Past
Perfect
positive
I had been
You had gone
She had met
He had played
It had rained
We had bought
They had studied
Negative
I had not been (I hadn't been)
You had not gone (you hadn't gone)
She had not met (she hadn't met)
He had not pla...
Question
Had I come?
Had you eaten?
Had she gone?
Had it rained?
Had he studied?
Had we met?
Had they left?
Use of the
Past
Perfect
A completed action before something else in
the past.
When we arrived, the film had started. (= first
the film started, th...
To explain or give a reason for something in the
past.
I'd eaten dinner so I wasn't hungry.
It had snowed in the night, so...
Stative verbs only: something that started in
the past and continued up to another action
in the past.
When he graduated, ...
As part of the third conditional.
If I had known you were ill, I would have
visited you.
Past perfect
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Past perfect

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Past perfect

  1. 1. Past Perfect
  2. 2. positive I had been You had gone She had met He had played It had rained We had bought They had studied
  3. 3. Negative I had not been (I hadn't been) You had not gone (you hadn't gone) She had not met (she hadn't met) He had not played (he hadn't played) It had not rained (it hadn't rained) We had not bought (we hadn't bought) They had not studied (they hadn't studied)
  4. 4. Question Had I come? Had you eaten? Had she gone? Had it rained? Had he studied? Had we met? Had they left?
  5. 5. Use of the Past Perfect
  6. 6. A completed action before something else in the past. When we arrived, the film had started. (= first the film started, then later we arrived)
  7. 7. To explain or give a reason for something in the past. I'd eaten dinner so I wasn't hungry. It had snowed in the night, so the bus didn't arrive.
  8. 8. Stative verbs only: something that started in the past and continued up to another action in the past. When he graduated, he had been in London for six years. (= he arrived in London six years before he graduated and lived there continuously until he graduated, or even longer)
  9. 9. As part of the third conditional. If I had known you were ill, I would have visited you. Past perfect

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