Ankit Agarwal (08)
Karan Gupta (39)
Navin Singh (45)
Phani Mulakala (49)
Tirathnath Sharma (73)
Vinay Tewari (76)
MBA (O&G),IV Sem
What is PPE
Personal protective equipment shall mean all equipment designed to be worn or held by the
worker to protect him against one or more hazards likely to endanger his safety or health at
work, and any addition or accessory designed to meet this objective. The purpose of PPE is
not to carry out a task or activity but to protect the worker from the risks involved in that task
or activity. PPE must be a protective element for the person who uses it, not for the protection
of other persons or products.
The Requirement for PPE
To ensure the greatest possible protection for employees in the work place,the cooperative
efforts of both employers and employees will help in establishing and maintaining a safe and
healthful work environment. In general, employers are responsible for: Performing a "hazard
assessment" of the workplace to identify and control physical and health hazards. Identifying
and providing appropriate PPE for employees. Training employees in the use and care of the
PPE. Maintaining PPE, including replacing worn or damaged PPE. Periodically reviewing,
updating and evaluating the effectiveness of the PPE program.
The cardinal principle in controlling an unsafe condition is to remove the hazard. This could
be achieved through better design, change of process or guarding by mechanical means. In
spite of care taken to design safety into all systems and operations in the oil industry, the risk
of failure of engineering controls, materials, equipment and even that of safety devices cannot
be fully eliminated. There are also some operations and situations like welding and cutting
etc., where engineering controls are not feasible and use of Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE) is done compulsory. The use of personal protective equipment is also helpful in the
Reduce the risk of dangerous situations (e.g. safety belts).
Provide a physical barrier between the user and the hazard (e.g. apron,face shield).
Render a hostile environment friendly albeit for limited period of time(e.g. breathing
Reduce the probability of accidental situations
Selection of Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs)
PPEs are only a barrier between person and the hazard, and if the barrier fails or turns
ineffective due to one reason or other, the person using the equipment will be victim. Hence
the following requirements are essential for selecting the equipments.
1. Adequate protection against the hazards to which the worker will be exposed.
2. Maximum comfort and minimum weight.
3. No restriction of essential movements.
4. Durability and susceptibility of maintenance at the premises, where it is used.
5. Construction in accordance with the accepted standards of performances and
6. Attractive looking
Type of Personal Protective Equipments
Personal protective equipments may be defined into two basic groups.
Non-Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs)
The common non-respiratory safety appliances are: helmet, face shields ,goggles, hand
gloves, ear plug/muff, aprons (leather, asbestos, PVC, etc.),safety boots, leg guard and
partition covers, etc. The various types of non respiratory PPEs are given in detailed subsection:
Eye and Face Protection
Thousands of people are blinded each year from work-related eye injuries. According to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), nearly three out of five workers are injured while failing to
wear eye and face protection. Protectors should meet the following requirements:
Provide adequate protection against the particular hazards for which they are designed.
Be reasonably comfortable when worn under the designed conditions.
● Fit snugly and shall not unduly interfere with the movement of the wearer.
Be capable of being disinfected.
Be kept clean and in good condition.
Persons whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses/spectacles and who are required by
this standard to wear eye protection, shall wear goggles or spectacles of one of the following
Goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of
Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective lenses.
Contact lenses are not a substitute for safety apparel and eyes/face must be protected by the
proper type of goggles or face shield.
Every protector shall be distinctly marked to facilitate identification of the manufacturer.
When limitations and precautions are indicates by the manufacturer, they shall be explained
to the user and care taken to see that such limitations are known and precautions are strictly
Head house is the command center of our central nervous systems that controls all the
movements, senses and basic body functions. An injury to the head can pose a serious threat
to the brain. Head injuries at work places in industry may result from
● Falling objects
● Persons hitting their heads on fixed objects
Fall of persons
Contact of head with bar live electrical conductors
Splashes of hot, cryogenic or corrosive liquids
Flying hard particles
Injuries such as perforation of the skull fracture of the skull or of the cervical vertebrae and
brain lesions without fracture of the skull can be fatal. Wearing appropriate head protector
while at work in industry is, therefore essential. There are also personnel dedicated to fire
fighting duties where the nature of work requires the use of particular types of protectors.
In order to reduce the destructive effects of shocks to the head, a safety helmet
Limit the pressure imposed on the skull by spreading the load over the maximum possible
surface. The shell must resist deformation and perforation.
Deflect falling objects by having a suitably smooth and rounded shape.
Dissipate and disperse energy that may be transmitted to it in such a way that the energy
passed on to the head and neck is largely reduced.
Hard hats must have a hard outer shell and a shock-absorbing lining that incorporates a
headband and straps that suspend the shell from 1 to 1 ¼ inches (2.54 cm to 3.18 cm) away
from the head. This type of design provides shock absorption during an impact and
ventilation during normal wear.
Hard hats are divided into three industrial classes:
Class A-hard hats provide impact and penetration resistance along with limited voltage
protection (up to 2,200 volts).
Class B- hard hats provide the highest level of protection against electrical hazards, with
high-voltage shock and burn protection (up to 20,000 volts).
They also provide protection from impact and penetration hazards by flying/falling objects.
Class C hard hats provide lightweight comfort and impact protection but offer no protection
from electrical hazards.
Foot and Leg Protection
Employees who face possible foot or leg injuries from falling or rolling objects or from
crushing or penetrating materials should wear protective footwear. Also, employees whose
work involves exposure to hot substances or corrosive or poisonous materials must have
protective gear to cover exposed body parts, including legs and feet. If an employees feet
may be exposed to electrical hazards, non-conductive footwear should be worn. On the other
hand, workplace exposure to static electricity may necessitate the use of conductive footwear.
Examples of situations in which an employee should wear foot and/or leg protection include:
Rolling of heavy objects
Piercing of objects through soles of your shoe
Foot and leg protection choices
Leggings protect the lower legs and feet from heat hazards such as molten metal or
welding sparks. Safety snaps allow leggings to be removed quickly.
Metatarsal guards protect the instep area from impact and compression. Made of aluminum,
steel, fiber or plastic, these guards may be strapped to the outside of shoes.
Toe guards fit over the toes of regular shoes to protect the toes from impact and
compression hazards. They may be made of steel, aluminum or plastic.
Combination foot and shin guards protect the lower legs and feet, and may be used in
combination with toe guards when greater protection is needed.
Safety shoes have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that protect the feet against
hot work surfaces common in roofing, paving and hot metal industries. The metal insoles of
some safety shoes protect against puncture wounds. Safety shoes may also be designed to be
electrically conductive to prevent the buildup of static electricity in areas with the potential
for explosive atmospheres or nonconductive to protect workers.
Electrically conductive shoes provide protection against the buildup of static electricity.
Employees working in explosive and hazardous locations such as explosives manufacturing
facilities or grain elevators must wear conductive shoes to reduce the risk of static electricity
buildup on the body that could produce a spark and cause an explosion or fire.
Conductive shoes must be removed when the task requiring their use is completed. Note:
Employees exposed to electrical hazards must never wear conductive shoes.
Silk, wool and nylon socks can produce static electricity and should not be worn with
Foundry Shoes: In addition to insulating the feet from the extreme heat of molten metal,
foundry shoes keep hot metal from lodging in shoe eyelets, tongues or other shoe parts. These
snug-fitting leather or leather-substitute shoes have leather or rubber soles and rubber heels.
All foundry shoes must have built-in safety toes.
Hand and Arm Protection
If a workplace hazard assessment reveals that employees face potential injury to hands and
arms that cannot be eliminated through engineering and work practice controls, employers
must ensure that employees wear appropriate protection. Potential hazards include skin
absorption of harmful substances, chemical or thermal burns, electrical dangers, bruises,
abrasions, cuts, punctures, fractures and amputations. Protective equipment includes gloves,
finger guards and arm coverings or elbow-length gloves.
Types of Protective Gloves
Leather gloves protect against sparks, moderate heat, blows, chips and rough objects.
Aluminized gloves provide reflective and insulating protection against heat and require an
insert made of synthetic materials to protect against heat and cold.
Aramid fiber gloves protect against heat and cold, are cut- and abrasive-resistant and wear
Synthetic gloves of various materials offer protection against heat and cold, are cut- and
abrasive-resistant and may withstand some diluted acids. These materials do not stand up
against alkalis and solvents.
Fabric and Coated Fabric Gloves
Fabric gloves protect against dirt, slivers, chafing and abrasions. They do not provide
sufficient protection for use with rough, sharp or heavy materials. Adding a plastic coating
will strengthen some fabric gloves.
Coated fabric gloves are normally made from cotton flannel with napping on one side. By
coating the unnapped side with plastic, fabric gloves are transformed into general-purpose
hand protection offering slip-resistant qualities.
These gloves are used for tasks ranging from handling bricks and wire to chemical laboratory
When selecting gloves to protect against chemical exposure hazards, always check with the
manufacturer or review the manufacturer.s product literature to determine the gloves.
effectiveness against specific workplace chemicals and conditions.
Chemical-resistant gloves are made with different kinds of rubber: natural, butyl, neoprene,
nitrile and fluorocarbon (viton); or various kinds of plastic: polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene. These materials can be blended or laminated for better
performance. As a general rule, the thicker the glove material, the greater the chemical
resistance but thick gloves may impair grip and dexterity, having a negative impact on safety.
Personal protective equipments required to be used for protection of human body in oil and
gas industries include items such as aprons, suits and safety belts.
Following types of suits are commonly used:
Aluminized Fabric Suits
Chemicals Protection Suits
It may be in one piece or two pieces. It is used by Maintenance and Inspection Personal. It is
preferably made up of cotton fabric to retain the comforts of air permissibility and moisture
transmission. It shall not propagate flame, have after glow, be self extinguishing, shall retain
basic characteristics of the fabric, shall be durable to natural detergent washings, dry
cleanings and be environment friendly. Where persons may be exposed to sparks, flame or
heat, fire retardant clothing or suits may be used. For TEL handling, white colour suit shall be
Aluminized Fire Fighting Suits
These are of following types:
Fire proximity suit
Fire Entry Suit
Fire Proximity Suit
It allows the fire fighter to work next to the flames i.e. radiant heat and occasional flame lick
for the purpose of rescue work and knockdown fire fighting operations in proximity of flames
but not actually in flames.
Fire Entry Suit
It allows the firemen to work in the flames i.e. complete static immersion but for a very short
duration of 20-30 seconds.
Chemical Protection Suit
It may be of PVC, Butyl, Viton or a combination of Butyl and Viton, etc. The suit shall be
complete in one piece with gas tight zip and all joints shall be seam welded and with a hood
visor providing a large field of vision and complete with safety boots and gloves. There
should be a provision for wearing respiratory protective device internally. There should be a
provision for inflating the head protection cap.
shall be able to provide gas tight and chemical resistant cover for full
body and equipment protection.
It shall be able to produce personal air ventilation inside the suit to
reduce heat stress.
It shall be able to build positive pressure inside the suit that prevents the
penetration of chemicals when leakages occur.
As far as possible, it should be lightweight.
It shall be easy in donning for fast response to emergencies and shall provide easy movement
in confined places.
Seam with high tear resistance be adapted to suit material. Double seam be provided on
both sides for gas tightness.
It shall have integral safety boots with toecap, steel sole and ankle protection.
Wrist seals shall be provided, supplementary seals optional.
Zip fastener used shall be gas tight, sturdy, covered with teeth inside, vertically located at
Back Pack Padding shall be provided in the backpack area for protection against impact.
Water Based Gel Blanket
Water based gel blanket consists of woven pure wool, impregnated with sterile water based
gel and provides a shield against the flame, heat and smoke. It may be draped around the
body of the person trying to escape through fire. Period of its exposure to heat should be
limited to that to that of the specified period. It may be draped around the body of a burning
person. It reduces the pain and trauma of wounds/burns. It reduces the risk of further
infection by physically covering the burns. It can also be used to extinguish small fire by
providing a cover. The blanket should be kept inside the specified box with proper cover in a
cool and hygienically clean place. It should not be handled with infectious hands. It should be
used only before its expiry period.
Selection of Material
The material shall be non-flammable, light-weight and flexible having sufficient heat
reflecting properties. Such treatment shall not be handled with infectious hands. It should be
used only before its expiry period. The material shall be durable, shall not disintegrate when
subjected to intense radiated heat and/or flame and any garment made out of these,
particularly, its outer layer, shall retain its strength to remain in position during its normal
intended use. Where it is necessary to use a material impervious to water in the outer layer of
clothing assembly, the material shall not deteriorate by repeated contact with water and shall
not be affected adversely by fire fighting foam. Reflective coating shall be of such quality
that it shall not crack or chip during normal usage of the garment.
Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials, each effective against particular hazards,
Paper-like fiber used for disposable suits provide protection against dust and splashes.
Treated wool and cotton adapts well to changing temperatures, is comfortable and fireresistant and protects against dust, abrasions and rough and irritating surfaces.
Duck is a closely woven cotton fabric that protects against cuts and bruises when handling
heavy, sharp or rough materials.
Leather is often used to protect against dry heat and flames.
Rubber, rubberized fabrics, neoprene and plastics protect against certain chemicals and
physical hazards. When chemical or physical hazards are present, check with the clothing
manufacturer to ensure that the material selected will provide protection.
Generally, the louder the noise, the shorter the exposure time before hearing protection is
required. For instance, employees may be exposed to a noise level of 90 dB for 8 hours per
day (unless they experience a Standard Threshold Shift) before hearing protection is required.
On the other hand, if the noise level reaches 115 dB hearing protection is required if the
anticipated exposure exceeds 15 minutes. Protective headgear must meet ANSI Standard
Z89.1-1986 (Protective Headgear for Industrial Workers) or provide an equivalent level of
protection. Helmets purchased before July 5, 1994 must comply with the earlier ANSI
Standard (Z89.1-1969) or provide equivalent protection.
Hearing Protection Equipment
Some types of hearing protection include:
Single-use earplugs are made of waxed cotton, foam, silicone rubber or fiberglass wool.
They are self-forming and, when properly inserted, they work as well as most molded
Pre-formed or molded earplugs must be individually fitted by a professional and can be
disposable or reusable. Reusable plugs should be cleaned after each use.
Earmuffs require a perfect seal around the ear. Glasses, facial hair, long hair or facial
movements such as chewing may reduce the protective value of earmuffs.
Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs)
Respiratory Protective Equipments are based on two main principles:
1. Decontamination of local air by filtration, absorption etc., using respirators.
2. Segregated external supply using .breathing apparatus.. Breathing apparatus may be
subdivided into the following classes:
a) Short distance fresh air breathing apparatus;
b) Compressed air line breathing apparatus;
c) Self contained breathing apparatus.
Obviously an external breathing supply is essential in an oxygen deficient atmosphere
therefore breathing apparatus should be specified whenever oxygen level are below 20%
volume. Even perfect respiratory protection may not always prevent contaminants entering
the body and a relatively large number of substances will penetrate unbroken skin on liquid
or vapour contact. Since respiratory protection depend upon the proper use of the equipments
(particularly under emergency conditions), all prospective user must be carefully trained for
its uses. The respiratory equipment that is suitable for use with TEL consists of a face piece
covering the face from chine to forehead and held in place by straps passing over the head.
As these face pieces are normally manufactured to a standard size, it is impossible to get
aclose fit to the face of very individual. When the wearer inhales, there is a reduction of
pressure inside the face piece and if it does not fit properly, leakage may cause toxic vapours
to be inhaled. Air-supplied respiratory equipment overcomes this problem by maintaining a
positive pressure inside the face piece. Air-supplied respiratory equipment should not be
supplied with air from hand-blowers, as they do not provide an adequate margin of excess air
flow. Respiratory equipment is tiring to wear for long periods, so the working day should be
restricted to eight hours to prevent undue fatigue.
Self-Contained Breathing Respirator
In case of fire involving TEL, self-contained breathing apparatus with positive pressure is
most suitable as it gives complete mobility to the wearer. The apparatus is also suitable for
emergency use in case of TEL spills. Only equipment which permits air from the cylinder to
be fed continuously to the face piece should be used, thus maintaining a positive pressure.
Equipment fitted with a demand valve is not recommended.
The life of the cylinder charge depends on the amount of work performed by the wearer.
Breathing rates will vary according to the rate of work and will generally be between 32-40
lpm, using standard 1200 liters air cylinder. A full cylinder will not last more than 20 mins.
for light work and 10 minutes for hard work.