Challenges in Integrated Electronic System Designs


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Challenges in Integrated Electronic System Designs

  1. 1. Challenges in Integrated Electronic System Design Manasa.K CWB0912002, FT-2012 M. Sc. (Engg.) in Electronic System Design Engineering Module leader: Mr. Ugra Mohan Roy M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 1
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction • Electrical Over-Stress (EOS) • Packaging • Printed Circuit Board Failure • Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) • Catastrophic ESD failure • Latent ESD failure • Conclusion M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 2
  3. 3. Introduction • The increasing complexity of electronic components and the need for portable low-power gadgets that can operate in stressful environments make the design more challenging. • The physical phenomena at submicron feature dimensions are having more and more impact, not only on performance, but even on the functionality. • Common examples include communication devices such as cell-phones and personal digital assistants (so-called PDA's), aircraft flight controls, autonomous vehicles, sophisticated weapon systems and tiny medical devices inside or outside of the human body, such as heart monitors etc. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 3
  4. 4. 1. Electrical Over-Stress (EOS) • EOS describes the thermal damage that may occur when an electronic device is subjected to a current or voltage that is beyond the specification limits of the device. • EOS damage occurs because of the direct and indirect effects. • Thermal damage is the result of the excessive heat generated during the EOS Event. • The high currents during the EOS event can generate very high temperatures even in the normally low resistance paths. • An EOS event can last only for milliseconds or can last as long as the conditions persist. •EOS damages occurs both internally and externally in a system. EOS external damage M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 4
  5. 5. Electrical Over-Stress (EOS) EOS internal damage Causes for EOS: • Uncontrolled voltage surge on the power supply • Overshoot or undershoot during IO switching • ESD events that trigger a larger EOS event or cause damage that weaken the device making it more susceptible to future EOS events. • Voltage spikes due to internal PCB switching. • Latch-up events may result in EOS damage if the current is high or if it persists for an extended time M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Melted Bond Wire 5
  6. 6. 2. Packaging Packaging is the barrier between electronic parts and the environment, it is very susceptible to environmental factors. • Material fatigue from the thermal expansion caused by heating cycles. • Mechanical stress and shock can crack or fracture packaging. • Humidity and chemicals can cause corrosion. • Material defects introduced during manufacturing and processing. • Electrical faults introduced during encapsulation (bonding wire short and open circuits). • Migration of contaminants through the packaging onto the semiconductor die Corrosion with moisture M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 6
  7. 7. 3. Printed Circuit Board Today PCBs have evolved from 100% through-hole, 100-mil technology to a mixture of through-hole and surface mount processes involving thousands of components. Double-sided boards have evolved into multi-layer boards with 5 and 6 layers can go upto14 layers. As the complexity of the PCB manufacturing process has increased, the possibility of process defects has also increased. The causes for failure for a PCB are, • Residues of solder flux may facilitate corrosion. • The traces may crack under mechanical loads and may result in unreliable PCB operation. • Via cracking during soldering Flux residue between the connector nodes M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies cracked solder joints 7
  8. 8. 4. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) can damage a sensitive electronic component, resulting in failures, reduced reliability and increased rework costs, or latent component failures. ESD damages are generally classified as either a catastrophic failure or a latent defect. Catastrophic failure: The device's circuitry is permanently damaged causing the device to stop functioning. Such failures usually can be detected when the device is tested before shipment. Latent failure: A latent defect, is more difficult to identify. A device that is exposed to an ESD event may be partially degraded, yet continue to perform its intended function. However, the operating life of the device may be reduced significantly. This failures are usually costly to repair. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 8
  9. 9. ESD can cause hardware damage in the following electronic systems: • Melting of metallization traces due to high levels of thermal overstress that EOS induces. • Intense electric fields that can cause interference or failure of nearby electronics. • Component degradation or latent defects in device structures that don't lead to immediate failure but cause intermittent malfunctioning and field failures after exposure to stress. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 9
  10. 10. Summary • The challenges in integrating electronic system design is increasing due to the complexity of the system and also because of the decrease in size of the components to submicron level. • Electrical Over-Stress is one of the challenge which effects the system both internally and externally because of the high temperatures. • Packaging is the barrier between the electronic parts and the environment, this causes cracks in the packaging when mechanical stress is applied, corrosion is caused due to the humidity and reaction of chemicals. • Via cracking during soldering, residues of solder flux etc are some of the causes for failures in the printed circuit boards. • The two types of ESD damages are, catastrophic failure and latent defect. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 10
  11. 11. References • An Introduction to ESD (2010) Fundamentals of Electrostatic Discharge ESD Association, Rome, NY (2nd August 2013) • Jacob A. Abraham Formal Verification Techniques and Tools for Complex Designs University of Texas at Austin (2nd August 2013) • V Lakshminarayanan (2000) Minimizing failures in electronic systems by design Centre for Development of Telematics ( 3rd August 2013) • Code 560 Handbook Parts, Packaging, and Assembly Technologies Office Electrical Engineering Division, NASA GSFC Greenbelt, Maryland (3rd August 2013) M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 11
  12. 12. Thank You M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 12