dependent variable i.e. job satisfaction (SAT) of employees. A scale was developed, 3 being the highest, and 1 being the lowest score, to measure the practices of the supervisors – independent variable. Summary of the model in table – 3, indicates R Square value of 0.294 with F statistics value of 11.301 significant at 0.000. It means that the model (independent variables: planning, organizing, controlling & motivating) has explained almost 30 per cent of the influencing factors that affect job satisfaction. However, this also indicates a 70 per cent unexplained variation, showing that there are some significant variables missing in the model. This may call for a further study in the same area. The significance of F value suggests that the model calculation of R Square is correct. Employees’ job satisfaction 6 Table – 4 shows Sum of Squares for the total variance of the phenomena, i.e. 3264.640, with regression showing variance explained by the model framed in this research. Mean while, the residual value depicts the variance unexplained by the model. The F statistics value of 11.301 has a significance of 0.000. The t value states the significance of the parametric values. While, Sig of t, shows that planning and motivating are the two functions that have greater impact on the level of satisfaction of employees with a significance of 0.047 and 0.000 respectively. Where as, organizing and controlling have a significance of 0.808 and 0.297 respectively which states that these two variables do not contribute immensely to the level of satisfaction of employees. Discussions After surveying hundred bank employees using a questionnaire based on managerial functions and its subsequent effect on the level of satisfaction of employees, a AN APA STYLE RESULTS SECTION End of method Section, no new page Descriptive statistics In a table placed at The end of manuscript Inferential Statistics Center
  14. 14. General APA Guidelines THE DISCUSSION SECTION The discussion section of a research report restates the hypothesis, summarizes the results, and then presents a discussion of the interpretations, implications and possible applications of the results.
  15. 15. General APA Guidelines organizing and controlling have a significance of 0.808 and 0.297 respectively which states that these two variables do not contribute immensely to the level of satisfaction of employees. Discussion After surveying hundred bank employees using a questionnaire based on managerial functions and its subsequent effect on the level of satisfaction of employees, a regression model was formulated to determine what functions (independent variable) have a greater effect on the level of satisfaction (dependent variable). The results partially supported the hypotheses that the level of satisfaction of employees’ is affected by the four managerial functions: planning, organizing, controlling & motivating. Employees are considered to be more receptive when their supervisors engage them in the planning process and/or provide them with incentives to enhance their work performance. Where as when supervisors demonstrate control over their subordinates, and/or pursue more organizing techniques, it results in lower level of job satisfaction of employees. The way supervisors treat their subordinates is obviously very important. A supervisor who tries to dominate his workers and insults them only creates bitterness. On the other hand, a considerate supervisor who treats his workers as human beings, respects their dignity, is prepared to help them is respected. (Parkinson, Rustomji & Sapre, 1986) Similarly, participation in the decision-making process (planning) can increase job satisfaction (Parkinson, Rustomji & Sapre, 1986). Within superior-subordinate exchanges, subordinates' perceptions of the exchange affect their attitudes about the job itself (Wesolowski & Mossholder, 1997). Besides the four researched factors, there are various other variables that have a significant effect on the level of satisfaction of employees. Table – 2 provides a summary of the model. It indicates the R Square value of 0.294 with F statistics value of 11.301 significant at 0.000, meaning that the model has explained almost 30 per cent of the influencing factors that affect job satisfaction. The significance of F value suggests that the model calculation of R Square is correct. The table also indicates that there is a 70 per cent unexplained variation, showing that there are almost 70% other unexplained variables present that may have a significant effect on the level of satisfaction of employees that are not touched upon in this research. AN APA STYLE DISCUSSION SECTION End of results No New page Restate hypothesis Relate to Other Research Implications or Applications Center Restate Results
  16. 16. General APA Guidelines • APA style requires that you provide, in your text, brief parenthetical references identifying each work referred to. The APA format for parenthetical references is described below. • At the end of your paper, provide an alphabetized &quot;Reference List&quot; containing complete citations for all works cited or referred to in your paper.. Reference List - Examples for Print Publications BOOKS General Format : Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2004). Title of book. Location: Publisher Examples: Holmberg, D., Orbuch, T., & Veroff, J. (2004). Thrice-told tales: Married couples tell their stories. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum .
  17. 17. General APA Guidelines CHAPTER IN A BOOK General Format: Author, A. A. (2004). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (p./pp. nnn-nnn). Location: Publisher . Examples: Stein, A. (1997). “The post effects”': From taxonomy to post structuralism. In D. Owen (Ed.), Sociology after postmodernism (pp.158-172). London: Sage.
  18. 18. General APA Guidelines JOURNAL ARTICLES General Format Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author. C. C. (2004). Title of article. Title of Journal , volume , page-numbers. McCright, A. M., & Dunlap, R. E. (2003). Defeating Kyoto: The conservative movement's impact on U.S. climate change policy. Social Problems , 50, 348-373. Stein, H. F. (2003, Spring). The inner world of workplaces: Accessing this world through poetry, narrative literature, music, and visual art. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research , 55(2),84-93 .
  19. 19. General APA Guidelines MAGAZINE ARTICLES General Format: Author, A. A. if named or Article title if no author. (2004, Month day). Title of article if not given before [useful descriptive information]. Title of Magazine , volume if given , page-numbers. Examples: Kenji, M., & Tanako, K. (2003, February 13). Conflict and cognitive control. Science , 303 , 969-970.
  20. 20. General APA Guidelines Employees’ job satisfaction 2 References Holmberg, D., Orbuch, T., & Veroff, J. (2004). Thrice-told tales: Married couples tell their stories. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Kenji, M., & Tanako, K. (2003, February 13). Conflict and cognitive control. Science , 303 , 969-970. McCright A. M., & Dunlap, R. E. (2003). Defeating Kyoto: The conservative movement's impact on U.S. climate change policy. Social Problems , 50, 348-373. Stein, A. (1997). “The post effects”': From taxonomy to post structuralism. In D. Owen (Ed.), Sociology after postmodernism (pp.158-172). London: Sage. McCright, Stein, H. F. (2003, Spring). The inner world of workplaces: Accessing this world through poetry, narrative literature, music, and visual art. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research , 55(2),84-93. Book reference Journal Articles Book Chapter Magazine Articles
  21. 21. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>Some Elements of Writing Style </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal Style </li></ul><ul><li>Verb, Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Biased Language </li></ul><ul><li>Citations </li></ul>
  22. 22. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>Guidelines for Typing or Word Processing </li></ul><ul><li>The General APA guidelines require that manuscript be ; </li></ul><ul><li>Double spaced </li></ul><ul><li>With no more than 27 lines of text per page (8.1/2 X 11 inch page), </li></ul><ul><li>With at least a one inch margin on all sides </li></ul><ul><li>The text should have a straight left-hand margin but an uneven or ragged right-hand margin without hyphenation breaking words at the ends of lines </li></ul>
  23. 23. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>Guidelines for Typing or Word Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Indentation should be consistent throughout the manuscript. </li></ul><ul><li>Indent the first line of each paragraph 5 to 7 spaces; </li></ul><ul><li>The preferred typefaces (Fonts) are 12 point, Times Roman or 12 point Courier. </li></ul>
  24. 24. General APA Guidelines <ul><li>Page Numbers & Page Headers </li></ul><ul><li>Each page of the manuscript, except the “figures” page, is numbered and identified with a page header. The page number should be positioned in the upper “right-hand” edge. </li></ul>

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