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Rural development

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Dr. Katundu is a lecturer at the Moshi Co-operative University (MoCU). He works under the Department of Community and Rural Development specializing in the area of rural development. He holds a PhD and Master of Arts in Rural development from the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Morogoro Tanzania and a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in Geography and Environmental Studies from the University of Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania. His research interests include: Agriculture and rural development, rural land reform, rural livelihoods and cooperatives, community driven development, environment and natural resource management, entrepreneurship development, impact evaluation. His PhD thesis is titled: Entrepreneurship Education and Business Start Up: Assessing Entrepreneurial Tendencies among University Graduates in Tanzania whereas; Master dissertation is titled: Evaluation of the Association of Tanzania Tobacco Traders’ Reforestation Programme: The Case of Urambo District.

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Rural development

  1. 1. Rural DevelopmentRural Development A Lecture to Undergraduate Students Pursuing Approaches to Rural Development Course (2015/2016) By Mangasini A. Katundu (PhD) Moshi Co-operative University, Tanzania
  2. 2. ObjectivesObjectives Explain meaning of RDExplain meaning of RD Examine the nature and causes ofExamine the nature and causes of rural povertyrural poverty Explain the measurement of ruralExplain the measurement of rural povertypoverty
  3. 3. What is Rural?What is Rural?
  4. 4. RuralRural No fixed definition, it only depends uponNo fixed definition, it only depends upon perspectivesperspectives The term “rural” matters very much inThe term “rural” matters very much in developing countries,developing countries, in developed countries such as UK andin developed countries such as UK and US is called “country side”US is called “country side” Also refers to “bucolic” or “rustic”.Also refers to “bucolic” or “rustic”.
  5. 5. RuralRural What is knownWhat is known Rural areas are sparsely settled placesRural areas are sparsely settled places People in rural areas live in villages,People in rural areas live in villages, on farms and in other isolated houseson farms and in other isolated houses Lifestyles in rural areas are differentLifestyles in rural areas are different from those in urban areasfrom those in urban areas
  6. 6. RuralRural public services are not available,public services are not available, Governmental services like:Governmental services like: law enforcement, schools, fire departments,law enforcement, schools, fire departments, and libraries may be distant, limited inand libraries may be distant, limited in scope, or unavailable.scope, or unavailable. Utilities like water, sewage, street lighting,Utilities like water, sewage, street lighting, and public waste management may not beand public waste management may not be present.present. Public transport is absent or very limited;Public transport is absent or very limited; people use their own vehicles, walk, bicycle,people use their own vehicles, walk, bicycle, or ride an animalsor ride an animals
  7. 7. RuralRural Two school of thought:Two school of thought: single criterion school andsingle criterion school and multi-criteria schoolmulti-criteria school
  8. 8. single criterion schoolsingle criterion school People who hold this idea argue that:People who hold this idea argue that: rural people and urban people are therural people and urban people are the samesame rural and urban cannot be separated,rural and urban cannot be separated, for example when you move from ruralfor example when you move from rural to urban do you change?to urban do you change? When some one dies in urban s/he isWhen some one dies in urban s/he is buried in her/his homeland which is inburied in her/his homeland which is in most cases ruralmost cases rural
  9. 9. single criterion schoolsingle criterion school What can be taken as the differences are theWhat can be taken as the differences are the variations in economic base,variations in economic base, in rural areas the economic base isin rural areas the economic base is agriculture whileagriculture while in urban the economic base is industries,in urban the economic base is industries, According to this argument most of theAccording to this argument most of the urban centers in Africa would be classified asurban centers in Africa would be classified as ruralrural for example Dar-es- salaam, Kampala,for example Dar-es- salaam, Kampala, Lilongwe,etcLilongwe,etc..
  10. 10. multi-criteria schoolmulti-criteria school They argue that,They argue that, rural people are ‘different’ and ‘distinct’ fromrural people are ‘different’ and ‘distinct’ from the urban peoplethe urban people Provided that their occupations are different,Provided that their occupations are different, their environment in which they work aretheir environment in which they work are different,different, the size of their communities are differentthe size of their communities are different rural communities are smaller than urbanrural communities are smaller than urban communities,communities, the two are not homogenous there is socialthe two are not homogenous there is social stratification or social differentiationstratification or social differentiation
  11. 11. multi-criteria schoolmulti-criteria school They say that,They say that, mobility and migration trends differentiatemobility and migration trends differentiate the two;the two; usually people move from rural to urbanusually people move from rural to urban areasareas Also their systems of social interactions areAlso their systems of social interactions are differentdifferent for-example the music found in rural arefor-example the music found in rural are different from those seen in urban,different from those seen in urban, music such as “Bongo flavors” ‘ninao in Tz’music such as “Bongo flavors” ‘ninao in Tz’ ‘embooko In Ug’ and ‘banjuka in Ke’‘embooko In Ug’ and ‘banjuka in Ke’
  12. 12. Rural DevelopmentRural Development rural development can be defined as:rural development can be defined as: Helping rural people set the priorities in theirHelping rural people set the priorities in their own communities through effective andown communities through effective and democratic bodies,democratic bodies, by providing the local capacity; investment inby providing the local capacity; investment in basic infrastructure and social servicesbasic infrastructure and social services Justice, equity and security; dealing with theJustice, equity and security; dealing with the injustices of the past and ensuring safetyinjustices of the past and ensuring safety and security of the rural population,and security of the rural population, especially that of womenespecially that of women
  13. 13. Rural DevelopmentRural Development Basic issues:Basic issues: Involve rural people in decisions thatInvolve rural people in decisions that affect their lives through participationaffect their lives through participation in rural local governmentin rural local government Increase employment and economicIncrease employment and economic growth in rural areasgrowth in rural areas Provide affordable infrastructureProvide affordable infrastructure Ensure social sustainability in ruralEnsure social sustainability in rural areasareas..
  14. 14. Rural DevelopmentRural Development Rd in general is used to denoteRd in general is used to denote ““the actions and initiatives taken tothe actions and initiatives taken to improve the standard of living in non-improve the standard of living in non- Urban neighborhoods, countryside,Urban neighborhoods, countryside, and remote villages”.and remote villages”.
  15. 15. Rural povertyRural poverty
  16. 16. Rural povertyRural poverty The principal objective of rural developmentThe principal objective of rural development must be the eradication of rural poverty andmust be the eradication of rural poverty and its underlying causes.its underlying causes. A poor Man from Kenya was confronted by aA poor Man from Kenya was confronted by a certain development practioner who askedcertain development practioner who asked questions pertaining to what is poverty.questions pertaining to what is poverty. Here is what he said “…..don’t ask me whatHere is what he said “…..don’t ask me what poverty is because you have met it outside mypoverty is because you have met it outside my house.house. Look at the house and count the number ofLook at the house and count the number of holes.holes. Look at the utensils and the clothes iamLook at the utensils and the clothes iam wearing.wearing. Look at every thing and write what you see.Look at every thing and write what you see. What you see is poverty”.What you see is poverty”.
  17. 17. Rural povertyRural poverty The likelihood of achieving theThe likelihood of achieving the Millennium Development Goals withoutMillennium Development Goals without a focus on improving the livelihoods anda focus on improving the livelihoods and service accessibility of rural dwellers isservice accessibility of rural dwellers is low.low. Any initiative to achieve the MDGsAny initiative to achieve the MDGs should therefore focus where theshould therefore focus where the majority of poor people live i.e. the ruralmajority of poor people live i.e. the rural areas.areas.
  18. 18. Rural povertyRural poverty Poverty is broadly conceived as ‘inability toPoverty is broadly conceived as ‘inability to attain a minimum standard of living’.attain a minimum standard of living’. Absolute poverty (abject poverty) is a conditionAbsolute poverty (abject poverty) is a condition of life so degraded by disease, illiteracy,of life so degraded by disease, illiteracy, malnutrition and squalor as to deny its victimsmalnutrition and squalor as to deny its victims basic human necessities.basic human necessities. poor nation: a lack of resources ( bothpoor nation: a lack of resources ( both physical, natural and human ),limitedphysical, natural and human ),limited educational opportunities, a death of skills,educational opportunities, a death of skills, and social- economic and political systemsand social- economic and political systems that impeded broad-based growth.that impeded broad-based growth.
  19. 19. Rural povertyRural poverty Relative poverty is a condition when one feelsRelative poverty is a condition when one feels that s/he is poor comparing herself/himselfthat s/he is poor comparing herself/himself with other members of the society s/he stayswith other members of the society s/he stays in.in. A person who is relatively poor can afford toA person who is relatively poor can afford to meet the minimum basic needs of life.meet the minimum basic needs of life. A person is said to be living below povertyA person is said to be living below poverty line when s/he fails to meet (cannot afford)line when s/he fails to meet (cannot afford) the minimum basic needs of life,the minimum basic needs of life, this person is said to be living below 1 USthis person is said to be living below 1 US dollar a day.dollar a day.
  20. 20. Rural povertyRural poverty Chambers put five major things critical for ruralChambers put five major things critical for rural life:life: PovertyPoverty Physical weaknessPhysical weakness IsolationIsolation Vulnerability andVulnerability and PowerlessnessPowerlessness All are important but vulnerability andAll are important but vulnerability and Powerlessness deserve more recognitionPowerlessness deserve more recognition and analysisand analysis
  21. 21. Rural povertyRural poverty Vulnerability reflects lack of buffersVulnerability reflects lack of buffers against contingencies such as:against contingencies such as: dowry, bridewealth, weddings anddowry, bridewealth, weddings and funeralsfunerals Disasters, sickness, etcDisasters, sickness, etc Powerlessness is reflected in the easePowerlessness is reflected in the ease with which rural elites acts as a net towith which rural elites acts as a net to intercept benefits intended for the poor,intercept benefits intended for the poor, In the way the poor are robbed andIn the way the poor are robbed and cheated!!cheated!!
  22. 22. Rural povertyRural poverty This is what a landless laborer inThis is what a landless laborer in Bangladesh has to say:Bangladesh has to say: ““We have no power to talk in front of theWe have no power to talk in front of the rich, like the Chairman.rich, like the Chairman. We are afraid of them.We are afraid of them. We are always looked down upon andWe are always looked down upon and scolded.scolded. So we never know what they are writingSo we never know what they are writing and doing” (Chambers,1983;p103).and doing” (Chambers,1983;p103).
  23. 23. Rural povertyRural poverty Some documented causes of rural poverty:Some documented causes of rural poverty: Structural AdjustmentStructural Adjustment Debt crisisDebt crisis CorruptionCorruption Colonial HistoriesColonial Histories Centralization of PowerCentralization of Power WarfareWarfare Environmental degradationEnvironmental degradation Social InequalitySocial Inequality Poverty is therefore not just an economicPoverty is therefore not just an economic issue; it is also an issue of politicalissue; it is also an issue of political economicseconomics
  24. 24. Rural povertyRural poverty Rural poverty can be measured by:Rural poverty can be measured by: Human Poverty Index (HPI) andHuman Poverty Index (HPI) and Capability poverty measure (CPM)Capability poverty measure (CPM) Using indicators such as:Using indicators such as:  Life expectancy,Life expectancy,  lack of basic education,lack of basic education,  lack of access to public and private resources,lack of access to public and private resources,  lack of choice,lack of choice,  lack of freedom,lack of freedom,  lack of dignity,lack of dignity,  lack of self-respect and respect of others,lack of self-respect and respect of others,  lack of decision-making (at both levels individuallack of decision-making (at both levels individual and national or societal),and national or societal),
  25. 25. Rural povertyRural poverty  acute exploitationacute exploitation  powerlessness of the individuals, ofpowerlessness of the individuals, of group within a particular country andgroup within a particular country and between nations.between nations.  Lack of health care,Lack of health care,  Lack of clean, safe water and sanitationLack of clean, safe water and sanitation  Higher mortality rates (infant andHigher mortality rates (infant and maternal)maternal)  Hanger and starvation, etc.Hanger and starvation, etc.
  26. 26. Take careTake care

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