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Respiratory System
by Manash K. Paul
This ppt is for teaching purpose only
Respiratory System
Nasal
Cavitiy
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchiole
Lung
Respiratory System is a series of
organs r...
Windpipe
~ 4 inches long and less than an inch in diameter in most people.
Begins just under the larynx (voice box) and ru...
Histology of Trachea
C-shaped
Cartilage
Epithelium
Transverse section of trachea
BM
GC
Ciliated
Cell
BC
BasalCell:BC,Clubc...
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
(see previous page)
The diagram to the right illustrates the
organization of the epit...
Basal cells are considered as the airway stem cells
Ciliated cells maintaining efficient mucociliary clearance. Cilia beat...
Airway Epithelial Cells
EurRespirJ10:1655–1662,1997.
Airway Epithelial Cells
http://depts.washington.edu/envh/lung.html
Airway Mucous blanket
http://depts.washington.edu/envh/lung.htm
Main, Secondary and Tertiary Bronchi;
Bronchioles and Alveoli
Conducting Airways
Right bronchus
Secondary bronchus
Left br...
http://depts.washington.edu/envh/slide17.gif
Airway cast-trimmed. Airway cast-untrimmed.
Pulmonary Anatomy
A higher power view of the bronchus shows the epithelium (E) of
mainly pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells with a few...
The Respiratory Segment
An alveolus (plural: alveoli) is a hollow cavity found in the lung
parenchyma, and is the basic un...
http://antranik.org/the-respiratory-system/
http://depts.washington.edu/envh/slide17.gif
The Respiratory Segment
The Cells of the Respiratory Segment
Type I Alveolar epithelium
Cuboidal, lines alveoli, thin flat cells, extended gas exc...
The Cells of the Respiratory Segment
Type I Type II
Flattened Squamous cells
Line the alveolar surfaces and
are extremely attenuated
Make up 97% of the alveola...
TEM of a type II alveolar cell protruding into the alveolar lumen
TEM of a transversely sectioned capillary (C) in an
inte...
Mechanism of gas exchange
The purpose of the respiratory system is to perform gas exchange.
Partial preassure: The pressure exerted by each type of ...
Basic Composition of Air
• 79% Nitrogen
• 21% Oxygen
• ~ 0% Carbon Dioxide
•In a mixture of gases, each gas exerts a parti...
Mechanism of gas exchange
THANKS
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Respiratory system manash paul ppt

  1. 1. Respiratory System by Manash K. Paul This ppt is for teaching purpose only
  2. 2. Respiratory System Nasal Cavitiy Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchiole Lung Respiratory System is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. 1. Conducting (Transports air) • Nasal Cavities (NC) • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi 2. Respiratory (gas exchange) This ppt is for teaching purpose only
  3. 3. Windpipe ~ 4 inches long and less than an inch in diameter in most people. Begins just under the larynx (voice box) and runs down behind the breastbone (sternum). 20 rings of tough cartilage. The back part of each ring is made of muscle and connective tissue. Divides into two smaller tubes called bronchi: one bronchus for each lung. The trachea This ppt is for teaching purpose only
  4. 4. Histology of Trachea C-shaped Cartilage Epithelium Transverse section of trachea BM GC Ciliated Cell BC BasalCell:BC,Clubcell:Club,GobletCell:GC
  5. 5. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (see previous page) The diagram to the right illustrates the organization of the epithelial cells and submucosal glands in the trachea. Important cell types • Basal cells • Columnar ciliated cells • Goblet cells Structure of Airway Epithelium The airway epithelium plays a critical role in maintaining the conduit for air to and from the alveoli. It is central to the defenses of the lung against pathogens and particulates inhaled from the environment, with the combined function of secretory and ciliated cells maintaining efficient mucociliary clearance, and a variety of other host defense processes This ppt is for teaching purpose only
  6. 6. Basal cells are considered as the airway stem cells Ciliated cells maintaining efficient mucociliary clearance. Cilia beats upwards extruding the mucus enveloped dust as sputum Goblet cells release mucus. Under the epithelium are submucosal glands that secrete both mucus and fluid. Secretory cell number reduces in small airway. Adult humans produces about 125 ml of mucus daily Club or Clara cells are secretory cells as the airways branch from large to small airways. Serous secretion includes glycoprotein, polysaccharide and bacterosidic proteins Airway Epithelial Cells Stroma, blood vessel, nerve and immune cells Goblet cell Club cell Fibroblast Progenitor cell Ciliated cell Basal cell DNA metabolic pulse-labeling studies show that both basal and columnar secretory cell populations of the pseudostratified epithelium divide
  7. 7. Airway Epithelial Cells EurRespirJ10:1655–1662,1997.
  8. 8. Airway Epithelial Cells http://depts.washington.edu/envh/lung.html
  9. 9. Airway Mucous blanket http://depts.washington.edu/envh/lung.htm
  10. 10. Main, Secondary and Tertiary Bronchi; Bronchioles and Alveoli Conducting Airways Right bronchus Secondary bronchus Left bronchus Tertiary bronchus Alveoli Bronchi: Structurally similar to the trachea. C-shaped cartilage rings are replaced by cartilage plates. Smooth muscle fibers completely encircle the wall, interior to the cartilage layer. The right bronchus is slightly larger than the left one. Because of this, foreign objects breathed into the lungs often end up in the right bronchus. The bronchi are lined with the same type of mucus that lines the rest of the respiratory tract. Each bronchus is further divided into five smaller, secondary bronchi, which provide air to the lobes of the lungs. The secondary bronchi continue to branch off to form the tertiary bronchi, which are further divided into terminal bronchioles. There are as many as 30,000 tiny bronchioles in each lung. They lead to the alveoli by way of alveolar ducts. The alveoli are responsible for the primary function of the lungs, which is exchanging carbon dioxide and oxygen.
  11. 11. http://depts.washington.edu/envh/slide17.gif Airway cast-trimmed. Airway cast-untrimmed. Pulmonary Anatomy
  12. 12. A higher power view of the bronchus shows the epithelium (E) of mainly pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells with a few goblet cells. Bronchial branches less than about 5 mm in diameter lack supporting cartilage and are called bronchioles Typical section of lung tissue including many bronchioles, some of which are respiratory bronchioles (RB) cut lengthwise, and showing the branching continuity with alveolar ducts (AD) and sacs (AS). The Respiratory Segment
  13. 13. The Respiratory Segment An alveolus (plural: alveoli) is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of respiration. Respiratory Bronchioles branch to form alveolar ducts and alveoli Alveolar ducts give off alveoli Alveolar sacs: spaces surrounded by clusters of alveoli Alveoli: sites of gas exchange with the blood as well. The alveolar membrane is the gas-exchange surface. CO2 rich blood is pumped from the rest of the body into the alveolar blood vessels where, through diffusion, it releases its CO2 and absorbs oxygen.
  14. 14. http://antranik.org/the-respiratory-system/
  15. 15. http://depts.washington.edu/envh/slide17.gif The Respiratory Segment
  16. 16. The Cells of the Respiratory Segment Type I Alveolar epithelium Cuboidal, lines alveoli, thin flat cells, extended gas exchange surface Gas exchange between blood Type II Alveolar epithelium Responds to damage of the vulnerable type I cell by dividing and acting as a progenitor cell for both type I and type II cells. Synthesizes, stores and releases pulmonary surfactant and acts to optimize conditions for gas exchange. Club Cells Goblet Cells Alveolar Macrophage • Two major classes of lung macrophages are recognized. • The most abundant is alveolar macrophages, which reside within the lumen of the alveolus, directly exposed to air and the environment but closely apposed to the alveolar epithelium.
  17. 17. The Cells of the Respiratory Segment
  18. 18. Type I Type II Flattened Squamous cells Line the alveolar surfaces and are extremely attenuated Make up 97% of the alveolar surface Have occluding junctions and desmosomes They are roughly cuboidal in shape Interspersed among the type I alveolar cells with which they have occluding and desmosome junctions Make up 3% of the alveolar surface Contains lamellar bodies that store pulmonary surfactants Type I and Type II Cells: comparision
  19. 19. TEM of a type II alveolar cell protruding into the alveolar lumen TEM of a transversely sectioned capillary (C) in an interalveolar septum shows areas for gas exchange between blood and air in three alveoli Type I and Type II Cells: comparision
  20. 20. Mechanism of gas exchange
  21. 21. The purpose of the respiratory system is to perform gas exchange. Partial preassure: The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture Concentration of a gas in a liquid determined by its partial pressure and its solubility coefficient Ventilation: Movement of air into and out of the lungs, Perfusion: Flow of blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Hemoglobin: Iron-containing substance in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body; it consists of a protein (globulin) and heme (a porphyrin ring with iron at its center) Oxyhemoglobin: the form of hemoglobin, loosely combined with oxygen, present in arterial and capillary blood Mechanism of gas exchange
  22. 22. Basic Composition of Air • 79% Nitrogen • 21% Oxygen • ~ 0% Carbon Dioxide •In a mixture of gases, each gas exerts a partial pressure proportional to its mole fraction Total Pressure = sum of the partial pressures of each gas Total Pressure (at sea level) Pbarometric = 760 mm Hg Each gas has a specific solubility O2 Solubility coefficient = 0.003 ml/100 ml Blood C02 = 0.06 ml/100 ml Blood (x 20 of 02) Gases dissolve in fluids by moving down a Partial Pressure gradient rather than a concentration gradient . Mechanism of gas exchange
  23. 23. Mechanism of gas exchange
  24. 24. THANKS

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